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Gilbert Sheldon

Gilbert Sheldon was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1663 until his death. He was born in Stanton, Staffordshire in the parish of Ellastone, on 19 June 1598, the youngest son of Roger Sheldon, he was educated at Oxford. In 1619 he was incorporated at Cambridge. In 1622 he was elected fellow of All Souls' College, where he took the degrees of BD on 11 November 1628 and DD on 25 June 1634. In 1622 he was ordained, shortly afterwards he became domestic chaplain to Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry. In March 1636 he was elected warden of All Souls' on the death of Richard Astley, he had made the acquaintance of William Laud, corresponded with him on college business, university politics, on the conversion of William Chillingworth from Roman Catholicism. Sheldon was not a Laudian, he resisted Laud's appointment of Jeremy Taylor to a fellowship at All Souls'. In 1634 and 1640 he was pro-vice-chancellor. In 1638 he was on the commission of visitation for Merton College. During the years 1632–1639 he received the livings of Hackney.

Sheldon gravitated towards the Great Tew circle of Lucius Cary, was on friendly terms with Edward Hyde. He became a royal chaplain through Coventry, the king intended preferment for him, plans interrupted by the political crises, he was intimate with the Royalist leaders, participated in the negotiations for the Uxbridge treaty of 1645. During this period he became with Henry Hammond one of the churchmen closest to the king, attended him as Clerk of the Closet in Oxford in Newmarket, Suffolk and in the Isle of Wight; when the parliamentarians occupied Oxford in 1646 he resisted the visitation, but was and physically ejected from All Souls in early 1648. Taken into custody, he was to have been imprisoned in Wallingford Castle with Hammond but the commander was unwilling to have them, he was freed, with restrictions on his movements that year. He lived for a dozen years in the Midlands, at Snelston in Derbyshire or with friends in Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire, he was active in fundraising for Charles II in exile.

He corresponded with Jeremy Taylor, whom he supported, with Hyde. On the death of John Palmer, whom the visitors had made warden of All Souls' in his place, on 4 March 1659, he was reinstated. On 21 September 1660, Sheldon was nominated Bishop of London. On 28 October, he was consecrated in the Henry VII Chapel at Westminster Abbey. Since William Juxon was now Archbishop of Canterbury, but was aged and infirm, Sheldon in practical terms exercised many of the powers of the archbishopric in the period to 1663, he was on the privy council, he was commissioned to consecrate the new Scottish bishops. The Savoy Conference of 1661 was held at his lodgings, he hardly was understood to be pulling strings in terms of the outcome. In his formulation, Puritan objections should be considered; the subsequent Uniformity Act 1662 was much in line with Sheldon's thinking. The Act was a sequel to Sheldon's successful orchestration of opposition to Charles II's intended Declaration of Indulgence, earlier in 1662, he was translated to become Archbishop of Canterbury in 1663: the congé d'élire was issued on 14 July, Sheldon was elected on 11 August, royal assent was given on 20 August and his election was confirmed on 31 August at Lambeth Palace.

He was interested in the welfare of the University of Oxford, of which he became Chancellor in 1667, succeeding Lord Clarendon, as Hyde now was. The Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford was endowed at his expense, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1665. He accepted much purely secular work, acting as arbiter on petitions presented through him, taking up investigations passed on by the king in connection with the navy. Sheldon lost political influence after the fall of Clarendon in 1667, by making Charles's philandering a matter of religious reproach, he was vocal against the Royal Declaration of Indulgence of 1672. He is depicted in a window in Gray's Inn Chapel. Sheldon is mentioned in Pepys' Diary who relates a story from his "Cozen Roger" that "...the Archbishop of Canterbury that now is, do keep a wench, that he is a wencher as can be and tells us, publicly known that Sir Charles Sedley had got away one of the Archbishop's wenches from him..." Such stories, spread by his enemies, were common.

There is in fact no credible evidence that Sheldon led an immoral life, though Samuel Pepys's cousin Roger Pepys, a Puritan, may well have believed the gossip. A entry in Pepys' Diary praises the Archbishop as a "stout and high spirited man", who spoke his mind to the King on matters of morality. Sheldon never married: this may have inspired the gossip reported by Pepys abou

Newark, California

Newark is a city in Alameda County, United States. It was incorporated as a city in September 1955. Newark is an enclave, surrounded by the city of Fremont; the three cities of Newark and Union City make up the Tri-City Area. Its population was 42,573 at the 2010 census making it the third largest city in the US named Newark after Newark and Newark, New Jersey; the western edge of the city is near the southern end of the San Francisco Bay. State Route 84 runs through the city, continues as the Dumbarton Bridge to cross the San Francisco Bay to reach Menlo Park. Interstate 880 serves as the eastern boundary with Fremont. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.9 square miles, of which 13.9 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Newark was named after Port Glasgow, in Scotland by J. Barr Robertson. Before it was settled by Europeans, Newark was home to the Ohlone Native American Peoples; the first European settlement in the area was by the Spanish missionaries of Mission San José, whose territory covered much of the present-day cities of Newark and Union City.

