Gilded Age

In United States history, the Gilded Age was an era that occurred during the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth in the Northern and Western United States; as American wages grew much higher than those in Europe for skilled workers, the period saw an influx of millions of European immigrants. Rapid industrialization led to a real wage growth of 60% from 1860 and 1890, spread across the burgeoning labor force. Between 1880 and 1890, the average annual wage per industrial worker rose 48%, from $380 to $564; however the Gilded Age was an era of abject poverty and inequality, as millions of immigrants—many from impoverished regions—poured into the United States, the high concentration of wealth became more visible and contentious. Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system and finance increasing in importance. Immigration from Europe and the Eastern states led to the rapid growth of the West, based on farming and mining.

Labor unions became important in the growing industrial cities. Two major nationwide depressions—the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893—interrupted growth and caused social and political upheavals; the South, after the Civil War, remained economically devastated. With the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877, African-Americans in the South were stripped of political power and voting rights, forced into low-wage labor and sharecropping. In politics, despite some corruption, election turnout was high and national elections saw two evenly matched parties; the dominant issues were economic. With the rapid growth of cities, political machines took control of urban politics. In business, powerful nationwide trusts took monopoly control of some industries. Unions crusaded for the eight-hour working day, the abolition of child labor. Local governments across the North and West built public schools chiefly at the elementary level; the numerous religious denominations grew in membership and wealth, with Catholicism becoming the largest.

They all expanded their missionary activity to the world arena. Catholics and Episcopalians set up religious schools, the larger of those set up numerous colleges and charities. Many of the problems faced by society the poor, gave rise to attempted reforms in the subsequent Progressive Era; the "Gilded Age" term came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding. The early half of the Gilded Age coincided with the mid-Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France, its beginning, in the years after the American Civil War, overlaps the Reconstruction Era. It was followed in the 1890s by the Progressive Era; the term Gilded Age for the period of economic boom after the American Civil War up to the turn of the century was applied to the era by historians in the 1920s, who took the term from one of Mark Twain's lesser known novels, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today.

The book satirized the promised "golden age" after the Civil War, portrayed as an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic expansion. In the 1920s and'30s the metaphor "Gilded Age" began to be applied to a designated period in American history; the term was adopted by literary and cultural critics as well as historians, including Van Wyck Brooks, Lewis Mumford, Charles Austin Beard, Mary Ritter Beard, Vernon Louis Parrington, Matthew Josephson. For them, Gilded Age was a pejorative term for a time of materialistic excesses combined with extreme poverty; the early half of the Gilded Age coincided with the middle portion of the Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France. With respect to eras of American history, historical views vary as to when the Gilded Age began, ranging from starting right after the American Civil War, or 1873, or as the Reconstruction Era ended in 1877; the point noted as the end of the Gilded Age varies. It is given as the beginning of the Progressive Era in the 1890s but falls in a range that includes the Spanish–American War in 1898, Theodore Roosevelt's accession to the presidency in 1901, the U.

S. entry into World War I. The Gilded Age was a period of economic growth as the United States jumped to the lead in industrialization ahead of Britain; the nation was expanding its economy into new areas heavy industry like factories and coal mining. In 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad opened up ranching regions. Travel from New York to San Francisco now took six days instead of six months. Railroad track mileage tripled between 1860 and 1880, doubled again by 1920; the new track linked isolated areas with larger markets and allowed for the rise of commercial farming and mining, creating a national marketplace. American steel production rose to surpass the combined totals of Britain and France. Investors in London and Paris poured money into the railroads through the American financial market centered in Wall Street

JetBrains MPS

JetBrains MPS is a Language workbench developed by JetBrains. MPS is a tool to design domain-specific languages, it uses projectional editing which allows users to overcome the limits of language parsers, build DSL editors, such as ones with tables and diagrams. It implements language-oriented programming. MPS is an environment for language definition, a language workbench, integrated development environment for such languages. Developers from different domains can benefit from domain specific language extensions in general purpose programming languages. For example, Java developers working with financial applications might benefit from built-in support of monetary values. Traditional text based languages are subject to text ambiguity problems which makes such extensions problematic. MPS supports composable language definitions; this means that languages can be extended, embedded, these extensions can be used, will work, in the same program in MPS. For example, if Java is extended with a better syntax for collections and again extended with a better syntax for dates, these extensions will work well together.

MPS solves grammar ambiguity issues by working with the abstract syntax tree directly. In order to edit such a tree, a text-like projectional editor is used. MPS provides a reusable language infrastructure, configured with language definition languages. MPS provides many IDE services automatically: editor, code completion, find usages, etc. Base Language - 99% Java reimplemented with MPS. There are a lot of extensions of this language collections language dates language closures language regular expressions language Language definition languages - these language are implemented with themselves, i.e. bootstrapped structure language editor language constraints language type system language generator language mbeddr is an embedded development system based on MPS. It has languages tailored to embedded development and formal methods: Core C language Components Physical units State machines In October 2009, JetBrains released the YouTrack bug tracking system - the first commercial software product developed with MPS.

In April 2010, the Realaxy ActionScript Editor beta was released, the first commercial IDE based on the MPS platform. PEoPL is a tool for software product line engineering realised in MPS; the MPS source code is released under the Apache License. Intentional programming Xtext Official website MPS blog MPS User's Guide

Kosmos 869

Kosmos 869 was an unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test. It was a somewhat successful mission; this was the third and final test flight of a new Soyuz spacecraft type 7K-S. It was designed to be a spaceship for military solo missions. At the time of the launch the program had been discontinued; the completed spaceships were launched as unmanned test flights: Kosmos 670, Kosmos 772 and Kosmos 869. The experience from these flights were used in the development of the successor program Soyuz spacecraft the Soyuz 7K-ST. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S. Mass: 6800 kg. Crew: None. Launched: November 29, 1976. Landed: December 17, 1976 10:31 UTC. Perigee: 209 km. Apogee: 289 km. Inclination: 51.7 deg. Duration: 17.99 days. 196 km X 290 km orbit to 187 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s. 187 km X 335 km orbit to 259 km X 335 km orbit. Delta V: 21 m/s. 259 km X 335 km orbit to 260 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s. 260 km X 345 km orbit to 265 km X 368 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s. 265 km X 368 km orbit to 267 km X 391 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s. 267 km X 391 km orbit to 300 km X 310 km orbit.

Delta V: 32 m/s. Total Delta V: 83 m/s. Soyuz 7K-OK Soyuz TM-25 Cosmos 670 Cosmos 772