Gilbert Ames Bliss, was an American mathematician, known for his work on the calculus of variations. Bliss grew up in a Chicago family that became affluent; the family was not affluent, when Bliss entered the University of Chicago in 1893. Hence he had to support himself while a student by winning a scholarship, by playing in a student professional mandolin quartet. After obtaining the B. Sc. in 1897, he began graduate studies at Chicago in mathematical astronomy, switching in 1898 to mathematics. He discovered his life's work, the calculus of variations, via the lecture notes of Weierstrass's 1879 course, Bolza's teaching. Bolza went on to supervise Bliss's Ph. D. thesis, The Geodesic Lines on the Anchor Ring, completed in 1900 and published in the Annals of Mathematics in 1902. After two years as an instructor at the University of Minnesota, Bliss spent the 1902-03 academic year at the University of Göttingen, interacting with Felix Klein, David Hilbert, Hermann Minkowski, Ernst Zermelo, Erhard Schmidt, Max Abraham, Constantin Carathéodory.
Upon returning to the United States, Bliss taught one year each at the University of Chicago and the University of Missouri. In 1904, he published two more papers on the calculus of variations in the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. Bliss was a Preceptor at Princeton University, 1905–08, joining a strong group of young mathematicians that included Luther P. Eisenhart, Oswald Veblen, Robert Lee Moore. While at Princeton he was an associate editor of the Annals of Mathematics. In 1908, Chicago's Maschke died and Bliss was hired to replace him. While at Chicago, he was an editor of the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 1908–16, chaired the Mathematics Department, 1927-41; that Department was less distinguished under Bliss than it had been under E. H. Moore's previous leadership, than it would become under Marshall Stone's and Saunders MacLane's direction after World War II. A near-contemporary of Bliss's at Chicago was the algebraist Leonard Dickson. During World War I, he worked on ballistics, designing new firing tables for artillery, lectured on navigation.
In 1918, he and Oswald Veblen worked together in the Range Firing Section at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, applying the calculus of variations to correct shell trajectories for the effects of wind, changes in air density, the rotation of the Earth, other perturbations. Bliss married Helen Hurd in 1912. Bliss married Olive Hunter in 1920. Bliss was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1916, he was the American Mathematical Society's Colloquium Lecturer, Vice President, President. He received the Mathematical Association of America's first Chauvenet Prize, in 1925, for his article "Algebraic functions and their divisors," which culminated in his 1933 book Algebraic functions. Bliss once headed a government commission that devised rules for apportioning seats in the U. S. House of Representatives among the several states. Bliss's work on the calculus of variations culminated in his classic 1946 monograph, Lectures on the Calculus of Variations, which treated the subject as an end in itself and not as an adjunct of mechanics.
Here Bliss achieved a substantial simplification of the transformation theories of Clebsch and Weierstrass. Bliss strengthened the necessary conditions of Euler, Weierstrass and Jacobi into sufficient conditions. Bliss set out the canonical formulation and solution of the problem of Bolza with side conditions and variable end-points. Bliss's Lectures more or less constitutes the culmination of the classic calculus of variations of Weierstrass and Bolza. Subsequent work on variational problems would strike out in new directions, such as Morse theory, optimal control, dynamic programming. Bliss studied singularities of real transformations in the plane. 1925 Calculus of Variations 1933 Algebraic Functions 1944 Mathematics for Exterior Ballistics 1946 Lectures on the Calculus of Variations MacTutor: Gilbert Ames Bliss. The source for most of this entry. Ames' Students at the Mathematics Genealogy Project National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Battery G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery was an artillery battery that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The battery was organized at Camp Dennison near Cincinnati and mustered in for a three-year enlistment on December 17, 1861; the regiment was organized as early as 1860 under Colonel James Barnett. The battery was attached to 5th Division, Army of the Ohio, to June 1862. Artillery Reserve, Army of the Ohio, to September 1862. Artillery, 8th Division, Army of the Ohio, to November 1862. Artillery, 2nd Division, Center, XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January 1863. Artillery, 2nd Division, XIV Corps, to October 1863. 1st Division, Artillery Reserve, Army of the Cumberland, to March 1864. 2nd Division, Artillery Reserve, Department of the Cumberland, to August 1864. Unattached Artillery, Department of the Cumberland, to October 1864. Artillery Post of Chattanooga, Department of the Cumberland, to November 1864. Artillery Brigade, IV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to August 1865.
