Gilbert Newton Lewis was an American physical chemist and a former Dean of the College of Chemistry at University of California, Berkeley. Lewis was best known for his concept of electron pairs. Lewis contributed to chemical thermodynamics and isotope separation, is known for his concept of acids and bases. Lewis researched on relativity and quantum physics, in 1926 he coined the term "photon" for the smallest unit of radiant energy. G. N. Lewis was born in 1875 in Massachusetts. After receiving his PhD in chemistry from Harvard University and studying abroad in Germany and the Philippines, Lewis moved to California in 1912 to teach chemistry at the University of California, where he became the Dean of the College of Chemistry and spent the rest of his life; as a professor, he incorporated thermodynamic principles into the chemistry curriculum and reformed chemical thermodynamics in a mathematically rigorous manner accessible to ordinary chemists. He began measuring the free energy values related to several chemical processes, both organic and inorganic.
In 1916, he proposed his theory of bonding and added information about electrons in the periodic table of the chemical elements. In 1933, he started his research on isotope separation. Lewis managed to purify a sample of heavy water, he came up with his theory of acids and bases, did work in photochemistry during the last years of his life. Though he was nominated 41 times, G. N. Lewis never won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, resulting in a major Nobel Prize controversy. On the other hand, Lewis mentored and influenced numerous Nobel laureates at Berkeley including Harold Urey, William F. Giauque, Glenn T. Seaborg, Willard Libby, Melvin Calvin and so on, turning Berkeley into one of the world's most prestigious centers for chemistry. On March 23, 1946, Lewis was found dead in his Berkeley laboratory where he had been working with hydrogen cyanide. After Lewis' death, his children followed their father's career in chemistry, the Lewis Hall on the Berkeley campus is named after him. Lewis was born in 1875 and raised in Weymouth, where there exists a street named for him, G.
N. Lewis Way, off Summer Street. Additionally, the wing of the new Weymouth High School Chemistry department has been named in his honor. Lewis received his primary education at home from his parents, Frank Wesley Lewis, a lawyer of independent character, Mary Burr White Lewis, he was intellectually precocious. In 1884 his family moved to Lincoln, in 1889 he received his first formal education at the university preparatory school. In 1893, after two years at the University of Nebraska, Lewis transferred to Harvard University, where he obtained his B. S. in 1896. After a year of teaching at Phillips Academy in Andover, Lewis returned to Harvard to study with the physical chemist T. W. Richards and obtained his Ph. D. in 1899 with a dissertation on electrochemical potentials. After a year of teaching at Harvard, Lewis took a traveling fellowship to Germany, the center of physical chemistry, studied with Walther Nernst at Göttingen and with Wilhelm Ostwald at Leipzig. While working in Nernst's lab, Lewis developed a lifelong enmity with Nernst.
In the following years, Lewis started to criticize and denounce his former teacher on many occasions, calling Nernst's work on his heat theorem "a regrettable episode in the history of chemistry". A Swedish friend of Nernst's, Wilhelm Palmær, was a member of the Nobel Chemistry Committee. There is evidence that he used the Nobel nominating and reporting procedures to block a Nobel Prize for Lewis in thermodynamics by nominating Lewis for the prize three times, using his position as a committee member to write negative reports. After his stay in Nernst's lab, Lewis returned to Harvard in 1901 as an instructor for three more years, he was appointed instructor in thermodynamics and electrochemistry. In 1904 Lewis was granted a leave of absence and became Superintendent of Weights and Measures for the Bureau of Science in Manila, Philippines; the next year he returned to Cambridge, Massachusetts when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology appointed him to a faculty position, in which he had a chance to join a group of outstanding physical chemists under the direction of Arthur Amos Noyes.
He became an assistant professor in 1907, associate professor in 1908, full professor in 1911. G. N. Lewis left MIT in 1912 to become a professor of physical chemistry and Dean of the College of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. On June 21, 1912, he married Mary Hinckley Sheldon, daughter of a Harvard professor of Romance languages, they had two sons, both of whom became chemistry professors, a daughter. In 1913, he joined the Alpha Chi Sigma at the professional chemistry fraternity. While at Berkeley, Lewis mentored and influenced numerous future Nobel laureates including Harold Urey, William F. Giauque, Glenn T. Seaborg, Willard Libby, Melvin Calvin and so on. Due to his efforts, the College of Chemistry at Berkeley became one of the top chemistry centers in the world. In 1913, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, he resigned in 1934.
