Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert and the composer Arthur Sullivan and to the works they jointly created; the two men collaborated on fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896, of which H. M. S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado are among the best known. Gilbert, who wrote the libretti for these operas, created fanciful "topsy-turvy" worlds where each absurdity is taken to its logical conclusion—fairies rub elbows with British lords, flirting is a capital offence, gondoliers ascend to the monarchy, pirates emerge as noblemen who have gone astray. Sullivan, six years Gilbert's junior, composed the music, contributing memorable melodies that could convey both humour and pathos, their operas have enjoyed broad and enduring international success and are still performed throughout the English-speaking world. Gilbert and Sullivan introduced innovations in content and form that directly influenced the development of musical theatre through the 20th century.
The operas have influenced political discourse, literature and television and have been parodied and pastiched by humorists. Producer Richard D'Oyly Carte brought Gilbert and Sullivan together and nurtured their collaboration, he built the Savoy Theatre in 1881 to present their joint works and founded the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, which performed and promoted Gilbert and Sullivan's works for over a century. Gilbert was born in London on 18 November 1836, his father, was a naval surgeon who wrote novels and short stories, some of which included illustrations by his son. In 1861, to supplement his income, the younger Gilbert began writing illustrated stories and articles of his own, many of which would be mined as inspiration for his plays and operas Gilbert's series of illustrated poems, the Bab Ballads. In the Bab Ballads and his early plays, Gilbert developed a unique "topsy-turvy" style in which humour was derived by setting up a ridiculous premise and working out its logical consequences, however absurd.
Director and playwright Mike Leigh described the "Gilbertian" style as follows: With great fluidity and freedom, continually challenges our natural expectations. First, within the framework of the story, he makes bizarre things happen, turns the world on its head, thus the Learned Judge marries the Plaintiff, the soldiers metamorphose into aesthetes, so on, nearly every opera is resolved by a deft moving of the goalposts... His genius is to fuse opposites with an imperceptible sleight of hand, to blend the surreal with the real, the caricature with the natural. In other words, to tell a outrageous story in a deadpan way. Gilbert developed his innovative theories on the art of stage direction, following theatrical reformer Tom Robertson. At the time Gilbert began writing, theatre in Britain was in disrepute. Gilbert helped to reform and elevate the respectability of the theatre beginning with his six short family-friendly comic operas, or "entertainments", for Thomas German Reed. At a rehearsal for one of these entertainments, Ages Ago, in 1870, the composer Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to his friend, the young composer Arthur Sullivan.
Over the next year, before the two first collaborated, Gilbert continued to write humorous verse and plays, including the comic operas Our Island Home and A Sensation Novel, the blank verse comedies The Princess, The Palace of Truth and Pygmalion and Galatea. Sullivan was born in London on 13 May 1842, his father was a military bandmaster, by the time Arthur had reached the age of eight, he was proficient with all the instruments in the band. In school he began to compose songs. In 1856, he received the first Mendelssohn Scholarship and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and at Leipzig, where he took up conducting, his graduation piece, completed in 1861, was a suite of incidental music to Shakespeare's The Tempest. Revised and expanded, it was an immediate sensation, he began building a reputation as England's most promising young composer, composing a symphony, a concerto, several overtures, among them the Overture di Ballo, in 1870. His early major works for the voice included The Masque at Kenilworth.
He composed a ballet, L'Île incidental music for a number of Shakespeare plays. Other early pieces that were praised were his Symphony in E, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Overture in C; these commissions, were not sufficient to keep Sullivan afloat. He worked as a church organist and composed numerous hymns, popular songs, parlour ballads. Sullivan's first foray into comic opera was Cox and Box, written with librettist F. C. Burnand for an informal gathering of friends. Public performance followed, with W. S. Gilbert saying that Sullivan's score "is, in many places, of too high a class for the grotesquely absurd plot to which it is wedded." Nonetheless, it proved successful, is still performed today. Sullivan and Burnand's second opera, The Contrabandista was not as successful. In 1871, producer John Hollingshead brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to produce a Christmas entertainment, Thespis, at his Gaiety Theatre, a large West End house; the piece was an extravaganza in which the classical Greek gods, grown elderly, are temporarily replaced by a troupe of 19th-century actors and actresses, one of whom is the eponymous
Francesca Llopis is a visual artist from Barcelona. She began exhibiting in 1981, her works are based and focused on her travels and on nature working on painting and video installations and collaborating with other artists such as Barbara Held and Robert Waytt. "Painting and image in movement are the basis and the main instrumental from which arises the system where I start any proposal". She has participated in some exhibitions in Spain, Switzerland, the United States, Germany, China, Argentina, Brazil and Japan, her trajectory and pictorial work begins with the architecture and the influences of the Neo-expressionism movement of the 80s, which serve her to represent the urban culture. She is interested in the city for its urban planning, the city seen from above, and, why she uses the labyrinth as a metaphor for defining the city, her influences come from the abstract expressionism of the American painting and from artists such as Louise Bourgeois, Judy Chicago, Meret Oppenheim, Nancy Spero and Eva Hesse.
