Gilbert Stuart

Gilbert Charles Stuart was an American painter from Rhode Island Colony, considered one of America's foremost portraitists. His best known work is the unfinished portrait of George Washington, begun in 1796, sometimes referred to as the Athenaeum Portrait. Stuart retained the portrait and used it to paint scores of copies that were commissioned by patrons in America and abroad; the image of George Washington featured in the painting has appeared on the United States one-dollar bill for more than a century and on various postage stamps of the 19th century and early 20th century. Stuart produced portraits of more than 1,000 people, including the first six Presidents, his work can be found today at art museums throughout the United States and the United Kingdom, most notably the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Frick Collection in New York City, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. the National Portrait Gallery, Worcester Art Museum in Massachusetts, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Gilbert Stuart was born on December 3, 1755, in Saunderstown, a village of North Kingstown in the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, he was baptized at Old Narragansett Church on April 11, 1756.

He was the third child of Gilbert Stewart, a Scottish immigrant employed in the snuff-making industry, Elizabeth Anthony Stewart, a member of a prominent land-owning family from Middletown, Rhode Island. Stuart's father owned the first snuff mill in America, located in the basement of the family homestead. Stuart moved to Newport, Rhode Island at the age of six, where his father pursued work in the merchant field. In Newport, he first began to show great promise as a painter. In 1770, he made the acquaintance of Scottish artist Cosmo Alexander, a visitor to the colonies who made portraits of local patrons and who became a tutor to Stuart. Under the guidance of Alexander, Stuart painted the portrait Dr. Hunter's Spaniels when he was 14. In 1771, Stuart moved to Scotland with Alexander to finish his studies. Stuart tried to maintain a living and pursue his painting career, but to no avail, so he returned to Newport in 1773. Stuart's prospects as a portraitist were jeopardized by the onset of the American Revolution and its social disruptions.

He was a Loyalist and departed for England in 1775 following the example set by John Singleton Copley. His painting style during this period began to develop beyond the hard-edged and linear style that he had learned from Alexander, he was unsuccessful at first in pursuit of his vocation, but he became a protégé of Benjamin West in 1777 and studied with him for the next six years. The relationship was beneficial, with Stuart exhibiting for the first time at the Royal Academy in spring of 1777. By 1782, Stuart had met with success due to acclaim for The Skater, a portrait of William Grant, it was Stuart's first full-length portrait and, according to art historian Margaret C. S. Christman, it "belied the prevailing opinion that Stuart'made a tolerable likeness of a face, but as to the figure, he could not get below the fifth button'". Stuart said that he was "suddenly lifted into fame by a single picture". At one point, the prices for his pictures were exceeded only by those of renowned English artists Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough.

Despite his many commissions, however, he was habitually neglectful of finances and was in danger of being sent to debtors' prison. In 1787, he fled to Ireland where he painted and accumulated debt with equal vigor. Stuart ended his 18-year stay in Britain and Ireland in 1793, leaving behind numerous unfinished paintings, he returned to the United States with a particular goal in mind: to paint a portrait of George Washington, have an engraver reproduce it, provide for his family by the sale of the engravings. He settled in New York City and pursued portrait commissions from influential people who could bring him to Washington's attention. In 1794, he painted statesman John Jay, from whom he received a letter of introduction to Washington. In 1795, Stuart moved to Germantown, Philadelphia where he opened a studio, Washington posed for him that year. Stuart painted Washington in a series of iconic portraits, each of them leading to a demand for copies and keeping him busy and paid for years; the most famous and celebrated of these likenesses is known as The Athenaeum and is portrayed on the United States one-dollar bill.

Stuart painted about 75 reproductions of The Athenaeum. However, he never completed the original version, he sold up to 70 of his reproductions for a price of $100 each, but the original portrait was left unfinished at the time of his death in 1828. The painting was jointly purchased by the National Portrait Gallery and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1980, is on display in the National Portrait Gallery. Another celebrated image of Washington is the Lansdowne portrait, a large portrait with one version hanging in the East Room of the White House; this painting was saved during the burning of Washington by British troops in the War of 1812 through the intervention of First Lady Dolley Madison and Paul Jennings, one of President James Madison's slaves. Four versions of the portrait are attributed to Stuart, additional copies were painted by other artists for display in U. S. government buildings. In 1803, Stuart opened a studio in Washington, D. C. Stuart moved to Devonshire Street in Boston in 1805, continuing in both critical acclaim and financial troubles.

