Skid Row, Los Angeles
Skid Row is an area of Downtown Los Angeles. As of the 2000 census, the population of the district was 17,740. Skid Row was defined in a decision in Jones v. City of Los Angeles as the area east of Main Street, south of Third Street, west of Alameda Street, north of Seventh Street. Skid Row contains one of the largest stable populations of homeless people in the United States; the term "skid row" or "skid road," referring to an area of a city where people live who are "on the skids," derives from a logging term. Loggers would transport their logs to a nearby river by sliding them down roads made from greased skids. Loggers who had accompanied the load to the bottom of the road would wait there for transportation back up the hill to the logging camp. By extension, the term began to be used for places where people with no money and nothing to do gathered, becoming the generic term for a depressed street in a city. At the end of the 19th century, a number of residential hotels opened in the area as it became home to a transient population of seasonal laborers.
By the 1930s, Skid Row was home to as many as 10,000 homeless people and others on the margins of society. It supported saloons, residential hotels, social services, which drew people from the populations they served to congregate in the area. In June 1947, LAPD chief Clemence B. Horrall ordered. Over 350 people were arrested. Assistant Chief Joseph Reed, who claimed that "at least 50 percent of all the crime in Los Angeles originates in the Skid Row area," stated that there had been no "strong arm robberies" on Skid Row as late as one week after the raid. Long time residents, were skeptical that the changes would last. In 1956, the city of Los Angeles was in the midst of a program to "rehabilitate" Skid Row through the clearance of decaying buildings; the program was presented to property owners in the area as an economy measure. Gilbert Morris superintendent of building, said that at that point the provision of free social services to the one square mile of Skid Row cost the city over $5 million per year as opposed to the city average of $110,000 per square mile annually.
The city used administrative hearings to compel the destruction of nuisance properties at the expense of the owner. By July 1960, the clearance program was said to be 87% complete in the Skid Row area. In the 1970s, two Catholic Workers — Catherine Morris, a former nun, her husband, Jeff Dietrich — founded the "Hippie Kitchen" in the back of a van. Forty years in April 2014, aged 80 and 68, they remained active in their work feeding Skid Row residents. In February 1987, LAPD chief Daryl Gates, backed by then-Mayor Tom Bradley, announced plans for another crackdown on the homeless on Skid Row. Police and firefighters conducted a number of sweeps through the area but the plan was abandoned due to opposition by advocates for the homeless; when Gates announced in May that the crackdown would resume, Los Angeles City Attorney James K. Hahn responded that he would not prosecute people arrested in the planned sweeps. Hahn stated. I will not prosecute people for being poor and unable to find a place to sleep until I'm convinced that a viable alternative to sleeping on the streets exists."
Gates, still backed by Bradley, responded: "As the elected city attorney of Los Angeles, Mr. Hahn has a responsibility to file prosecutable cases which are presented to him by the Los Angeles Police Department."A few days then-Councilman Zev Yaroslavsky introduced a proposal that the city stop enforcing its anti-camping laws on Skid Row until adequate housing could be found for all its residents. The council rejected Yaroslavsky's proposal, but after hearing testimony from Assistant Police Chief David Dotson describing the LAPD's intended crackdown methodology, the council passed a motion asking Gates not to enforce the anti-camping laws until adequate housing could be found for the area's residents. In September 2005, hospitals and law enforcement agencies were discovered to be "dumping" homeless people on Skid Row. Then-Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa ordered an investigation and William Bratton, LAPD chief at the time, claimed that the department was not targeting homeless people but only people who violate city ordinances.
The Los Angeles City Attorney investigated more than 50 of about 150 reported cases of dumping. By early 2007, the city attorney had filed charges against Kaiser Permanente; because there were no laws covering the hospital's actions, it was charged, in an untested strategy, with false imprisonment. In response to the lack of legal recourse available to fight patient dumping, California state senator Gil Cedillo sponsored legislation against it in February 2007. In 2002, newly appointed LAPD chief William Bratton announced a plan to clean up Skid Row by, among other things, aggressively enforcing an old anti-camping ordinance. Robert Lee Purrie, for instance, was cited twice for violating the ordinance in December 2002 and January 2003 and his possessions: "blankets, cooking utensils, a hygiene kit," and so on, were confiscated by the police. In April 2006, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled in favor of the ACLU in its suit against the city of Los Angeles, filed on behalf of Purrie and five other homeless people, finding that the city was in violation of the 8th and 14th Amendments to the U.