Björn Rune Borg is a Swedish former world No. 1 tennis player considered to be one of the greatest players in the history of the sport. Between 1974 and 1981 he became the first man in the Open Era to win 11 Grand Slam singles titles, although he was never able to win the US Open in four finals appearances, he won three year-end championships and 16 Grand Prix Super Series titles. Overall, he set numerous records. Borg was the first player to win six French Open singles titles, he is considered to have been the No. 1 player in the world for 1977, 1978, 1979 and 1980. A teenage sensation at the start of his career, Borg's unprecedented stardom and consistent success helped propel the rising popularity of tennis during the 1970s; as a result, the professional tour became more lucrative, in 1979 he was the first player to earn more than one million dollars in prize money in a single season. He made millions in endorsements throughout his career. However, the constant attention and pressure caused burnout and his retirement at the age of 26.
Björn Borg was born in Stockholm, Sweden, on 6 June 1956, as the only child of Rune and Margaretha Borg. He grew up in nearby Södertälje; as a child, Borg became fascinated with a golden tennis racket that his father won at a table-tennis tournament. His father gave him the racket. A player of great athleticism and endurance, he had a distinctive style and appearance—bowlegged and fast, his muscularity allowed him to put heavy topspin on both his two-handed backhand. He followed Jimmy Connors in using the two-handed backhand. By the time he was 13 he was beating the best of Sweden's under-18 players, Davis Cup captain Lennart Bergelin cautioned against anyone trying to change Borg's rough-looking, jerky strokes. At the age of 15 Borg represented Sweden in the 1972 Davis Cup and won his debut singles rubber in five sets against veteran Onny Parun of New Zealand; that year, he won the Wimbledon junior singles title, recovering from a 5–2 deficit in the final set to overcome Britain's Buster Mottram.
In December he won the Orange Bowl Junior Championship for boys 18 and under after a straight-sets victory in the final over Vitas Gerulaitis. Borg joined the professional circuit in 1973, reached his first singles final in April at the Monte Carlo Open which he lost to Ilie Năstase, he was unseeded at his first French Open and reached the fourth round where he lost in four sets to eight-seeded Adriano Panatta. Borg was seeded sixth at his first Wimbledon Championships, in large part due to a boycott by the ATP, reached the quarterfinal where he was defeated in a five-set match by Roger Taylor. In the second half of 1973 he was runner-up in San Francisco and Buenos Aires and finished the year ranked No. 18. Borg made his only appearance at the Australian Open, at the age of 17, reached the third round where he lost in straight sets to eventual finalist Phil Dent. In January he won his first career singles title at the New Zealand Open, followed by titles in London and São Paulo in February and March respectively.
Just before his 18th birthday in June 1974, Borg won his first top-level singles title at the Italian Open, defeating defending champion and top-seeded Ilie Năstase in the final and becoming its youngest winner. Two weeks he won the singles title at the French Open, his first Grand Slam tournament title, defeating Manuel Orantes in the final in five sets. 18, Borg was the youngest-ever male French Open champion up to that point. In early 1975, Borg defeated Rod Laver 36 years old, in a semifinal of the World Championship Tennis finals in Dallas, Texas, in five sets. Borg subsequently lost to Arthur Ashe in the final. Borg retained his French Open title in 1975. Borg reached the Wimbledon quarterfinals, where he lost to eventual champion Ashe. Borg did not lose another match at Wimbledon until 1981. Borg won two singles and one doubles rubber in the 1975 Davis Cup final, as Sweden beat Czechoslovakia 3–2. With these singles wins, Borg had won 19 consecutive Davis Cup singles rubbers since 1973; that was a record at the time.
However, Borg never lost another Davis Cup singles rubber, and, by the end of his career, he had stretched that winning streak to 33. In early 1976, Borg won the World Championship Tennis year-end WCT Finals in Dallas, with a four-set victory over Guillermo Vilas in the final. At the 1976 French Open, Borg lost to the Italian Adriano Panatta, who remains the only player to defeat Borg at this tournament. Panatta did it twice: in the fourth round in 1973, in the 1976 quarterfinals. Borg won Wimbledon in 1976 without losing a set. Borg became the youngest male Wimbledon champion of the modern era at 1 month, it would be the last time. Năstase exclaimed, "We're playing tennis, he's playing something else." Borg reached the final of the 1976 U. S. Open, being played on clay courts. Borg lost in four sets to world no. 1 Jimmy Connors. In February 1977 World Championship Tennis sued Borg and his management company IMG claiming that Borg had committed a breach of contract by electing to participate in the competing 1977 Grand Prix circuit instead of the WCT circuit.