In 1878 land belonging to Washington Township of Alameda County was purchased by The Pacific Land Investment Company and subdivided to form the town of Newark. Newark was incorporated in September 1955; the 2010 United States Census reported that Newark had a population of 42,574. The population density was 3,063.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Newark was 17,567 White, 2,002 Black, 279 Native American, 11,571 Asian, 621 Pacific Islander, 7,735 from other races, 2,799 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14,994 persons; the Census reported that 42,428 people lived in households, 145 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 12,972 households, out of which 5,643 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 7,832 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,716 had a female householder with no husband present, 786 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 659 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 93 same-sex married couples or partnerships.

1,942 households were made up of individuals and 705 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.27. There were 10,334 families; the age distribution of the population shows 10,799 people under the age of 18, 3,824 people aged 18 to 24, 12,697 people aged 25 to 44, 10,727 people aged 45 to 64, 4,526 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. There were 13,414 housing units at an average density of 965.2 per square mile, of which 12,972 were occupied, of which 8,942 were owner-occupied, 4,030 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 28,489 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 13,939 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 42,471 people, 12,992 households, 10,341 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,039.4 people per square mile. There were 13,150 housing units at an average density of 941.1 per square mile.

There were 12,992 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.4% were non-families. 14.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.26 and the average family size was 3.59. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 34.3% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 7.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $69,350, the median income for a family was $71,351. Males had a median income of $46,061 versus $34,959 for females; the per capita income for the city was $23,641. About 4.2% of families and 5.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.7% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over.

In the state legislature, Newark is in the 10th Senate District, represented by Democrat Bob Wieckowski, in the 25th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Kansen Chu. Federally, Newark is in California's 17th congressional district, represented by Democrat Ro Khanna. Newark's economy is at shares its economic pattern. Cargill Salt known as Leslie Salt, operates a large salt refinery in Newark which cleans solar salt produced in salt evaporation ponds in the San Francisco Bay. Wedgewood manufactured stoves in town from the 1910s until the 1940s. Peterbilt manufactured trucks in Newark from the early 1960s up to the mid-1980s. Adjacent to the Peterbilt truck facility, in 1956 Trailmobile moved its manufacturing and assembly plant from Berkeley to a new 208,000 sq. ft. facility in Newark. Once located at 6000 Stevenson Blvd. the Trailmobile plant closed in 1975 and moved to a new facility in Charleston, Illinois. From the mi

Guy Millard

Sir Guy Millard was a British diplomat, involved in the Suez crisis, afterwards ambassador to Hungary and Italy. Guy Elwin Millard was educated at Wixenford and Pembroke College, Cambridge, he served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. Millard was a junior secretary to Anthony Eden during the war, when Eden became Prime Minister in 1955 he arranged for Millard to be seconded from the Foreign Office to be his Private Secretary for Foreign Affairs, he was thus involved with the Suez Crisis in 1956. Afterwards he wrote a detailed history of the episode, an edited version of which remains in the National Archives. Millard was Ambassador to Hungary 1967–69, Minister in Washington, D. C. 1970–71, Ambassador to Sweden 1971–74 and Ambassador to Italy 1974–76. After retiring from the Diplomatic Service, he served as chairman of the British-Italian Society 1977–83. Millard was appointed CMG in the 1957 New Year Honours and CVO in 1961 on the occasion of a state visit by Queen Elizabeth II to Iran, where Millard was stationed at the time.

He was knighted KCMG in the New Year Honours of 1972. The Italian government made him a Grand Officer of the Order of Merit in 1981. "Archival material relating to Millard, Sir Guy Elwin Knight Diplomat". UK National Archives

Fushimi Castle

Fushimi Castle known as Momoyama Castle or Fushimi-Momoyama Castle, is a castle in Kyoto's Fushimi Ward. The current structure is a 1964 replica of the original built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the construction of the original castle was begun in 1592, the year after Hideyoshi's retirement from the regency, completed in 1594. Twenty provinces provided workers for the construction, which numbered between 20,000 and 30,000. Though bearing the external martial appearance of a castle, the structure was intended as a retirement palace for Hideyoshi, was furnished and decorated as such, it is famous for its Golden Tea Room in which both the walls and the implements were covered in gold leaf. The castle was intended to be the site for Hideyoshi's peace talks with Chinese diplomats seeking an end to the Seven-Year War in Korea, but an earthquake destroyed the castle only two years after its completion, it was rebuilt soon afterwards, came to be controlled by Torii Mototada, a vassal of Tokugawa Ieyasu. In 1600, the castle fell in a significant siege by Ishida Mitsunari.