S. Constitution and sections of the California Constitution guaranteeing due process and equal protection and prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment; the court stated that "the LAPD cannot arrest people for sitting, lying, or sleeping on
Johnnie Lee Cochran Jr. was an American high-profile lawyer best known for his leadership role in the defense and criminal acquittal of O. J. Simpson for the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ron Goldman. Cochran represented Sean Combs during his trial on gun and bribery charges, as well as Michael Jackson, Tupac Shakur, Stanley Tookie Williams, Todd Bridges, football player Jim Brown, Snoop Dogg, former heavyweight champion Riddick Bowe, 1992 Los Angeles riot beating victim Reginald Oliver Denny, inmate and activist Geronimo Pratt, he represented athlete Marion Jones when she faced charges of doping during her high school track career. Cochran was known for his skill in the courtroom and his prominence as an early advocate for victims of police brutality. Cochran was born in 1937 in Louisiana, his father was an insurance salesman, his mother sold Avon products. The family relocated to the West Coast during the second wave of the Great Migration, settling in Los Angeles in 1949.
Cochran went to local schools and graduated first in his class from Los Angeles High School in 1955. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in business economics from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1959 and a Juris Doctor from the Loyola Law School in 1962, he was a 45th "Laurel Wreath Wearer" of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. Inspired by Thurgood Marshall and the legal victory that Marshall won in Brown v. Board of Education, Cochran decided to dedicate his life to practicing law. Cochran felt his career was a calling, a double opportunity to work for what he considered to be right and to challenge what he considered wrong. In A Lawyer's Life, Cochran wrote, "I read everything that I could find about Thurgood Marshall and confirmed that a single dedicated man could use the law to change society". Despite setbacks as a lawyer, Cochran vowed not to cease what he was doing, saying: "I made this commitment and I must fulfill it." After passing the bar exam in 1963, Cochran took a job in Los Angeles as a deputy city attorney in the criminal division.
In 1964, the young Cochran prosecuted one of his first celebrity cases, Lenny Bruce, a comedian, arrested on obscenity charges. Two years Cochran entered private practice. Soon thereafter, he opened his own firm, Atkins & Evans, in Los Angeles. In his first notable case, Cochran represented an African-American widow who sued several police officers who had shot and killed her husband, Leonard Deadwyler. Though Cochran lost the case, it became a turning point in his career. Rather than seeing the case as a defeat, Cochran realized the trial itself had awakened the black community. In reference to the loss, Cochran wrote in The American Lawyer, "those were difficult cases to win in those days, but what Deadwyler confirmed for me was that this issue of police abuse galvanized the minority community. It taught me that these cases could get attention." By the late 1970s, Cochran had established his reputation in the black community. He was litigating a number of criminal cases. In 1978, Cochran returned to the Los Angeles County District Attorney's office as its first black assistant district attorney.
Though he took a pay cut to do so, joining the government was his way of becoming "one of the good guys, one of the top rung." He began to strengthen his ties with the political community, alter his image, work from within to change the system. Five years Cochran returned to private practice, reinventing himself as "the best in the West" by opening the Johnnie L Cochran Jr. law firm. In contrast to his early loss in the Deadwyler case, Cochran won US$760,000 for the family of Ron Settles, a black college football player who, his family claimed, was murdered by the police. In 1990, Cochran joined a succeeding firm, Mitchell & Jenna, joined Cochran, Givens & Smith in 1997; the Cochran Firm has grown to have regional offices located in fifteen states. In most of his cases Cochran represented plaintiffs in tort actions, he opposed tort reform. Due to his success as a lawyer, Cochran could encourage settlement by his presence on a case. According to Rev. Jesse Jackson, a call to Johnnie Cochran made "corporations and violators shake."Cochran's well-honed rhetoric and flamboyance in the courtroom has been described as theatrical.
His practice as a lawyer earned him great wealth. With his earnings, he drove cars such as a Jaguar and a Rolls-Royce, he owned homes in Los Angeles, two apartments in West Hollywood, a condo in Manhattan. In 2001, Cochran's accountant estimated. Before the Simpson case, Cochran had achieved a reputation as a "go-to" lawyer for the rich, as well as a successful advocate for minorities in police brutality and civil rights cases. However, the controversial and dramatic Simpson trial made Cochran more known, generating a variety of opinions about him. Cochran had liked to say that he worked "not only for the OJs, but the No Js". In other words, he enjoyed suing in the name of those who did not have fame or wealth. Cochran believed that most glorious moment as a lawyer occurred when he won the freedom of Geronimo Pratt. Cochran said. In the words of the Harvard Law School professor Charles Ogletree, Cochran "was willing to fight for the underdog." Rev. Jesse Jackson believed Cochran was the "people's lawyer."
