Condon is a city in, the county seat of, Gilliam County, in the U. S. state of Oregon. The population was 682 at the 2010 census; the city, with an historic main street along Oregon Route 19, is ranching community. Condon was the southern terminus of the Condon Branch of the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1883, a local homesteader named; the spring, which emerged from a bed of black basalt, was known to pioneer ranchers in the area as Summit Springs. Experiencing financial difficulty, Potter surrendered the site to the legal firm Condon and Cornish from Arlington. Harvey C. Condon, a member of the firm, was a nephew of Oregon geologist Thomas Condon. Condon and Cornish sold lots in the townsite and in 1884, resident David B. Trimble applied for a post office and became its first postmaster, he named the post office Condon after Harvey C. Condon. Condon Air Force Station was a radar station near the city that operated from 1951 to 1970. In 1998, Condon's historic downtown core along Main Street was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Condon Commercial Historic District.
The City of Condon is collaborating with business interests to "spruce up" buildings on Main Street. Most of the businesses on the Historic Main Street have been restored, new businesses have opened, a new library has been built, the City Park has been re-designed and the Chamber of Commerce is growing. Condon, in Gilliam County in north-central Oregon, is at the intersection of Oregon Route 19, running north–south through the city, Oregon Route 206, which runs east–west at Condon. By highway, the city is 38 miles south of Interstate 84 at Arlington, 69 miles southeast of The Dalles, 150 miles east of Portland; the city is 2,831 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.83 square miles, all of it land. Condon has a borderline Mediterranean /Continental Mediterranean climate, characterized by dry summers with cool mornings giving way to warm afternoons, cold though not severe winters. In some cases cold continental air from Canada will be driven into the Columbia Gorge, producing an average of two mornings at or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C each winter.
The coldest month has been January 1930 with 22 afternoons in succession not topping freezing, an average temperature of 12.7 °F or −10.7 °C and an average minimum of 4.9 °F or −15.1 °C. On the other hand, sixteen afternoons during the three-month winter top 50 °F or 10 °C. Most of the limited precipitation falls during this period as a mixture of rain; when maritime air interacts with a cold outbreak substantial snow can occur, with maximum monthly totals of 44.6 inches in December 2008 and 43.1 inches in January 1950. Powerful Pacific Northwest rainstorms – although depleted of most moisture by the Cascades – provide the heaviest precipitation: the wettest month has been December 1981 with 5.02 inches and the wettest "rain year" from July 1947 to June 1948 with 20.77 inches. The driest "rain year" was from July 1938 to June 1939 with only 6.77 inches. Apart from occasional thunderstorms, the summers are dry; when hot winds from the interior reach the Pacific Northwest hot "heatwave" conditions can occur.
During a typical summer, 90 °F or 32.2 °C will be reached on sixteen afternoons, although 100 °F or 37.8 °C is rare, occurring at all only in eight summers between 1981 and 2010 and never more than twice. The hottest afternoon was on July 24, 1928 – during an exception heatwave of seven century afternoons – which reached 111 °F or 43.9 °C. As of the census of 2010, there were 682 people, 357 households, 184 families residing in the city; the population density was 821.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 455 housing units at an average density of 548.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.2% White, 0.1% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 357 households of which 16.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 48.5% were not families.
45.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.85 and the average family size was 2.54. The median age in the city was 54.5 years. 14.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 759 people, 343 households, 215 families residing in the city; the population density was 887.3 people per square mile. There were 413 housing units at an average density of 482.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.50% White, 0.40% African American, 0.79% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.53% of the population. There were 343 households out of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families.
34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average ho
Southern California Edison
Southern California Edison, the largest subsidiary of Edison International, is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California. It provides 14 million people with electricity across a service territory of 50,000 square miles. However, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, San Diego Gas & Electric, Imperial Irrigation District, some smaller municipal utilities serve substantial portions of the southern California territory; the northern part of the state is served by the Pacific Gas & Electric Company of San Francisco. Southern California Edison still owns all of its electrical transmission facilities and equipment, but the deregulation of California's electricity market in the late 1990s forced the company to sell many of its power plants, though some were sold by choice. In California, SCE retained only its hydroelectric plants, totaling about 1,200 MW, its 75% share of the 2,150-MW San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, shut down since January 2012. SCE still owns about half of the 1,580-MW coal-fired Mohave Generating Station in Laughlin, which supplied electricity to California and Arizona.
