A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones. It is known as articular ligament, articular larua, fibrous ligament, or true ligament. Other ligaments in the body include the: Peritoneal ligament: a fold of peritoneum or other membranes. Fetal remnant ligament: the remnants of a fetal tubular structure. Periodontal ligament: a group of fibers that attach the cementum of teeth to the surrounding alveolar bone. Ligaments are similar to tendons and fasciae; the differences in them are in the connections that they make: ligaments connect one bone to another bone, tendons connect muscle to bone, fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. These are all found in the skeletal system of the human body. Ligaments cannot be regenerated naturally; the study of ligaments is known as desmology. "Ligament" most refers to a band of dense regular connective tissue bundles made of collagenous fibers, with bundles protected by dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form joints.
Some ligaments prevent certain movements altogether. Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule, they act as mechanical reinforcements. Extra-capsular ligaments join together in harmony with the other ligaments and provide joint stability. Intra-capsular ligaments, which are much less common provide stability but permit a far larger range of motion. Cruciate ligaments are paired ligaments in the form of a cross. Ligaments are viscoelastic, they strain when under tension and return to their original shape when the tension is removed. However, they cannot retain their original shape when extended past a certain point or for a prolonged period of time; this is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations. Athletes, gymnasts and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints more supple; the term hypermobility refers to people with more-elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further.
The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery, but, if surgery is needed to stabilise the joint, the broken ligament can be repaired. Scar tissue may prevent this. If it is not possible to fix the broken ligament, other procedures such as the Brunelli procedure can correct the instability. Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and to osteoarthritis. One of the most torn ligaments in the body is the anterior cruciate ligament; the ACL is one of the ligaments crucial to knee stability and persons who tear their ACL seek to undergo reconstructive surgery, which can be done through a variety of techniques and materials. One of these techniques is the replacement of the ligament with an artificial material. An artificial ligament is a reinforcing material, used to replace a torn ligament, such as the ACL. Artificial ligaments are a synthetic material composed of a polymer, such as polyacrylonitrile fiber, polypropylene, PET, or polyNaSS poly.
Certain folds of peritoneum are referred to as ligaments. Examples include: The hepatoduodenal ligament, that surrounds the hepatic portal vein and other vessels as they travel from the duodenum to the liver; the broad ligament of the uterus a fold of peritoneum. Certain tubular structures from the fetal period are referred to as ligaments after they close up and turn into cord-like structures: Broström procedure
Barnsbury is an area of north London in the London Borough of Islington, in the N1 postal district. The name is a corruption of Bernersbury, being so called after the Berners family: powerful medieval manorial lords who gained ownership of a large part of Islington after the Norman Conquest; the area of Barnsbury was predominantly rural until the early nineteenth century. By the end of the 18th century, Barnsbury, like other parts of Islington, was being regarded as attractive part-rural suburbs by the comparatively wealthy people wanting to move out of the cramped City of London and industrial Clerkenwell; the area is close to the City, had strong local trade in its position as the first staging post for travellers making the journey from London to the north, with considerable agricultural traffic and cattle driving to the nearby Smithfield cattle market in the City. Pentonville Prison is located within Barnsbury. Michael Faraday — chemist Gillian Anderson — actress and writer Caledonian Road & Barnsbury railway station Angel tube station Caledonian Road tube station Highbury and Islington station
Strictly Come Dancing
Come Dancing is a British television dance contest in which celebrities partner with professional dancers to compete in ballroom and Latin dance. Each couple is scored out of 10 by a panel of judges; the format has been exported to over 40 other countries, licensed by BBC Worldwide, has inspired a modern dance-themed spin-off Strictly Dance Fever. The Guinness Book of Records has named Strictly to be the world’s most successful reality TV format; the show is presented by Tess Daly and Claudia Winkleman. The show has run on BBC One since 15 May 2004 on Saturday evenings with a following Sunday night results show and with its high viewing figures Strictly Come Dancing has become a significant programme in British popular culture; the sixteenth series ended on 15 December 2018. A further eleven stand-alone Christmas specials have been produced, in consecutive years from 2004 onwards. Nine charity specials have been produced since 2008. Since the fourth series, the show has been aired in high definition on BBC HD, BBC One HD from series 8.