Magic Johnson proclaimed Cochran was known "...for representing O. J. and Michael, but he was bigger and better than that". During closing arguments in the Simpson trial, Cochran uttered the now famous ph
10th Cavalry Regiment (United States)
The 10th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army. Formed as a segregated African-American unit, the 10th Cavalry was one of the original "Buffalo Soldier" regiments in the post-Civil War Regular Army, it served in combat during the Indian Wars in the western United States, the Spanish–American War in Cuba and in the Philippine–American War. The regiment was trained as a combat unit but relegated to non-combat duty and served in that capacity in World War II until its deactivation in 1944; the 10th Cavalry was reactivated as an integrated combat unit in 1958. Portions of the regiment have served in conflicts ranging from the Vietnam War to Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom; the current structure is by squadron, but with the 1st and 7th Squadrons deactivated, the 4th Squadron is the only 10th Cavalry Regiment unit in active service. It is assigned to the 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team of the U. S. 4th Infantry Division at Ft Carson, Colorado. From the late 1860s on the Plain Indians called the black troopers of the US Army "buffalo soldiers".
The reasons for that are not clear, however a few year in 1873 Francis Roe an army wife stated a reason in one of her letters. According to her the Indians used the term because the curly hair of the black soldiers reminded them of the fur on the top of a buffalo's head. Shield: Per pale, dexter: paly of thirteen Argent and Gules, a chief Azure charged with a Native American chief's war bonnet affronté above a tomahawk and stone axe in saltire heads down all Proper, sinister: per fess quarterly Gules and Argent in 1st and 4th a tower Or gated Azure 2d and 3d lion rampant Gules crowned with a ducal cornet Or. Crest: On a wreath of the colors Or and Sable an American bison statant guardant Proper. Motto: "Ready and Forward". Description: A gold color metal and enamel device 1 inch blazoned: On an heraldic wreath Or and Sable, a buffalo statant Proper. On a scroll of the second fimbriated of the first the motto "READY AND FORWARD" of the like. Symbolism: Black and gold have long been used as the regimental colors.
The buffalo has been the emblem of the regiment for many years having its origin in the term "Buffalo soldiers" applied by the Indians to colored regiments. The distinctive unit insignia is worn in pairs. Background: The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 13 March 1922, it was amended 6 December 1923 to change the wording in the description and the method of wear. On 19 March 1951 the insignia was re-designated for the 510th Tank Battalion; the distinctive unit insignia was re-designated for the 10th Cavalry on 12 May 1959. The current version was re-affirmed on 22 August 1991; the 10th Cavalry Coat of arms was first confirmed on 11 February 1911 at Fort Ethan Allen in Vermont as "General Orders No. 1" by order of Colonel Thaddeus W. Jones; the 1911 description of the Arms is different from that used today, has no functional difference except for symbolism. There was no symbolic explanations or reasons given for the basic symbols of the Regimental Arms in 1911 or when the arms were re-affirmed on 22 August 1991.
The following is gathered from many heraldic and military sources. Above the shield is part of the distinctive unit insignia, the "Buffalo". On the arms it faces left, which represents the western movement of the early unit across the United States; the black and gold on which the buffalo stands are "the colour of the negro" and the "refined gold" which the regiment represents. The left side is for the 43 years of service in the American West that were formative for the 10th Cavalry; the blue represents the sky and open plains of the west. The ceremonial war bonnet and eagle feathers honors the respect of the Native American tribes; the tomahawk and stone axe with the heads down indicate peace achieved. The vertical red and white stripes are for 13 major campaigns. Upper right; the Castilian Coat of Arms, without the crown, represents the Spanish–American War and indirectly the Philippine Insurrection where the 10th helped liberate Cuba and fought in the Philippines. Lower right; the black background is the African-American ancestry.