He exhibited works locally at Doggett's Julien Hall. He was sought out for advic

George Lloyd (archaeologist)

George Lloyd was an English Anglican curate and archaeologist. He was the leading founding member of the Huddersfield Archaeological and Topographical Association, which became the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, is now the Yorkshire Archaeological and Historical Society; the society was founded in 1863 for the purpose of funding and organising excavations at Slack Roman fort. The excavations were supervised and documented by Lloyd. In the 1860s and 1870s he was curate of Thurstonland in West Yorkshire, Trimdon in County Durham, Church Gresley in South Derbyshire and Cramlington in Northumberland, he was an outspoken man who once received an assassination threat, this character trait may explain why he was never ordained as a priest. George Lloyd was born in Coleshill, Warwickshire, in 1820, his whereabouts during his first forty years are unknown, but he may have spent some time in Ireland, since he edited a magazine in Belfast and married an Irish woman. His wife Sarah Sharkey Lloyd was born in Blackrock, Dublin in 1816 or 1822.

She died in Northumberland on 21 November 1885, aged 69 years. They had a son, George William Lloyd, born in London, Middlesex 1860. George William may have died in 1894 in Camberwell. By the beginning of 1885 Lloyd and his wife were living at Trimdon, he was buried at Cramlington. In 1863 Lloyd took a leading part in founding Huddersfield Archaeological and Topographical Association, his efforts were supported by the Earl of Dartmouth who funded the building of the Church of St Thomas, by Sir J. W. Ramsden; the association was founded to organise renewed excavations in response to the large number of ancient relics found in the neighbourhood of Slack Roman fort. The site known as Cambodunum, was first discovered in 1824. By May 1865 Lloyd was honorary secretary of the society, was appealing in the press for excavation funds. On Saturday 3 June the society held its first formal meeting in which Lloyd was able to report some funding for excavation, in which papers were read, describing in detail findings at the Slack site.

By November of that year he was supervising excavations at Slack Roman fort. A Roman villa, a bath house with hypocaust, walls 3 feet thick, a red tiled floor, silver coins of Vespasian and Nerva, a gold ring were found; the original notes from the 1865–1866 excavation are lost. When he left the association, the Halifax Guardian said, "It would be difficult to find his equal as a disinterested, unprejudiced supervisor in these interesting excavations", "already so signally successful." He resigned his membership on 10 September 1866 to take up a curacy in County Durham. George Lloyd was ordained deacon in 1861 or 1862, he was curate in charge of Thurstonland under Rev. Richard Collins, vicar of Kirkburton, from 1861 to 1865; the church used the old dissenters' chapel room before the Church of St Thomas was built in 1870. In 1865 he was described as incumbent of Thurstonland. On Friday 23 June 1865, Lloyd took part in the annual Thurstonland church school feast, along with the schoolchildren, local inhabitants, the Kirkburton Temperance Band and four other clergy from Holmbridge, Armitage Bridge and Lockwood.

He made a speech welcoming James Beauland. In December 1865 he resigned his "miserable pittance" of a £90 curate's stipend and his sole charge of Thurstonland for a more remunerative living in the diocese of Durham. On the evening of Saturday 3 February 1866, at the behest of the Thurstonland schoolchildren, a "farewell tea party" was held at the school to present Lloyd with a "richly ornamented, silver-mounted and gold-plated" inkstand, made by Cooper of Huddersfield. Lloyd was presented with a testimonial, the school superintendent Thomas Rogers said that Lloyd's ministry at Thurstonfield had been "a work of faith and a labour of love." Lloyd's curacy had been "five eventful years" and his name would "never be forgotten." The annual Christmas tea party for 300 villagers took place on 28 December 1865 at Thurstonland village school on Manchester Road. There was a choir, there were speeches, Lloyd was chairman, his speech gives a hint of local church politics. Lloyd told of a local independent minister who had attended a service at St Thomas and had subsequently ridiculed and abused Rev. Lloyd's "ritual and Catholic doctrine" in front of his chapel congregation.

Lloyd reassured the village that a chapel service, should he attend one, would "disgust him" in turn. He wished his audience the "compliments of the season," encouraged them to attend St Thomas's services and social activities, to support local charities. In 1866 he accepted the curacy of St Paul, Trimdon Deaf Hill cum Langdale, County Durham, which has since been closed. By Friday 5 May 1865, Lloyd was being described by the Derby Mercury as the incumbent of the parish of Church Gresley, although he was still curate of Thurstonland. On that day his son, Master George William Lloyd aged 5 years, was laying the foundation stone of two new Church Gresley schools in the face of a "thunderstorm, which came down in good earnest as to delay and, in a measure, to mar the proceedings of the day, cause discomfort to all who were present." On Tuesday 4 April 1866, Lloyd chaired a penny reading meeting at Church Gresley, with the intention that the literate would entertain the rural poor with improving readings and songs.

In his final speech of thanks, Lloyd "expressed a hope that some good had been derived from these meetings by the class for which they were intended."In 1869 in Church Gresley Lloyd presented 40 cand


Egocentrism is the inability to differentiate between self and other. More it is the inability to untangle subjective schemas from objective reality and an inability to assume or understand any perspective other than one's own. Although egocentric behaviors are less prominent in adulthood, the existence of some forms of egocentrism in adulthood indicates that overcoming egocentrism may be a lifelong development that never achieves completion. Adults appear to be less egocentric than children because they are faster to correct from an egocentric perspective than children, not because they are less to adopt an egocentric perspective. Therefore, egocentrism is found across the life span: in infancy, early childhood and adulthood, it contributes to the human cognitive development by helping children develop theory of mind and self-identity formation. Although egocentrism and narcissism appear similar, they are not the same. A person, egocentric believes they are the center of attention, like a narcissist, but does not receive gratification by one's own admiration.

Both egotists and narcissists are people whose egos are influenced by the approval of others, while for egocentrists this may or may not be true. The main concept infants and young children learn by beginning to show egocentrism is the fact that their thoughts and behaviors are different from those of others known as the theory of mind; when children begin to have social interactions with others the caregivers, they misinterpret that they are one entity, because they are together for a long duration of time and the caregivers provide for the children's needs. For example, a child may misattribute the act of their mother reaching to retrieve an object that they point to as a sign that they are the same entity, when in fact they are separate individuals; as early as 15 months old, children show a mix of egocentrism and theory of mind when an agent acts inconsistently with how the children expect him to behave. In this study the children observed the experimenter place a toy inside one of two boxes, but did not see when the experimenter removed the toy from the original box and placed it in the other box, due to obstruction by a screen.

When the screen was removed the children watched the experimenter reach to take the toy out of one of the boxes, yet because the children did not see the switching part, they looked at the experimenter's action much longer when she reached for the box opposite to the one she put the toy in. Not only does this show the existence of infants' memory capacity, but it demonstrates how they have expectations based on their knowledge, as they are surprised when those expectations are not met. Piaget explained that egocentrism during infancy does not mean selfishness, self-centredness, or egotism because it refers to the infant's understanding of the world in terms of their own motor activity as well as an inability to understand it. In children's social development, the infancy is the period where the individual performs few social functions due to the conscious and subconscious concern with the fulfillment of physical needs. According to George Butterworth and Margaret Harris, during childhood, one is unable to distinguish between what is subjective and objective.

According to Piaget, "an egocentric child assumes that other people see and feel the same as the child does."Jean Piaget developed a theory about the development of human intelligence, describing the stages of cognitive development. He claimed that early childhood is the time of pre-operational thought, characterized by children's inability to process logical thought. According to Piaget, one of the main obstacles to logic that children possess includes centration, "the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of others." A particular type of centration is egocentrism – "self-centeredness." Piaget claimed that young children are egocentric, capable of contemplating the world only from their personal perspective. For example, a three-year-old presented his mother a model truck as her birthday present; the three-year-old boy had not chosen the present out of selfishness or greediness, but he failed to realize that, from his mother's perspective, she might not enjoy the model car as much as he would.

Piaget was concerned with two aspects of egocentricity in children: morality. He believed that egocentric children use language for communication with oneself. Piaget observed that children would talk to themselves during play, this egocentric speech was the child's thoughts, he believed. He theorized that as the child matures cognitively and the amount of egocentric speech used would be reduced. However, Vygotsky felt that egocentric speech has more meaning, as it allows the child's growth in social speech and high mental development. In addition to Piaget's theory, he believed that when communicating with others, the child believes that others know everything about the topic of discussion and become frustrated when asked to give further detail. Piaget believed that egocentrism affects the child's sense of morality. Due to egocentrism, the child is only concerned with the final outcome of an event rather than another's intentions. For example, if someone breaks the child's toy, the child would not forgive the other and the child would not be able to understand that the person who broke the toy did not intend to break it.

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