The utility lost all of its natural gas-fired plants, which provided most of its electrical generation. The large, aging plants were bought by out-of-state companies such as Mirant and Reliant Energy, which used them to manipulate the California energy market. Southern California Edison's power grid is linked to PG&E's by the Path 26 wires that follow Interstate 5 over Tejon Pass; the interconnection takes place at a massive substation at Buttonwillow. PG&E's and WAPA's Path 15 and Path 66 from Buttonwillow north connect to BPA's grid in the Pacific Northwest. There are several other interconnections with local and out-of-state utilities, such as Path 46. In addition, SCE operates a regulated water utility. SCE is the sole commercial provider of natural gas and fresh water service to Santa Catalina Island, including the city of Avalon, California. SCE operates the utilities under the names of Catalina Island Gas Company and Catalina Island Water Company; the origins of the company lie with the grand scheme of magnate Henry E. Huntington and hydraulic engineer John S. Eastwood, developed around 1908, for a vast complex of reservoirs to be constructed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of central California.
Huntington founded Pacific Light and Power, one of the two dozen companies he controlled at the time, to execute what would become one of the largest hydropower systems in the United States, the Big Creek Hydroelectric Project. Pacific Light and Power was one of the predecessor companies to SCE, along with Edison Electric, Mt. Whitney Power & Electric Co. California Electric Power Co. Southern California Power Co. and others. In November, 2014, Southern California Edison announced a partnership with Ice Energy to provide more efficient energy storage by freezing water at night when electricity is cheaper. In 2015, Southern California Edison began laying off American information technology employees and replacing them with H-1B visa immigrants from India; the layoffs were questioned by members of the United States Senate. Southern California Edison agreed to pay a $650,000 settlement for the 2011 blackout with FERC and NERC. On December 16, 2011, a shooting occurred when an employee of Southern California Edison opened fire at an office building in Irwindale.
The employee killed two co-workers and wounded two others before committing suicide. Southern California Edison allows its customer to obtain their electricity from renewable sources by subscribing to a "green rate". In 2006, Southern California Edison planned to secure 1,500 megawatts or more of power generated from new projects to be built in the Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm area; the contract, which more than doubles SCE's wind energy portfolio, envisions more than 50 square miles of wind parks in the Tehachapi region, triple the size of any existing U. S. wind farm. In March 2008, Southern California Edison announced a $875 million project to build a network of 250 megawatts of photovoltaic solar power generation, making it the biggest solar cell project in the nation; the photovoltaic cells will cover 65,000,000 square feet of rooftops in southern California and will generate enough power to serve 162,000 homes. In 2009, Southern California Edison entered into a contract with Solar Millennium to purchase solar thermal power up to 726 MW.
Southern California Edison entered into a contract with Stirling Energy Systems to buy electricity from a 500 megawatt, 4,600 acre, solar power plant, due to open in 2009. The purchase was canceled in late 2010, as changes in technology reduced the cost of photovoltaic-based solar power to below that of solar Stirling generated power; this would have been the first commercial application of the dish stirling system. A different technology from the more familiar solar panel, the dish concentrates solar energy by the use of reflective surfaces and by the use of the Stirling heat engine to convert the heat into electricity. In 2014, Southern California Edison installed more than 600,000 lithium-ion battery cells at a substation in Tehachapi, California in order to test storing power generated from an area that has 5,000 wind turbines. In 2014 SCE had a renewables mix of 23%. By 2016, 28.2% of SCE's power
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
The Scottish people or Scots, are a nation and Celtic ethnic group native to Scotland. They emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century; the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland; the Latin word Scoti referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has been used for Scottish people outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as'Scotch', he states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century.
People of Scottish descent live in many countries. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history; the Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France and the Low Countries to Scotland.
Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the highest concentrations of people of Scottish descent in the world outside of Scotland are located in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in Canada and Southland in New Zealand, the Falklands Islands, Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom. In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland saw several ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, the Angles, with the latter settling in the southeast of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts. Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern Scotland in the region between the Firth of Forth to the north and the River Tweed to the south.
They occupied the south-west of Scotland up to and including the Plain of Kyle and their language, Old English, was the earliest form of the language which became known as Scots. Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century, reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the country. King Edgar divided the Kingdom of Northumbria between England. South-east of the Firth of Forth in Lothian and the Borders, a northern variety of Old English known as Early Scots, was spoken; as a result of David I, King of Scots' return from exile in England in 1113 to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of Norman military force, David invited Norman families from France and England to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to him. This Davidian Revolution, as many historians call it, brought a European style of feudalism to Scotland along with an influx of people of Norman descent - by invitation, unlike England where it was by conquest.
To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland can trace ancestry to Normans from this period, such as the Stewarts, the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns and many others. The Northern Isles and some parts of Caithness were Norn-speaking. From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between Galloway and the Highland line, being used by Barbour in his historical epic The Brus in the late 14th century in Aberdeen. From 1500 on, Scotland was divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" and the Inglis-speaking "Lowlanders". Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language. Today, Scotland has a population of just over five million people, the majority of whom co
A wind farm or wind park is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm can be located offshore. Many of the largest operational onshore wind farms are located in China and the United States. For example, the largest wind farm in the world, Gansu Wind Farm in China had a capacity of over 6,000 MW by 2012, with a goal of 20,000 MW by 2020; as of September 2018, the 659 MW Walney Wind Farm in the UK is the largest offshore wind farm in the world. Individual wind turbine designs continue to increase in power, resulting in fewer turbines being needed for the same total output. See list of most powerful wind turbines; the location is critical to the success of a wind farm. Conditions contributing to a successful wind farm location include: wind conditions, access to electric transmission, physical access, local electric prices.
The faster the average windspeed, the more electricity the wind turbine will generate, so faster winds are economically better for wind farm developers. The balancing factor is that strong gusts and high turbulence require stronger more expensive turbines, otherwise they risk damage; the ideal wind conditions would be strong steady winds with low turbulence coming from a single direction. Sites are screened on the basis of a wind atlas, validated with wind measurements. Meteorological wind data alone is not sufficient for accurate siting of a large wind power project. Collection of site specific data for wind speed and direction is crucial to determining site potential in order to finance the project. Local winds are monitored for a year or more, detailed wind maps are constructed before wind generators are installed; the wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag. The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography, surface roughness, upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings.
How to space the turbines together is a major factor in wind farm design. The closer the turbines are together the more the upwind turbines block wind from their neighbors; however spacing turbines far apart increases the costs of roads and cables, raises the amount of land needed to install a specific capacity of turbines. As a result of these factors, turbine spacing varies by site. Speaking manufacturers require 3.5 times the rotor diameter of the turbine between turbines as a minimum. Closer spacing is possible depending on the turbine model, the conditions at the site, how the site will be operated; the world's first wind farm was 0.6 MW, consisting of 20 wind turbines rated at 30 kilowatts each, installed on the shoulder of Crotched Mountain in southern New Hampshire in December 1980. Onshore turbine installations in hilly or mountainous regions tend to be on ridges three kilometres or more inland from the nearest shoreline; this is done to exploit the topographic acceleration. The additional wind speeds gained in this way can increase energy produced because more wind goes through the turbines.
The exact position of each turbine matters, because a difference of 30m could double output. This careful placement is referred to as'micro-siting'. Europe is the leader in offshore wind energy, with the first offshore wind farm being installed in Denmark in 1991; as of 2010, there are 39 offshore wind farms in waters off Belgium, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom, with a combined operating capacity of 2,396 MW. More than 100 GW of offshore projects are under development in Europe; the European Wind Energy Association has set a target of 40 GW installed by 2020 and 150 GW by 2030. As of 2017, The Walney Wind Farm in the United Kingdom is the largest offshore wind farm in the world at 659 MW, followed by the London Array in the UK. Offshore wind turbines are less obtrusive than turbines on land, as their apparent size and noise is mitigated by distance; because water has less surface roughness than land, the average wind speed is considerably higher over open water.