Her latest works, of a more poetic and political nature, are made to be the viewer who completes them. In 1976 Francesca Llopis enrolles at escola EINA where she meets Dani Freixes, América Sánchez, Albert Ràfols-Casamada, Maria Girona and Manel Esclusa, among others. Between 1979 and 1981 she shares an interior design studio with Josep Maria Civit and Ton Auquer and obtains an artistic residence grant at the Teater Studio in the Pałac Kultury in Warsaw; the inevitable and foreseeable coup d'etat transforms and creates a new pictorial imaginary to the artist, making her to question the lyrical abstraction of her first stage. From this inflection point, the "trip" will constitute a fundamental part of her process in the artistic work. Between 1983 and 1986, she begins her professional career: Història d'una temptació at MedaMOTHI in Montpellier, Barcelona trasbalsada at Metronome and Els dits gèlids at Maeght gallery, in Barcelona, Tráfico de efectos at Montenegro gallery in Madrid. In 1988, she has an artist's residence at the Accademia di Roma and at the École des Beaux Arts of Nîmes, where Arnau Puig defines her painting as "semantic structuralism" in reference to her obsession with the built space and the meaning of words.
In 2002 she presents her first video installation 2 habitacions amb vistes, a social portrait of Barcelona. In 2004 she develops ETC as a work in progress to discuss the absence of women artists in the history of art. In 2009, a new pictorial stage begins where inks and notebooks are assembled randomly, rising to different artistic artefacts and murals. In 2015, she participates in the Biennial of Noseden, in Japan, with Dealers of memory, which consists of two interventions: the video installation Apunts per un iceberg, in the Kurokawana school and the installation Llibre de llàgrimes in the Myoken temple where she relates the intimate and the public, the original and the Universe. In 2016, in the SakaiArtePorto exhibition in Japan, she makes the installation Traction action from joining humanity to the Universe through an infinity made with pink pigmental footprints from the city's walkers, she makes a residence on performance at Art in Nature in Korea. In 2017, she presents the installation Llum! with neon and glass at Montjuïc Castle in Barcelona, as a reflection of historical memory, the performance us & the state of things in Köln, Barcelona and other places, Big Draw at Picasso Museum in Barcelona with Insecta'm and Enjardina't.
La societat és una flor carnívora, Sala Vinçon and Westwerk Brot de Rauxa, Pla de la Catedral de Barcelona, with collaboration from Barbara Held, Paloma Unzeta, Festival “Dia de la terra” Paranys foscos, installation and Un embolic magnífic, Espai Malaltes d'amor, installation at Kulturforum La via làctia, installation with Begoña Egurbide at Barcelona underground, Valldaura station 2 habitacions amb vistes, video-installation, Centre d'Art Santa Mònica Artista!, Canal 33 Apunts d'un iceberg, video-installation, Creadors en Residencia, Institut Fort Pius 7 murals, permanent work, Mercat de la Boqueria with Carme Pinós Nosaltres & l’estat de les coses, Museu Molí Paperer Cinco chicas, Buades gallery.
The Rochester Epidemiology Project is a unique records-linkage research infrastructure that has existed since 1966, allows for population-based medical research in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The project has been continually funded by the National Institutes of Health since 1966; the REP links together medical diagnosis and procedure information across all medical providers in the county. The project is a collaboration between Olmsted Medical Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester Family Medicine Clinic; the REP was funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences in 1966 under the direction of Dr. Leonard T. Kurland, a neurologist who started his career at the NIH and moved to Olmsted County, Minnesota when he realized the great benefit to medical research that a population-based record linkage system could have. Dr. Kurland considered Olmsted County an optimal location for such a population-based research infrastructure because the county is isolated from other metropolitan centers all medical care is received within the county, all medical specialties are available to county residents.
More the study funding source changed to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, as of July 2010 the REP is funded by the National Institute on Aging. In September 2016, the REP celebrated 50 years of continuous NIH funding; the REP includes the medical records of all persons who have lived in Olmsted County, Minnesota between January 1, 1966 and the present, who have given permission for their medical information to be used for research. Those persons comprise more than 500,000 unique individuals and more than 6 million person years of follow-up through 2010; the Olmsted County population is less racially diverse than the US as a whole. The REP has contributed to the understanding of many diseases, including epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's Disease, heart failure, multiple myeloma, many others. Since its inception, the REP has supported more than 2,600 peer-reviewed scientific publications spanning every field of medicine.
Rochester Epidemiology Project Olmsted County website