Battery G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery mustered out of service at Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio on August 31, 1865. Moved to Louisville, Ky. February 10, 1862. February 27. March to Savannah, Tenn. March 18-April 6, 1862. Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss. April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 10. Movement to Athens, Ala. June 10–30, duty there until August. Moved to Nashville, Tenn. August 19. Siege of Nashville September to November. Repulse of Forest's attack on Edgefield November 5. Advance on Murfreesboro, Tenn. December 26–30. Battle of Stones River December 30–31, 1862 and January 1–3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro until June. Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Hoover's Gap June 24–26. Occupation of middle Tennessee until August 16. Passage of Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga Campaign August 16-September 22. Davis Cross Roads or Dug Gap September 11. Battle of Chickamauga, September 19–21. Siege of Chattanooga, September 24-November 23. Battle of Chattanooga, November 23–25.
Moved to Nashville, Tenn. December 2, duty there until August 1864. Battery veteranized January 4, 1864. March to relief of Fort Donelson, Tenn. March 3–12. Spring Hill March 9. Rutherford Creek March 10. Duck River March 11. Ordered to join army in the field August 1864. Rousseau's pursuit of Wheeler September 1–8. Lavergne September 1. Franklin September 2. Campbellsville September 5. Expedition after Forest. Pulaski September 26–27. Nashville Campaign November–December. Columbia, Duck River, November 24–27. Spring Hill November 29. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15–16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17–28. Rutherford Creek December 19. At Huntsville, Ala. until March 1865. Expedition to Bull's Gap and operations in eastern Tennessee March 20-April 5. Duty at Nashville until June. Moved to New Orleans, June 16; the battery lost a total of 33 men during service. Captain Alexander Marshall - commanded at the battle of Stones River as a lieutenant List of Ohio Civil War units Ohio in the Civil War Dyer, Frederick H.
A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Ohio Roster Commission. Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War on the Rebellion, 1861–1865, Compiled Under the Direction of the Roster Commission, 1886-1895. Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals, Soldiers, 1868. Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. Ohio in the Civil War: Battery G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery by Larry Stevens National flag of Battery G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
Charles James Fane Preedy was an English football goalkeeper. One of six children, Preedy was born in Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh, where his father was serving with the Royal Artillery; the family returned to London, in 1907 where he attended Gordon School. He began playing football as a youth, turning professional in 1924 with Third Division South Charlton Athletic, where he became the club's regular keeper and made 131 league appearances in four seasons. Preedy moved to Wigan Borough in 1928 and spent a single season there, playing 41 league matches, before moving to Arsenal in May 1929, he was not the Gunners' first team goalkeeper, instead playing as understudy to Dan Lewis, Arsenal's regular keeper. Preedy made his Arsenal debut on 7 September 1929, against Sheffield Wednesday, kept a clean sheet as Arsenal won 2-0. Preedy kept his place after that match but was dropped after a 2-5 defeat to Aston Villa in November. After that, he was left out of the team in favour of Lewis, but after Lewis was injured in a 6-6 draw against Leicester City, Preedy was picked to play in the FA Cup Final against Huddersfield Town at Wembley Stadium.
Preedy kept a clean sheet and Arsenal won the match 2-0 in front of 100,000 spectators, the first of Arsenal's many successes over the years. He was presented with his winner's medal by King George V. Arsenal manager Herbert Chapman was never happy with any of his goalkeepers and in an attempt to fill the role signed both Gerard Keizer and Bill Harper in the 1930 close season, Frank Moss a year later. Despite intense competition for the goalkeeper's place, Preedy made 25 appearances in the 1930-31 and 1931-32 seasons, but not enough to win a League Championship medal in the former. After an entire season spent as Moss's understudy, Preedy left Arsenal for Bristol Rovers in 1933, having played 40 matches for the Gunners. After a season with Rovers he moved to Luton Town and finished his career with non-league Margate in 1935, he followed in the footsteps of his elder brother Jack, became a London taxi driver. He died in 1978. Harris, Jeff. Hogg, Tony. Arsenal Who's Who. Independent UK Sports. ISBN 1-899429-03-4.