Within the yellow pyramid is a symbol of the sun and 3 stars. Under the original 1911 description of the Arms this is described as "In base sable, the Katipunan device on its base, thereon the sun in its splendour, between three mullets and two, all or." This stresses the Katipunan, Philippine revolutionaries, who were engaged in three years of campaigns against the 10th. An inaccurate and informal interpretation of the lower right section by several veterans and groups of the 10th describe that section as follows; the sun symbol is different from the 22nd Regimental sun symbol and here represents a renewal. The triangle comes from the Seventh Army pyramid patch which the 510th Tank battalion part of the 19th Armored Group and attached to the 4th Infantry Division and in support to the 22nd Infantry Regiment. Again, the 1911 description and use predates this informal view; the distinctive unit insignia approved on 13 March 1922 denoted its use as a paired set of devices or unit insignia with the head of the buffalo facing the head and neck of the individual in uniform.
This is to remind the wearer that the unit totem, the "Buffalo" is forever watching them. The Buffaloes The 10th U. S. Cavalry was formed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
Ernani Bernardi known as Noni Bernardi and Nani Bernardi was a big-band musician turned politician in Los Angeles, California. He represented District 7 on the City Council there from 1961 to 1993, making him the second-longest-serving council member in the history of the city, he was the musical arranger for two of the mid-20th century's most popular dance melodies. Bernardi was born on October 29, 1911 above a grocery store his family owned in Standard, the son of musician Alfonso Bernardi and Nerina Biagini, his parents were immigrants who came to America by way of Ellis Island, from a small town in the province of Modena in the Emilia Romagna. His mother died in childbirth, he was raised by his father, two grandmothers, an aunt and an uncle; when he was eleven, he was moved to the nearby town of Toluca, where he played varsity basketball. Bernardi attended the University of Detroit, where he planned to study journalism and become a sportscaster, he was playing saxophone in a dance band at Detroit's Graystone Ballroom when he met Lucille May Sawasky of Port Arthur, Ontario.
They were married in 1933 and lived in Detroit before moving to New York. The couple had Joanne Marie Roots, Judith Ann, John Paul and James, they settled in Los Angeles in 1939 or 1940, Bernardi began his second career as a contractor, building custom homes. After their children were grown, Lucille Bernardi went to work in the county probation department as a records clerk; when older, she suffered from Alzheimer's disease, Bernardi, by a City Council member, would bring her to work with him from their home in Van Nuys to watch television in his office. She died in 1993. Ernani Bernardi remarried in November 2001 to Eve Troutman. Bernardi was described at age 74 in 1985 as "crusty... short and bespectacled," and four years he was said to have "a puckish sense of humor."As he aged, his hearing deteriorated, he wore special headphones at council meetings so he could hear what was going on. At age 86, he had "a booming voice and aggressive style."He died of heart failure at the age of 94 on January 4, 2006.
Bernardi's father, was a music teacher who taught his son how to play the saxophone. Ernani went on to become a musician, performing under the pseudonym Noni Bernardi as lead alto sax for several of big bands of the era such as those of Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey and Kay Kyser, he was known for his arrangements of Goodman's "And the Angels Sing" and Dorsey's "I'm Getting Sentimental Over You."Bernardi moved to California in 1940 to perform with Kay Kyser's Kollege of Musical Knowledge. His musical prowess was acknowledged in 1994, when at age 82 he was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; as the Los Angeles Times pointed out, his star—and those of 29 other musicians and actors—was funded by the city's Community Redevelopment Agency, an organization that Bernardi had been fighting with for years. The tribute is in the 7000 block of Hollywood Boulevard; the ex-councilman continued playing the sax well into his eighties. In 2000 he was a regular at age 88 with his band booked, among other places, at a retro big band restaurant called Leon's Steak House in North Hollywood.
The Times reported: When this guy takes his spot in front of a 16-piece ensemble of blaring trumpets and gleaming saxes—The Way It Was Orchestra, as he calls it—his frail arms start pumping, his toes tap and his body begins to radiate a vigor that energizes the old musicians like swigs from a fountain of youth.... Nothing stirs the diminutive Bernardi—he's about 5 foot 3, a little over 100 pounds—like his music. See List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1957 and after. By 1957 a contractor in the San Fernando Valley, Bernardi ran for the Los Angeles City Council District 7 seat that year but finished third in the primary election, after James C. Corman, the eventual victor, Kay Bogendorfer; when Corman was elected to Congress, Bernardi was elected. He served eight terms until retiring in 1993. In 1961, District 7 covered Van Nuys, Granada Hills and Sylmar, in 1986 it covered Panorama City, part of Sun Valley and Sylmar. For most of his early terms in office, Bernardi represented a "predominantly white working-class district in the mid-San Fernando Valley."