On 7 November 2013, it was announced that Sir Bruce Forsyth would be retiring from presenting the main series. While intending to return as host for each Children in Need and Christmas special, he only did so for the Christmas special in 2014 and the Children in Need special in 2015, he sent a video message for the 2015 Christmas special. Forsyth died on 18 August 2017. Producer Richard Hopkins, who had produced the first UK series of Big Brother, unsuccessfully pitched the idea of a modern Come Dancing to the BBC under the title of Pro-Celebrity Dancing in 2003. Entertainment executive Fenia Vardanis suggested reviving Come Dancing, so Jane Lush, the head of BBC Entertainment, put Hopkins and Vardanis together to develop the show. Hopkins called in Karen Smith, who had just produced Comic Relief Does Fame Academy for BBC One and The Games for Channel 4, to help lead the development of the show and launch the series. Smith was the show running Executive Producer of the first three series, of sister show It Takes Two.
She took the role of Creative Director of BBC Entertainment whilst still overseeing series 4 and 5. Hopkins took the format to America himself when the BBC dismissed the idea of selling it abroad, as they felt it was too British. From series 1 to 11, Sir Bruce Forsyth and Tess Daly presented the pro-celebrity ballroom dancing competition. From series 8 to 11, Forsyth only presented the main show and was replaced for the results show by Claudia Winkleman, at which point Daly assumed Forsyth's role as main presenter and Winkleman assumed Daly's role as co-presenter. Winkleman has joined Daly as full-time co-presenter for series 12 following Forsyth's departure after the 2013 series. Through telephone voting, viewers vote for who they would like to be in the next round, the results of the poll being combined with the ranking of the judges. For example, with ten contestants left, the judges' favourite would receive ten points, second favourite nine points, so on, with the viewers' rankings; the bottom ranked.
The profits from the telephone lines were donated to Sport Relief in series 1, to Children in Need from series 2 to 5. The show is broadcast live on BBC One on Saturday evenings, is presented by Tess Daly and Claudia Winkleman. Sir Bruce Forsyth presented the live shows alongside Daly from 2004 to 2013, announcing his departure in 2014, he was to continue to present special editions of the show. For some of the second series, Natasha Kaplinsky stood in temporarily for Daly while she took maternity leave; the judging panel consisted of Bruno Tonioli, Arlene Phillips, Len Goodman and Craig Revel Horwood. Alesha Dixon took Phillips' place from series 7 to 9, after which she left the programme to judge Britain's Got Talent which led retired ballerina Dame Darcey Bussell to replace her. Tonioli commutes weekly between Hollywood and London to judge both the American and British versions of the show simultaneously; each judge gives the performance a mark out of ten. The voice-over announcer is Alan Dedicoat.
During series four, an hour-long highlights show was shown on Sundays at 19:00 on BBC Two, during series five and six, the results show moved to Sunday evenings, although it was filmed on Saturday and broadcast "as live" on the Sunday. The singers on the show are Tommy Blaize, Hayley Sanderson, Lance Ellington, Andrea Grant and the well known UK dance music vocalist Tara McDonald; the music director is David Arch. Tommy Blaize has been part of Strictly since its beginning. David Arch joined in Hayley Sanderson in the fifth; the show was broadcast from a specially constructed set at BBC Television Centre until its closure in 2013, with the show moving to Elstree Studios' George Lucas Stage 2 from 2013 onwards. However, in the first two series, shows were filmed at the Tower Ballroom in Blackpool, where the original Come Dancing series was filmed in the 1970s. In the second series, two shows were filmed at the Tower Ballroom, show five and the Grand Final, broadcast live on 11 December 2004. In 2005 though the BBC announced that they would not be returning to the venue for the third series due to "logistical problems".
In October 2008, Craig Revel Horwood called for the series to return to the Tower Ballroom, saying, "the atmos
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
The Bill is a British police procedural television series, first broadcast on ITV from 16 October 1984 until 31 August 2010. The programme originated from a one-off drama, broadcast in August 1983. In its final year on air, The Bill was broadcast once a week on Tuesdays or Thursdays, in a one-hour format; the programme focused on the lives and work of one shift of police officers, rather than on any particular aspect of police work. The Bill was the longest-running police procedural television series in the United Kingdom, among the longest running of any British television series at the time of its cancellation; the title originates from "Old Bill", a slang term for the police. Although acclaimed by fans and critics, the series attracted controversy on several occasions. An episode broadcast in 2008 was criticised for featuring fictional treatment for multiple sclerosis; the series has faced more general criticism concerning its levels of violence prior to 2009, when it occupied a pre-watershed slot.