Dykes, Garth. Wigan Borough in the Football League: A Complete Record and Who's Who 1921–1931. Tony Brown. ISBN 978-1-905891-53-5. Gunners Greatest 50 Moments at arsenal.com. Preedy is pictured wearing white
Eucalyptus frenchiana is a species of mallet, endemic to Western Australia. It has smooth bark, narrow lance-shaped, glossy green adult leaves, ribbed flower buds in groups of three, white flowers and ribbed, conical to cup-shaped fruit. Eucalyptus frenchiana is a mallet that grows to a height of 6–14 m but does not form a lignotuber, it has smooth light grey over cream bark, shed in ribbons. Young plants and coppice regrowth have glossy light green leaves that are a paler colour on one side, egg-shaped and petiolate. Adult leaves are narrow lance-shaped, the same glossy green on both sides, 55–100 mm long and 9–13 mm wide and petiolate; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of three on a peduncle 8–13 mm long, the individual buds on pedicels 5–11 mm long. Mature buds are 12–15 mm long and 8–12 mm wide, the hypanthium cup-shaped and the operculum hemispherical with prominent longitudinal ribs; the flowers are white and the fruit is a woody, conical to cup-shaped capsule 10–12 mm long and 10–13 mm wide with the valves near to rim level.
Eucalyptus frenchiana was first formally described in 2009 by Dean Nicolle from a specimen he collected with Malcolm French west of Coolgardie, the description was published in the journal Nuytsia. The specific epithet honours French for his assistance in the preparation of the Nuytsia paper; this mallet grows in mallet-mallee woodland near Lake Johnston in the Coolgardie biogeographic region. Eucalyptus frenchiana is classified as "Priority Three" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife meaning that it is poorly known and known from only a few locations but is not under imminent threat. List of Eucalyptus species
The Brodsky Choral Synagogue is the second largest synagogue in Kiev, Ukraine. It was built in the Romanesque Revival style resembling a classical basilica; the original tripartite facade with a large central avant-corps flanked by lower wings echoed the characteristic design of some Moorish Revival synagogues, such as the Leopoldstädter Tempel in Vienna. The synagogue was built between 1897 and 1898, it was designed by Georgiy Shleifer. A sugar magnate and philanthropist Lazar Brodsky financed its construction. For many decades the local and imperial authorities forbade the construction of a monumental place of Jewish worship in Kiev, as they feared that this would facilitate the growth of the Jewish community in Kiev, being a big trading and industrial city, would become an important Jewish religious center; this was considered "undesirable" due to the symbolic importance of Kyiv, as the cradle of Russian Orthodoxy. It was only allowed to convert existing buildings into Jewish worship houses.
In 1895, permission was given to build a synagogue in a poor quarter of Kiev. The location was however too far from the city center where the wealthy Jews lived such that they could not walk there on Sabbath, they wished a big choral synagogue in the city center, similar to those in St. Petersburg and Odessa. To evade the ban and rabbi Evsey Tsukerman sent a complaint to the Governing Senate requesting a permission to build a worship house in the private estate of Brodsky; as an attachment they included only a side view drawing of the planned building which looked like a private mansion. The permission was obtained, the synagogue became an example of an Aesopian synagogue. In 1926, the synagogue was closed down by the Soviet authorities; the building was converted into an artisan club. The building was devastated during the World War II by Nazis and was subsequently used as a puppet theatre. An additional facade was built in the 1970s. In 1997 the theatre moved into a new building; the old building was renovated and since 2000 it is again used as a synagogue.
Billy Tipton was an American jazz musician and talent broker. For decades, Tipton assumed a male gender identity. Tipton's female birth sex was not publicly revealed until after his death, the revelation came as a surprise to family and friends. Tipton's music career began in the mid-1930s, he played in various dance bands in the 1940s and recorded two trio albums for a small record label in the mid-1950s. Thereafter, he worked as a talent broker. Tipton stopped performing in the late 1970s due to arthritis. Born Dorothy Lucille Tipton in Oklahoma City, Tipton grew up in Kansas City, where he was raised by an aunt after his parents divorced when he was four; as a high school student, Tipton went by the nickname "Tippy" and became interested in music, playing piano and saxophone. Tipton was not allowed to join the all-male school band at Southwest High School, he returned to Oklahoma for his final year of high school and joined the school band at Connors State College High School. Around 1933, Tipton started binding his breasts and dressing as a man to fit in with the typical jazz band image of the era.
As Tipton began a more serious music career, he "decided to permanently take on the role of a male musician", adopting the name Billy Lee Tipton. By 1940, Tipton was living as a man in private life as well. In 1936, Tipton was the leader of a band playing on KFXR radio. In 1938, Tipton joined Louvenie's Western Swingbillies, a band that played on radio KTOK and at Brown's Tavern. In 1940 he was touring the Midwest playing at dances with Scott Cameron's band. In 1941 he began a two and a half-year run performing at Joplin's Cotton Club with George Meyer's band toured for a time with Ross Carlyle played for two years in Texas. In 1949, Tipton began touring the Pacific Northwest with Meyer. While this tour was far from glamorous, the band's appearances at Roseburg, Oregon's Shalimar Room were recorded by a local radio station, so recordings exist of Tipton's work during this time, including "If I Knew Then" and "Sophisticated Swing"; the trio's signature song was "Flying Home", performed in a close imitation of Benny Goodman's band.
As George Meyer's band became more successful, they began getting more work, performing at the Boulevard Club in Coeur d'Alene, sharing the bill with others such as The Ink Spots, the Delta Rhythm Boys, Billy Eckstine. Tipton began playing piano alone at the Elks club in Longview, Washington in 1951. In Longview, he started the Billy Tipton Trio, which included Dick O'Neil on drums, Kenny Richards on bass; the trio gained local popularity. During a performance on tour at King's Supper Club in Santa Barbara, California, a talent scout from Tops Records heard them play and got them a contract; the Billy Tipton Trio recorded two albums of jazz standards for Tops: Sweet Georgia Brown and Billy Tipton Plays Hi-Fi on Piano, both released early in 1957. Among the pieces performed were "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man", "Willow Weep for Me", "What'll I Do", "Don't Blame Me". In 1957, the albums sold a "respectable" sum for a small independent record label. After the albums' success, the Billy Tipton Trio was offered a position as house band at the Holiday Hotel casino in Reno and Tops Records invited the trio to record four more albums.
Tipton declined both offers, choosing instead to move to Spokane, where he worked as a talent broker and the trio performed weekly. In the late 1970s, worsening arthritis forced Tipton to retire from music. Tipton was never married, but there were five women who called themselves Mrs. Tipton at various points. In 1934, Tipton began living with a woman named Non Earl Harrell in a relationship that other musicians thought of as lesbian; the relationship ended in 1942. Tipton's sex was concealed from the four women who would call themselves "Mrs. Tipton". Tipton kept the secret of his extrinsic sexual characteristics from them by telling them he had been in a serious car accident that resulted in damaged genitals and broken ribs. Tipton's next relationship, with a singer known only as "June", lasted for several years. For seven years, Tipton lived with Betty Cox, 19 when they became involved. Cox remembered Tipton as "the most fantastic love of my life". In 1954, Tipton's relationship with Cox ended, he entered a relationship with a woman named Maryann.
The pair moved to Spokane, Washington, in 1958. Maryann stated that in 1960, she discovered that Tipton had become involved with nightclub dancer and stripper Kitty Kelly. Tipton and Kelly settled down together in 1961, they adopted three sons, John and William. After they separated in the 1970s, Tipton resumed a relationship with Maryann. Maryann discovered Tipton's birth certificate and asked Tipton about it once, but was given no reply other than a "terrible look". In 1989, at the age of 74, Tipton had symptoms which he attributed to the emphysema he had contracted from heavy smoking and refused to call a doctor, he was suffering from a hemorrhaging peptic ulcer which, was fatal. While paramedics were trying to save Tipton's life, his son, learned that his father was a transgender man; this information "came as a shock to nearly everyone, including the women who had considered themselves his wives, as well as his sons and the musicians who had traveled with him". In an attempt to keep Tipton's biological sex a secret, Kitty arranged for his body to be cremated.
The first newspaper article was published the day after Tipton's funeral and it was picked up by wire services. St