His backers included many Valley tax opponents who were behind the successful passage of California's Proposition 13 anti-tax measure. In 1986, a 12-vote majority of the City Council moved Bernardi's 7th District to a "largely new" part of the Valley for him, the northeast area, which contained more minorities than his former territory. One "City Hall lobbyist" opined that the measure in some way was a payback for Bernardi's public criticism of his colleagues, yet he was reelected in 1989 by 55% to 45% over Fire Captain Lyle Hall, "who had more money, a more sophisticated mail campaign and labor unions' support that translated into scores of ready volunteers." Bernardi picked up support from Latino leaders in his new district. By the time Bernardi retired in 1993, the 7th District was 70 percent Latino and 19 percent African-American, encompassing one of Los Angeles's poorest areas. Registered voters were 30 percent Latino and 19 percent African-American, his tenure of 32 years has been surpassed only by the 35 years of Council Member John Ferraro.
Bernardi was nicknamed "Mr. No" because of his opposition to city spending, he was known as the City Council's "gadfly" because of his "pesky pursuit of lost causes," but in 1985 he was successful in forcing the City Council to put a tough campaign-reform law on the April ballot after he circulated petitions that would have required a vote on an tougher law, he did this by "enlisting the s
California State University, Los Angeles
California State University, Los Angeles is a public university in Los Angeles, California. It is part of the California State University system. Cal State LA offers 129 bachelor's degrees, 112 master's degrees, three doctoral degrees: a Ph. D. in special education, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Nursing Practice. It offers 22 teaching credentials. Cal State LA is a Hispanic-serving institution. Cal State LA has a student body of more than 24,000 students from the greater Los Angeles area, as well as 240,000 alumni. Cal State LA operates on the semester system with two semesters, each 15 weeks in duration per year: in the fall of 2016, the university changed to the semester system as part of a system-wide conversion of all quarter campuses. Cal State LA is organized into eight colleges that house a total of four schools and 50 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs offering a variety of majors. Cal State LA is home to the critically acclaimed Luckman Jazz-Orchestra and a unique Early Entrance Program in the Honors College for gifted students as young as 11.
The 175-acre hilltop campus core is home to the nation's first Charter College of Education, a NASA-funded SPACE program, Rockefeller-supported humanities center, a National Science Foundation funded environmental research center and other award-winning engineering programs. U. S. News has ranked Cal State LA's undergraduate business program as one of the best in the nation; the School of Nursing is considered to be one of the best in the state of California. The Charter College of Education has awarded more teaching credentials in the state of California than any other public institution, includes an innovative baccalaureate degree program in Urban Learning designed to train teachers for the specific demands of urban schools; the university has the nation's largest early/pre-teen collegiate program, one of the few and the longest-operating graduate Criminal Justice and Criminalistics program west of the Mississippi River. The Television and Media Studies program is one of the foremost film schools in the CSU system, coordinating film and TV production experiences with the neighboring Hollywood film industry by the Cal State LA Studios.
It is home to two high schools the Marc and Eva Stern Math and Science School and the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts, a prestigious arts high school, notable for being the only arts high school in Los Angeles that allows for students from any district within Los Angeles County to attend. Classrooms are shared with Cal State LA, however, LACHSA activities tend to be separate from those of the university. Notable LACHSA alumni include singer Josh Groban, actress Jenna Elfman, actor/singer Corbin Bleu, UCLA Athletics senior executive Ron "Country Club" Kobata. Cal State LA opened a new downtown Los Angeles campus in 2016 to provide university programs; the university has signed a lease for 21,000 square feet at South Grand Avenue. The location at the edge of the Financial District is in the midst of a residential development boom, with thousands of apartments under construction or in the pipeline, including a 700-unit apartment building anchored by a Whole Foods supermarket across the street from the Cal State LA site.