The Bill won several awards, including BAFTAs, a Writers' Guild of Great Britain award and Best Drama at the Inside Soap Awards in 2009, this being the series' fourth consecutive win. Throughout its 27-year run, the programme was always broadcast on the main ITV network. In years, episodes of the show were repeated on ITV3 on their week of broadcast; the series has been repeated on other digital stations, including Gold, Watch and Drama. In March 2010, executives at ITV announced that the network did not intend to recommission The Bill, that filming on the series would cease on 14 June 2010; the last episode aired on 31 August 2010. The Bill was conceived by Geoff McQueen in 1983 a new television writer, as a one-off drama. McQueen had titled the production Old Bill, it was picked up by Michael Chapman for ITV franchise holder Thames Television, who retitled it Woodentop as part of Thames's "Storyboard" series of one-off dramas and was broadcast on ITV under the title Woodentop on 16 August 1983.
Woodentop starred Mark Wingett as PC Jim Carver and Trudie Goodwin as WPC June Ackland of London's Metropolitan Police, both attached to the fictional Sun Hill police station. Although only intended as a one-off, Woodentop impressed ITV to the extent that a full series was commissioned, first broadcast on 16 October 1984 with one post-watershed episode per week, featuring an hour-long, separate storyline for each episode of the first three series; the first episode of the full series was "Funny Ol' Business – Cops & Robbers". With serialisation, the name of the show changed from Woodentop to The Bill. In its first four years the series was broadcast between July onwards each year, with a 12-week summer break from May until the next July. With a full ensemble cast to explore new characters not featured or just mentioned in Woodentop, the focus of the storylines soon shifted away from new recruit Carver and towards Detective Inspector Roy Galloway and Sergeant Bob Cryer; the series changed to two episodes, each of 30 minutes on Tuesdays and Thursdays, per week in 1988, increasing to three a week beginning in 1993, with the third episode being broadcast on Fridays.
In 1998, The Bill returned to hour-long episodes, which became twice-weekly, with the Friday episode being dropped, at which point the series adopted a much more serialised approach. When Paul Marquess took over as executive producer in 2002, as part of a drive for ratings, the series was revamped, bringing in a more soap opera type feel to many of its stories. Many veteran characters were written out, leading to the Sun Hill fire during 2002. Marquess stated that the clearout was necessary to introduce "plausible, powerful new characters"; as part of the new serial format, much more of the characters' personal lives were explored, however, as Marquess put it, the viewers still "don't go home with them". The change allowed The Bill to become more reflective of modern policing with the introduction of officers from ethnic minorities, most notably the new superintendent, Adam Okaro, it allowed coverage of the relationship of homosexual Sergeant Craig Gilmore and PC Luke Ashton, a storyline which Marquess was determined to explore before rival Merseybeat.
In 2005, Johnathan Young took over as executive producer. The serial format was dropped and The Bill returned to stand-alone episodes with more focus on crime and policing than on the personal lives of the officers. 2007 saw the reintroduction of episode titles, dropped in 2002. In 2009, The Bill moved back to the 9pm slot it held and the theme tune, "Overkill", was replaced as part of a major overhaul of the series. On 26 March 2010, ITV announced it would be cancelling the series that year after 26 years on air. ITV said; the last episode of The Bill was filmed in June 2010 and broadcast on 31 August 2010 followed by a documentary titled Farewell The Bill. Fans of the show started a'Save the Bill' campaign on social networking website Facebook in an effort to persuade ITV to reconsider the cancellation, some radio broadcasters, including BBC Radio 1's Chris Moyles, presented special features on the programme's cancellation. At the time of the series' end in August 2010, The Bill was the United Kingdom's longest-running police drama and was among the longest-running of any British television series.