Borg played, won, a single WCT event, the Monte Carlo WCT. An out-of-court settlement was reache
Carolyn Jane Maitland, known professionally as Carolyn Maitland, is a British actress, West End singer and performer best known for playing Marian Halcolme in The Woman in White at the Charing Cross Theatre in London, directed by Thom Southerland. The Broadway World Reviewer, Gary Nayol wrote “Her singing is worth the ticket price alone, belting into one of London’s more tricky auditoria with total commitment and great technique, a masterclass in how to go full-on musical theatre passion without losing sight of the fact that the character is supposed to be real, she veers close to opera but that’s a compliment in a production of this ambition. One of 2017’s best performances in the West End arriving late in the year..” Carolyn is known for playing Grace Farrell in the 2019 tour of Annie the Musical and Molly Jensen in Ghost, opposite musician and actor Andy Moss as Sam, on the 2016 national tour. She was born of the Isle of Wight and went to Cowes High School and now lives in London with her fiancé who she met on Mamma Mia.
She has one sister who trained as a ballerina at the Royal Ballet School and runs her own dance school. Carolyn trained at Elmhurst School of Performing Arts. Carolyn started her career as an Actor and dancer for Reach for the Moon for LWT and a backing dancer for the MOBO Awards in 2002 for ITV before working with the late Brian Rogers on Broadway Christmas Spectacular, she joined Spirit of the Dance/Broadway in 2003 for 2 years before becoming lead vocalist on the QE2 for Belinda King Productions. In 2007 she joined the International tour of Mamma Mia; the following year she was offered the roles of 1st Cover Mabel, 2nd Cover Serena, Miss Bell & Swing on the UK tour of FAME. She was given her first lead understudy on the tour of High School Musical 2 as Gabriella. 2010 consisted of cabarets and workshops until late in the year when she was offered her second lead understudy role as Lucy Harris in the musical Jekyll and Hyde produced by Bill Kenwright. She played opposite Marti Pellow from the 90's band Wet, Wet.
In 2012 she debuted her first West End show understudying the roles of Vivienne and Serena in Legally Blonde at the Savoy Theatre. The following year she understudied Hannah Waddingham in the role of Lilli Vanessi/Katherine in Chichester Festival Theatre's 2012 revival of Kiss Me, Kate directed by Sir Trevor Nunn at The Old Vic; that led to creating the role of Rose and understudying Rebecca Thornhill in the role of Karen Holmes in From Here to Eternity at the Shaftesbury Theatre, London in 2013. In May 2014 Carolyn was to understudy Tamsin Carroll as Ellen Scott in the anticipated West End revival of Miss Saigon, produced by Cameron Mackintosh and directed by Laurence Connor. Carolyn was directed as Ellen by Claude-Michel Schönberg, Alain Boublil and Cameron Mackintosh three days before opening night when Miss Carroll became sick and couldn't perform. Miss Carroll recovered in time for opening night. In 2015 Maitland starred in her first lead as Kathy Selden in Singin’ in the Rain at Kilworth House Theatre directed by Mitch Sebastian.
That year she was to return to Miss Saigon as Ellen Scott. She went on to star as Sally Bowles in Cabaret at ACT Aberdeen and the Daughter in The Memory Show at The Drayton Theatre. Groundhog Day premiered in London in 2016 at The Old Vic in London where Carolyn created the role of Joelle and understudied the part of Rita Hanson. In January 2017 Carolyn was cast to play alternate Mad Hatter in Wonderland: A New Alice. Maitland pulled out before rehearsals due to disagreements with the producer and the production company Wonderland the Musical Ltd regarding her contract. In 2017 Carolyn took over the role as Molly in Ghost from Sarah Harding due to the subsequent pain from an injury she received on the third series of The Jump; the Carns Theatre Passion reviewer said “Her voice is just gorgeous and she carried all the numbers she was part of. She stood out in her Act One solo ‘With You’ which bought tears to many eyes”. In October 2017 Carolyn produced her first concert Songs Chosen By You for Live at ZedelIn November 2017 she starred as Marian Halcolme in The Woman in White, with a revised score, which opened at the Charing Cross Theatre in London.
Lyn Gardner of The Guardian said “It’s a shame that Lloyd Webber and Jones turned Collins’ proto-feminist Marian into a more mundane standard-issue romantic heroine. But Carolyn Maitland sings with texture and gives the character definition.” Carolyn joined the West End revival of Annie the Musical as Grace Farrell, that began at the Piccadilly Theatre in London before showing at the Ed Mirvish Theatre in Downtown Toronto, Canada. Television and stage star Lesley Nicol starred as Miss Hannigan. Maitland continued playing Grace in the 2019 UK tour of Annie the Musical, opposite Anita Dobson, Lesley Joseph and Craig Revel-Horwood who all played Miss Hannigan during the tour. In 2020 she will be playing the role of Rebecca Hershkowitz in the Park Theatre's production of Rags the Musical playing opposite Dave Willetts who will be playing Avram. From Here to Eternity, Miss Saigon Sources: Broadway World 2014 West End Frame Understudy Of The Year Award 2014 Understudy Of The Year Award
The Dubai Metro is a rapid transit rail network in the city of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The Red Line and Green Line are operational, with one more line being constructed; these first two lines run underground in the city center and on elevated viaducts elsewhere. All trains are automated and driverless, together with stations, are air conditioned with platform edge doors. Architecture firm Aedas designed the metro's 45 stations, two depots and operational control centers; the Al Ghurair Investment group were the metro's builders. The first section of the Red Line, covering 10 stations, was ceremonially inaugurated at 9:09:09 pm on 9 September 2009, by Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Ruler of Dubai, with the line opening to the public at 6 am on 10 September; the Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula and either the second in the Arab World or the third. A major expansion of the Red Line to add 15 kilometers of track and extend it from Ibn Battuta to the Expo 2020 site was announced in April 2015.
The extension will increase 7 metro stations. More than 110,000 people, or nearly 10 percent of Dubai’s population, used the Metro in its first two days of operation; the Dubai Metro carried 10 million passengers from launch on 9 September 2009 to 9 February 2010 with 11 stations operational on the Red Line. Engineering consultancy Atkins provided full multidisciplinary design and management of the civil works on Dubai Metro; until 2016, the Dubai Metro was the world's longest driverless metro network with a route length of 75 kilometres, as recognized by Guinness World Records in 2012. However, its total route length have since been surpassed by the automated driverless Vancouver SkyTrain and Singapore MRT; the Red Line, at 52.1 kilometres, remains the world's longest driverless single metro line. Planning of the Dubai Metro began under the directive of Dubai's Ruler, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who expected other projects to attract 15 million visitors to Dubai by 2010; the combination of a growing population and severe traffic congestion necessitated the building of an urban rail system to provide additional public transportation capacity, relieve motor traffic, provide infrastructure for additional development.
In May 2005, a AED 12.45 billion/US$3.4 billion design and build contract was awarded to the Dubai Rail Link consortium made up of Japanese companies including Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Corporation, Obayashi Corporation, Kajima Corporation and Turkish firm Yapı Merkezi, the Project Management and Construction Management services contract awarded to a French-American joint venture between Systra and Parsons Corporation. The first phase covers 35 kilometres of the proposed network, including the Red Line between Al Rashidiya and the Jebel Ali Free Zone set for completion by September 2009 and the Green Line from Al Qusais 2 to Al Jaddaf 1; this was to be completed by June 2010. A second phase contract was subsequently signed in July 2006 and includes extensions to the initial routes; the Red Line opened at 9 minutes and 9 seconds past 9 pm on 9 September 2009, inaugurated by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum. The construction cost of the Dubai Metro project has shot up by about 80 per cent from the original AED 15.5 billion/US$4.2 billion to AED 28 billion/US$7.8 billion.
The authorities contradicted this, saying that the cost of the project did not overshoot. They attributed the increase in expenditure to the major changes in the scope and design of the project; the authorities expect to generate AED 18 billion/US$4.9 billion in income over the next 10 years. Work commenced on the construction of the metro on 21 March 2006. In February 2009, a top RTA Rail Agency official said the US$4.2 billion Dubai Metro project would be completed on schedule despite the global crisis. However, only 10 out of 29 metro stations of the red line opened on 9 September 2009. Construction of the 18 stations on the red line and another 18 on the green line restarted on 7 February 2010, according to contractors, after a settlement was reached with a Japanese-led consortium over disputed payments of about US$2 billion-US$3 billion. Construction of all 29 metro stations on the Red Line was declared complete on 28 April 2010 by the acting chief of the RTA Rail Agency. Seven more stations on the Dubai Metro Red Line opened on 30 April 2010.
Ten new trains were pressed into service, giving a total of 22 trains in service when the stations opened. The seven stations are, Emirates Station, Airport Terminal 1 Station, Dubai Internet City Station, Al Karama Station, Emirates Towers Station, Dubai Marina Station and Ibn Battuta Station. In addition to this, a further three stations were opened on 15 May 2010. Furthermore, Business Bay Station, First Gulf Bank Station, Sharaf DG Station, Nakheel Station and Jumeirah Lakes Towers Station were opened on 15 October 2010. After much delay, Jebel Ali Station, the terminus of the Red Line on the Abu Dhabi side was opened on 11 March 2011, Jebel Ali Industrial Station, renamed Danube Station, was opened on 12 December 2012; the final two stations, Al Jadaf and Creek, on the Green Line were opened on 1 March 2014. The Dubai Metro is operated by Serco under contract to the Dubai Roads and Transport Authority. Red Lin
Michael James Gillespie is a former American college baseball coach. Gillespie served as the head coach at UC Irvine and head coach at USC from 1987 to 2006 and led USC to the 1998 College World Series championship. Gillespie started his coaching career at the College of a California junior college, he started the school's baseball program in spring 1971 after the school's fall 1969 founding. In sixteen seasons as head coach, he had a 420–167 record. Gillespie posted a 763–471–2 record as the coach of USC. In addition to the 1998 championship, he led USC to the CWS in 1995, 2000 and 2001, with the 1995 team advancing to the title game. In 2005, 13 former players coached by Gillespie were playing in Major League Baseball, while six of his former players were All-Stars including, he resigned from USC on June 2, 2006. Gillespie played baseball at USC under coach Rod Dedeaux, was a member of the 1961 College World Series champions. Along with Jerry Kindall, he is one of only two individuals who have both played for and coached a College World Series champion.
He was succeeded as USC's head coach by Chad Kreuter, a former major league catcher, married to Gillespie's daughter Kelly. In September 2007, Gillespie was named coach UC Irvine's baseball team, replacing Dave Serrano, who had just guided the Anteaters to their first CWS appearance but left to take over at Cal State Fullerton, his alma mater, after George Horton left Fullerton to head the new program at Oregon. On January 8, 2010, Gillespie was inducted into the American Baseball Coaches Association Hall of Fame. On February 2, 2007, Gillespie was named manager of the New York–Penn League Staten Island Yankees, he replaced Gaylen Pitts, who led the team to its second consecutive New York–Penn League Championship. In his only season, he led them to a 47-28 record. Below is a table of Gillespie's yearly records as an NCAA head baseball coach. List of current NCAA Division I baseball coaches
Rupinder Singh "Gippy" Grewal, is an Indian actor, film director and producer whose works span over Punjabi and Hindi film industry. His single Phulkari broke many records in the Punjabi music industry, he made his acting debut in the 2010 movie, Mel Karade Rabba, which he followed with Carry On Jatta, Lucky Di Unlucky Story, Bhaji in Problem and Jatt James Bond. He revived "PTC Best Actor Award" in 2011 for his performance in the 2011 film Jihne Mera Dil Luteya, he received the "PIFAA Best Actor Award" in 2012 along with Diljit Dosanjh and received "PTC Best Actor Award" in 2015 for Jatt James Bond along with Diljit Dosanjh. After his hit movie Faraar, he came with Kaptaan and lock in 2016. Grewal was born in Ludhiana and his hometown is Koom Kalan, Ludhiana, he did his schooling from Nankana Sahib Public School, Kot Gangu Rai and studied at North India Institute of Hotel Management, Panchkula. His brother Sippy Grewal is a distributor based in Australia. Grewal has three sons. Grewal made his debut with the album.
He followed with the albums Nasha, Phulkari 2 Just Hits and Gangster. His 2012 song "Angreji Beat", featured in the Bollywood film Cocktail; the video for his 2013 single "Hello Hello" was shot in Las Vegas, Nevada. He performed at the Sandwell and Birmingham Mela in 2014. Grewal made his film debut in a supporting role in 2010 Punjabi-language film Mel Karade Rabba, he followed that up with a lead role in Jihne Mera Dil Luteya which became the biggest hit in Punjabi cinema when it released. In April 2012 his film Mirza – The Untold Story released with the highest opening for a Punjabi film at the time, his next movie Carry On Jatta released in July 2012 and had the second highest opening and total collections for Punjabi film. In 2013, Grewal released the action film Singh vs Kaur, comedy film Lucky Di Unlucky Story and Best of Luck and the comedy movie Bhaji in Problem. In 2014, he appeared in the dramatic thriller Jatt James Bond, his second film of 2014 was the comedy film Double Di Trouble.
He dubbed a voice in the Punjabi version of A Good Day to Die Hard, the first Hollywood movie to be dubbed in Punjabi. In 2015, Grewal entered Bollywood with a guest appearance in the comedy-drama film Dharam Sankat Mein, he made his full acting debut in Bollywood with the romantic-comedy film Second Hand Husband. In September 2017 Gippy Grewal starred in his most recent Hindi movie, Lucknow Central, along with Farhan Akhtar. Carry on Jatta 2 released on 1 June 2018