Cal State LA will offer undergraduate and graduate programs at the site, as well as professional development and certificate programs. The campus will contain 12 classrooms, two computer labs, student lounges, student collaboration space and events space, administrative and faculty offices; the university is located on the site of one of California's 36 original adobes, built in 1776 by Franciscan missionaries and destroyed by fire in 1908. These lands once were part of a Spanish land grant known as Rancho Rosa Castilla, given to Juan Batista Batz, a Basque rancher from northern Spain who settled here in the 1850s; the inspiration for the name of the rancho, according to local historians, was the wild roses that once grew near the ranch home. The main drive through the campus is known as Paseo Rancho Castilla, in acknowledgment of the university's historic heritage. Cal State LA was founded on July 2, 1947 by an act of the California legislature and opened for classes as "The Los Angeles State College" on the campus of Los Angeles City College.
In 1949, the Los Angeles State College was reconstituted by the Legislature as "The Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences." In 1964, the Board of Trustees of the California State Colleges changed the name of the college to the "California State College at Los Angeles," and in 1968 to "California State College, Los Angeles," when it became part of the California State College system. In 1972, CSCLA was awarded university status and was renamed California State University, Los Angeles. From 1947 to 1955, the college shared the campus of the Los Angeles City College but the shared-campus experiment proved to be unwieldy and the college moved to its present campus of 175 acres in the northeastern section of the City of Los Angeles, 5 miles east of the Civic Center. In 1952 the state proposed a new satellite campus for Cal State LA, at the time known as Los Angeles State College, in July 1958, the campus separated from Cal State LA and was renamed San Fernando Valley State College.
Since 1954, Cal State LA has been accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. The university's credential programs are approved by the Commission for Teacher Credentialing Committee on Accreditation. In 1968 Cal State LA established the nation's first Chicano Studies department. In 1993, the CSU Chancellor and Trustees approved development of Cal State LA's Charter
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Pat Ward Williams
Pat Ward Williams is an African-American photographer whose work engages with the complexities of race and history. In addition to her smaller-scale photographs and installations, she has designed three public artworks in Los Angeles. Williams holds a BFA from Moore College of Art and Design and an MFA from the Maryland Institute College of Art. One of Williams’ best known works is Accused/Blowtorch/Padlock, which consists of an image of a black man tied to a tree surrounded by text expressing the artist’s reaction to this image. Williams has explained her intent in the work and how that relates to the title of the piece: “I force the viewer to look at what is going on by dissecting the important body of information and by directing with text what the viewer should notice: the tied hands, the scarred back, the lock and tree.” Art historian Dora Apel has argued that in including the text of her own response to the image, Williams “attempts to define for the viewer the relationship between violence and public representation.”Accused/Blowtorch/Padlock has been included in exhibitions such as The Decade Show, a large-scale collaborative exhibition by the New Museum, Studio Museum in Harlem, The Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art as well as in Art, California 1950-2000: Parallels and Intersections at the San Jose Museum of Art.
Williams was part of the Photo-Active Feminist Visiting Artists 1998-99 Series, sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts and The University of Michigan School of Art and Design and Women's Studies Program. The group of artists, which included Paula Allen, Barbara Kruger, Susan Meiselas, Connie Samaras, Kathy Constantinides, Wendy Ewald, Marilyn Zimmerman, were chosen for their engagement with social and political issues in their work and traveled to the University of Michigan to present their work to students and the community. In 1992, Williams published the exhibition catalog Probable Cause, which contained a series of photographs shown at the Goldie Paley Gallery at Moore College of Art and Design. Williams has created three public artworks in Los Angeles. In 1995, she designed The Emperor of the Great 9th District, a memorial to Gilbert Lindsay installed at the Los Angeles Convention Center; the monument consists of three 10-foot high, triple-sided concrete pillars featuring a portrait of Lindsay at his desk.
When viewers move closer, they see that the large image of Lindsay is made up of 104 smaller tiles that contain additional images of Lindsay with his family and other public figures, including Martin Luther King, Jr. Williams' 2001 work Starbursts decorates the Highland Center. Inspired by the finale dance scene of Busby Berkeley’s 1934 film Dames, Williams created circular images that mimic the camera angles in the film; the photo-etched images are on black granite and can be seen on the upper and lower entrance plaza floors of the Dolby Theatre. In 2003, Williams created the public artwork Everyday People for the Lake metro station in Los Angeles; the work consists of large photographs of local people mounted on colored glass panels. Williams has taught photography at UC Irvine and as a visiting professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and Technikon Witwatersrand, in Johannesburg, South Africa, she teaches at Florida State University, where she has worked since 2000. Williams' daughter, Janaya Williams, is a radio producer at National Public Radio in Washington, DC