Torii Mototada, in a celebrated act of honor and bravery, defended the castle for eleven days, delaying Ishida's forces and allowing his lord Tokugawa time to build his own army. This had a profound effect on the Battle of Sekigahara, which came soon afterwards, which marked the final victory of Tokugawa Ieyasu over all his rivals. In 1623, the castle was dismantled, many of its rooms and buildings were incorporated into castles and temples across Japan. Several temples in Kyoto, such as Yōgen-in, Genkō-an, Hōsen-in, have a blood-stained ceiling, the floor of a corridor at Fushimi Castle where Torii Mototada and company had committed suicide. In 1912, the tomb of Emperor Meiji was built on the original site of the castle; the castle was not rebuilt until 1964, when a replica was created nearby and in concrete. The new structure served as a museum of the life and campaigns of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the main attraction of a small theme park called "Castle Land", but was closed to the public in 2003.

Jurakudai—Hideyoshi's previous luxurious residence from 1587 to 1594 Benesch and Ran Zwigenberg. Japan's Castles: Citadels of Modernity in War and Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 374. ISBN 9781108481946. Bryant, Anthony J.. Sekigahara 1600: The Final Struggle for Power. Praeger Publishers. Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 78–80. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Sansom, George. A History of Japan: 1334–1615. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540–1640. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. The website of Samurai Author and Historian Anthony J. Bryant. Accessed 4 April 2011


Tombel is a town and commune in the Southwest Region of Cameroon, in the north of the Mungo Valley, in an area disputed with Ambazonia. The town is traditionally part of the Bakossi people's country, but now has a significant population of Bamileke people and others. In late 1966 tension between the two communities resulted in an outbreak of violence in which 236 Bamaleke settlers were killed. Looting and burning their houses. In response, the army moved in, rounded up all able-bodied Bakossi men in the Tombel area and placed them in detention camps, where many were tortured to obtain confessions. 143 Bakossi men were put on trial and 17 sentenced to death, while 75 received life sentences of life imprisonment. Lying to the south of Mount Kupe, Tombel receives little direct sunshine in the rainy season, due to constant cloud cover; the town has suffered from persistent shortages of water supply, despite several forceful attempts by the women of the town to improve the situation. Tombel is the largest town of Kupe Muanenguba Division.

This is the headquarters of one of the three subdivisions of Kupe Muanenguba division. From its 5 km distance from Loum to the East Littoral region and its large population of migrants from other provinces, the town enjoys an advantage in bilingualism. Tombel, is a welcoming place to people from other villages of Bakossi as well as Bamilekes from the West; the presence of other ethnique groups like Bamilekes and Doualas is fast transforming the town into a small cosmopolitan town. Tombel is an important road intersection to Kumba, Loum to north and Douala as well to other areas of the division including Bangem, the headquarters of Kupe Muanenguba division. At the foot of Kupe Mountain, Tombel attracks visitors who seek adventure to climb the mountain, which provides excitement to tourists interested in the diversity of plants and birds found in the mounenguba mist. Between Loum in the Littoral and Tombel is gound a place popularly known as "customs". Customs is the place where Southern Cameroonians, prior to the1961plebiscite where obliged to show their "Laissez-passer" which permitted them to cross over to independent "la république du Cameroun".

Upon Reunification, the customs barrier was removed but the building still lies there, abandoned but still carrying the story of reunification. The reunification road is the Loum-Tombel-Kumba road; this road has been abandoned and passing through it at any time of the year requires a lot of courage on the part of the driver. Although Tombel sub division is one of the major bread baskets of the country with fertile volcanic soils, a temperate climate productive cocoa and coffee farms and other cash crops, poverty is the language of the people; the bad roads have left the area enclaved, the reunification story carried by the road notwithstanding. Website dedicated to the people from Tombel Councils of Cameroon

The Shiranui Sea

The Shiranui Sea is a Japanese documentary made in 1975 by Noriaki Tsuchimoto. It is the fourth in a series of independent documentaries that Tsuchimoto made of the mercury poisoning incident in Minamata, Japan. Four years after Minamata: The Victims and Their World, Tsuchimoto's camera focuses on the everyday lives of the victims of mercury poisoning. Fisherman still knowingly catch and eat the mercury-laden fish caught in the beautiful Shiranui Sea because, what they have always done and, how they relate to nature; some patients who received significant compensation from Chisso, the polluter, may now live in good houses, but without doing work their lives seem somehow empty. The real victims remain the children, who are now getting older and in some cases conscious of the fact they are different from other children; the film scholar Justin Jesty wrote that The Shiranui Sea is "the crowning achievement of Tsuchimoto's first five years of engagement with mercury poisoning. The film is a long and powerful meditation on the depth and breadth of the tragedy."

The documentarist Makoto Satō called The Shiranui Sea "the ultimate masterpiece" of Tsuchimoto's Minamata films. The Shiranui Sea on IMDb