Capacity factors are higher than for onshore locations. The province of Ontario in Canada is pursuing several proposed locations in the Great Lakes, including the suspended Trillium Power Wind 1 20 km from shore and over 400 MW in size. Other Canadian projects include one on the Pacific west coast. In 2010, there were no offshore wind farms in the United States, but projects were under development in wind-rich areas of the East Coast, Great Lakes, Pacific coast. Installation and service / maintenance of off-shore wind farms are a specific challenge for technology and economic operation of a wind farm; as of 2015, there are 20 jackup vessels for lifting components, but few can lift sizes above 5MW. Service vessels have to be operated nearly 24/7 to get sufficient amortisation from the wind turbines. Therefore, special fast service vehicles for installation as well as for maintenance are required. So-called inertial and optical based Ship Stabilization and Motion Control systems are used for that.
Experimental wind farms consisting of a single wind turbine for testing purposes have been bu
A wind turbine, or alternatively referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy. Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of horizontal axis; the smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid. Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. One assessment claimed that, as of 2009, wind had the "lowest relative greenhouse gas emissions, the least water consumption demands and... the most favourable social impacts" compared to photovoltaic, geothermal and gas. The windwheel of Hero of Alexandria marks one of the first recorded instances of wind powering a machine in history.
However, the first known practical wind power plants were built in Sistan, an Eastern province of Persia, from the 7th century. These "Panemone" were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical drive shafts with rectangular blades. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. Wind power first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages; the first historical records of their use in England date to the 11th or 12th centuries and there are reports of German crusaders taking their windmill-making skills to Syria around 1190. By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine delta. Advanced wind turbines were described by Croatian inventor Fausto Veranzio. In his book Machinae Novae he described vertical axis wind turbines with V-shaped blades; the first electricity-generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland.
Some months American inventor Charles F. Brush was able to build the first automatically operated wind turbine after consulting local University professors and colleagues Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and getting the blueprints peer-reviewed for electricity production in Cleveland, Ohio. Although Blyth's turbine was considered uneconomical in the United Kingdom, electricity generation by wind turbines was more cost effective in countries with scattered populations. In Denmark by 1900, there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW; the largest machines were on 24-meter towers with four-bladed 23-meter diameter rotors. By 1908, there were 72 wind-driven electric generators operating in the United States from 5 kW to 25 kW. Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year for water-pumping. By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.
In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, the generators were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931; this was a 100 kW generator on a 30-meter tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 percent, not much different from current wind machines. In the autumn of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont; the Smith–Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1,100 hours before suffering a critical failure. The unit was not repaired, because of a shortage of materials during the war; the first utility grid-connected wind turbine to operate in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1951 in the Orkney Islands. Despite these diverse developments, developments in fossil fuel systems entirely eliminated any wind turbine systems larger than supermicro size. In the early 1970s, anti-nuclear protests in Denmark spurred artisan mechanics to develop microturbines of 22 kW.
Organizing owners into associations and co-operatives lead to the lobbying of the government and utilities and provided incentives for larger turbines throughout the 1980s and later. Local activists in Germany, nascent turbine manufacturers in Spain, large investors in the United States in the early 1990s lobbied for policies that stimulated the industry in those countries. Wind Power Density is a quantitative measure of wind energy available at any location, it is the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, is calculated for different heights above ground. Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of air density. Wind turbines are classified by the wind speed they are designed for, from class I to class III, with A to C referring to the turbulence intensity of the wind. Conservation of mass requires that the amount of air exiting a turbine must be equal. Accordingly, Betz's law gives the maximal achievable extraction of wind power by a wind turbine as 16/27 of the total kinetic energy of the air flowing through the turbine.
The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 16/27 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. If the effective area of the disk is A, the wind velocity v, the maximum theoretical power output P is: P = 16
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c