The series finale, entitled "Respect", was aired in two parts and was dedicated to "the men and women of the Metropolitan Police Service past and present". The finale storyline concerned gang member Jasmine Harris being involved in the murder of fellow member Liam
The Long Good Friday
The Long Good Friday is a British gangster film starring Bob Hoskins and Helen Mirren. It was completed in 1979, but because of release delays, it is credited as a 1980 film; the storyline weaves together events and concerns of the late 1970s, including mid-level political and police corruption, IRA fund-raising, displacement of traditional British industry by property development, UK membership of the EEC, the free-market economy. It was voted at number 21 in the British Film Institute's list of the "BFI Top 100 British films" list, provided Bob Hoskins with his breakthrough film role. In 2016, British film magazine Empire ranked The Long Good Friday number 19 in their list of "The 100 best British films". A man named Colin delivers money to an unknown destination in Belfast, taking some of the cash in the process; the recipients realize that money is missing but are attacked. Soon afterwards, the delivery driver is kidnapped and killed at the same time as Colin is murdered whilst swimming. Harold Shand, a London gangster, is aspiring to become a legitimate businessman and is trying to form a partnership with the American Mafia, with a plan to redevelop London Docklands.
Shand's world is destabilized by a series of unexplained murders and bomb attacks. He and his henchmen try to uncover his attackers' identities whilst trying not to worry their visitors, fearing the Americans will abandon him if they think he's not in full control. Harold's girlfriend, tells the Mafia representatives Shand is under attack from an unknown enemy, but assures them Shand is working to resolve the crisis, she starts to suspect Harold's right hand man, knows more about, behind the attacks than he claims. After some investigation, Harold confronts Jeff who confesses he sent Harold's friend Colin to Belfast to deliver money raised by Irish Navvies to the IRA, he explains that three of the IRA's top men were killed on the same night after discovering some of the money had been stolen. Harold realizes the IRA have come to the conclusion that he sold them out to the security forces and pocketed the missing cash for himself. Vowing to destroy the terrorist organisation in London, Harold loses his temper and kills Jeff in a frenzy.
Harold sets up a meeting with the IRA's London leadership. He ostensibly offers them £60,000 in return for a ceasefire but double crosses them and has them shot as they are counting the cash. Believing his enemies are dead, Harold travels to the Savoy Hotel to triumphantly inform his Mafia partners only to find the Americans preparing to leave, having been spooked by the carnage. In response to their derisory comments about the UK, Harold berates them for their arrogance and dismisses them as cowards. Leaving the hotel, Shand steps into his chauffeur-driven car only to find it has been commandeered by IRA assassins; as the car speeds to an unknown destination, Shand contemplates the inevitability of his fate. The film was directed by John Mackenzie and produced for £ 930,000 by Barry Hanson from a script by Barrie Keeffe, with a soundtrack by the composer Francis Monkman. Under the title "The Paddy Factor", the original story had been written by Keeffe for Hanson when the latter worked for Euston Films, a subsidiary of Thames Television.
Euston did not make the film, but Hanson bought the rights from Euston for his own company Calendar Films. Although Hanson designed the film for the cinema and all contracts were negotiated under a film, not a TV agreement, the production was financed by Black Lion, a subsidiary of Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment for transmission via Grade's ATV on the ITV Network; the film was commissioned by Charles Denton, at the time both Programme Controller of ATV and Managing Director of Black Lion. After Grade saw the finished film, he objected to what he saw as the glorification of the IRA; the film was scheduled to be televised with heavy cuts on 24 March 1981. Because of the planned cuts, in late 1980, Hanson attempted to buy the film back from ITC to prevent ITV screening the film; the cuts, he said, would be "execrable" and added up to "about 75 minutes of film, literal nonsense". It was reported at the same time that Bob Hoskins was suing both Black Lion and Calendar Films to prevent their planned release of a US TV version in which Hoskins' voice would be dubbed by English Midlands actor David Daker.
Before the planned ITV transmission the rights to the film were bought from ITC by George Harrison's company, Handmade Films, for around £ 200,000 less than the production costs. They gave the film a cinema release. Barrie Keeffe wrote a sequel, Black Easter Monday, set twenty years after the events of the first film, it opened with Bob Hoskins's character escaping from the IRA after the car was pulled over by police. Hoskins would retire to Jamaica return to stop the East End being taken over by the Yardies. However, the film was never made; the Long Good Friday on IMDb The Long Good Friday at Rotten Tomatoes The Long Good Friday at AllMovie The Long Good Friday at the BFI's Screenonline The Long Good Friday an essay by Michael Sragow at the Criterion Collection
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment