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Gilbert Burnet

Gilbert Burnet was a Scottish philosopher and historian, Bishop of Salisbury. He was fluent in Dutch, Latin and Hebrew. Burnet was respected as a cleric, a preacher, an academic, a writer and a historian, he was always associated with the Whig party, was one of the few close friends in whom King William III confided. Burnet was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1643, the son of Robert Burnet, Lord Crimond, a Royalist and Episcopalian lawyer, who became a judge of the Court of Session, of his second wife Rachel Johnston, daughter of James Johnston, sister of Archibald Johnston of Warristoun, a leader of the Covenanters, his father was his first tutor until he began his studies at the University of Aberdeen, where he earned a Master of Arts in Philosophy at the age of thirteen. He studied law before changing to theology, he travelled for several years. He visited Oxford, London, the United Provinces and France, he studied Hebrew under a Rabbi in Amsterdam. By 1665 he returned to Scotland and was ordained in the Church of Scotland by the bishop of Edinburgh.

In 1664 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He began his ministry in the rural church at East Saltoun, East Lothian, served this community devoutly for four years. In 1669, without his being asked, he was named to the vacant chair of Divinity at the University of Glasgow. At first he declined, he was offered, but declined, a Scottish bishopric. In 1672 or 1673 he married Lady Margaret Kennedy, daughter of the Earl of Cassilis, many years his senior; the great differences between the couple in age and fortune caused them to keep the marriage secret for a considerable time. Burnet's motives for marriage were not mercenary, seeing as he entered into what has been described as an early form of "pre-nuptial agreement" by which he renounced any claim to his wife's money. Burnet himself recalled that they had been good friends for several years, but that in his view such a close friendship between a single man and a single woman could not continue indefinitely unless they married; the marriage seems to have been happy, despite their lack of children.

He was to have numerous children by marriages. In view of the unsettled political times, he moved to London. In London, his political and religious sentiments prompted him to support the Whigs, his energetic and bustling character led him to take an active part in the controversies of the time, he endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation between Episcopacy and Presbytery. At Court, where his brother Thomas was a royal physician, he gained the favour of Charles II, from whom he received various preferments, he described Charles shrewdly as a man who, despite his affable manner and famed courtesy, was at heart the archetypal cynic: "he has a ill opinion of men and women, so is infinitely distrustful... he thinks the world is governed wholly by interest". Burnet noted that this attitude was quite understandable, given the King's experiences in the English Civil War and the Interregnum, which had shown him when he was still young the "baseness of human nature". Like many other observers he noted Charles's remarkable self-control: "he has a strange command of himself: he can pass from business to pleasure, from pleasure to business, in so easy a manner that all things seem alike to him."

He recorded some of the King's most memorable sayings, such as "Appetites are free, Almighty God will never damn a man for allowing himself a little pleasure". During the Popish Plot, when Queen Catherine was accused of treason, the King confided to Burnet his feelings of guilt about his ill-treatment of the Queen, "who is incapable of doing a wicked thing", his resolve not to abandon her, his wish to live a more moral life in future. Burnet, for his part, told the King frankly that he was wrong to believe that the Earl of Shaftesbury had any part in the charges of treason made against the Queen: Shaftesbury, well aware of the Queen's great popularity with the English ruling class, was too shrewd a statesman to make such a serious political misjudgment; as regards the reality of the Plot itself, while the King became a total skeptic on the subject, Burnet captures Charles's first reaction to the accusations neatly enough: "among so many particulars I do not know but there may be some truth."

Burnet himself was neither a sceptic about, nor a convinced believer in the Plot. Like most sensible Protestants he believed that there had been a Catholic conspiracy of some sort, but he had grave doubts about the veracity of the informers Titus Oates, while he regarded Israel Tonge, the co-author of the Plot, as insane, he recognised the danger that innocent people might be falsely accused, it is notable that he praised the Catholic martyr Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh, nowadays the best-known victim of the Plot, as a good and innocent man, destroyed by the malice of his personal enemies. He argued that the first victim of the Plot, the young Catholic banker William Staley, was innocent, although his narrative of Staley's trial was undoubtedly coloured by his detestation of William Carstares, the Crown's chief witness at Staley's trial. Whether the Catholic nobleman William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, executed for treason in

Rajiv Gandhi National Cyber Law Center

Rajiv Gandhi National Cyber Law Centre, Bhopal is established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India at New Delhi. The institution is first of its kind which deals with Technology and Legal aspects to regulate the cyber space; the purpose of the institution is to deal with new and critical issues relating to various techno-legal aspects of cyberspace through regular as well as distance learning mode. This institution is a constituent institution to Bhopal; the Institution offers post-graduate courses in the field of Cyber Law, viz. Post Graduate Diploma in Cyber Law and Master of Science in Cyber Law and Information Technology; the institution is situated in the NLIU campus in the outskirt city of Bhopal. The Gyan Mandir Library was inaugurated by the Hon’ble Minister of HRD, Late Mr. Arjun Singh on September 19, 2005

Most Beautiful Girl in Nigeria

Most Beautiful Girl in Nigeria – abbreviated as MBGN – is a pageant organised by Silverbird Group with the main purpose of sending representatives to international competitions. Known as Miss Universe Nigeria, it was renamed Most Beautiful Girl in Nigeria after news publishers Daily Times lost their license to send delegates from rival contest Miss Nigeria to Miss World and Miss Universe; the current title holder is Public Health student Nyekachi Douglas who represented Rivers, is Africa's Continental Queen of Beauty, having reached the top five at Miss World. 2019 marked the first time since 2001 an MBGN representative placed at both Miss World and Miss Universe. Former publisher Ben Murray-Bruce ventured into show business, he took a loan of N200,000 from his father which he used to organise a number of successful concerts which saw artists like Shalamar and Kool and the Gang perform in Nigeria, after which he promoted a new pageant known as Miss Universe Nigeria in 1983, but it only gained public attention after it changed its name to Most Beautiful Girl in Nigeria in 1986, its first winner was model Lynda Chuba.

MBGN winners are expected to represent Nigeria at Miss World, until 2004 at other international pageants including Miss Universe, where Chuba was the first Nigerian in twenty-three years to compete after Edna Park's on-stage hysteria in 1964, while the first MBGN winner at Miss World was English language student Omasan Buwa in 1987. As with most pageants second-place winners are expected to replace the title-holder if they are unable to complete their reign. Winners traditionally adopt at least one platform during their reign – an issue, of relevance to Nigeria. Once chosen, the winner uses their status to address the public about their platform; the most popular has been Sickle cell Awareness, but others have included Polio, Child labour and Widow Empowerment. In 2007, Silverbird announced that the pageant would produce four more representatives apart from the winner; the original titles were Miss MBGN Universe, MBGN Tourism, MBGN Ecowas. A fifth title, MBGN Model, which allowed its holder to compete in modelling contests at international level, was dropped and replaced with MBGN Ambassador, with its winner performing ceremonial duties in the country.

The differences between MBGN and Miss Nigeria have been compared with Miss America. While MBGN delegates compete at international level, Miss Nigeria winners no longer have this privilege. In 2010 Miss Nigeria was relaunched as a scholarship programme and its winners in recent years receive modelling contract as part of their prize. MBGN focuses on physical beauty unlike Miss Nigeria, expected to promote inner beauty with a wholesome girl-next-door image – as a result its swimsuit competition was famously scrapped in 2010 but this feature remains popular at MBGN. Screening exercises are held nationwide to select contestants, successful contestants will be coached on etiquette and stage presence at the boot-camp before competing at the finale, where segments include Interview and Evening Gown, unlike Miss Nigeria, Swimwear. In the pageant's early days, contestants were allowed to wear maillots of their choice during the swimsuit parade. Identical bikinis are now used instead. In 2014, a talent competition was introduced as part of the preliminaries.

In the mid-nineties, after MBGN had no place at Miss Universe and Miss World, MBGN organisers placed height and weight restrictions on the contestants' entry forms, judges were told not to select the woman they found most attractive, but contestants with a greater chance of winning at international pageants. Due to the country's conservative standards few contestants competed in the early days of MBGN, competitors from Northern Nigeria are still rare, as its predominantly Muslim population frown on beauty pageants. Guy Murray-Bruce, who succeeded his brother as pageant director in 1992 told The Guardian: "... getting the girls to come and participate was hard, we had to beg them to participate. But since Agbani won it in 2001, we don’t beg anyone anymore."Prizes for the winner vary each year, but have always included cash. Although Mary Ngozi Bienoseh did not win the maiden edition of MBGN in 1986, she became the first Nigerian to be named African Continental Queen of Beauty, reaching the top ten at Miss World 1987.

Other MBGN delegates who have received this honour are Chinenye Ochuba and Anita Uwagbale in 2002 and 2004 respectively. 1988 winner, Law student Bianca Onoh was crowned Miss Africa in 1988 as well as Miss Intercontinental in 1989, Theatre graduate Sabina Umeh was the first Nigerian to win the Personality prize at Miss World 1990. Toyin Raji was the recipient in 1995, despite withdrawing from the pageant due to political protests. Prior to this, Raji had been named Miss Congeniality at Miss Universe 1995. MBGN's biggest achievement was in 2001 when Computer Science and Mathematics student Agbani Darego became the first native Sub-Saharan to clinch the Miss World title, the first Nigerian in the top ten at Miss Universe. At least three MBGN winners have competed at Miss Niger