Ammi B. Young
Ammi Burnham Young was a 19th-century American architect whose commissions transitioned from the Greek Revival to the Neo-Renaissance styles. His design of the second Vermont State House brought him fame and success, which led him to become the first Supervising Architect of the U. S. Treasury Department; as federal architect, he was responsible for creating across the United States numerous custom houses, post offices and hospitals, many of which are today on the National Register. His traditional architectural forms lent a sense of grandeur and permanence to the new country's institutions and communities. Young pioneered the use of iron in construction. Born in Lebanon, New Hampshire, Ammi B. Young was the son of Rebecca Burnham and Samuel Young, a builder-designer of churches and academy buildings in the Lebanon area, he showed a talent for mathematics and drawing, at the age of 14, began work in his father's trade. In 1823, Young married Mary Hough of Lebanon. Like many aspiring builder-designers of the day, he learned the classical orders from pattern books by New England architect Asher Benjamin.
Indeed, his design for the Federal style First Congregational Church, built in Lebanon in 1828, borrows from Plate K of The American Builder's Companion. Early commissions included dormitories at nearby Dartmouth College, where his brother, Ira Young, was Professor of Natural Philosophy, but the novice architect learned from working in the Boston office of Alexander Parris, whose characteristic work in granite influenced Young's subsequent governmental commissions. In 1830, Young opened his own office in Burlington, Vermont, a trade center growing fast since the 1823 opening of the Champlain Canal which connected Lake Champlain with the Hudson River and New York City. Here he designed the 1832 St. Paul's Church in the Gothic Revival style, his first monumental work was the Second Vermont State House, a cruciform Greek Revival structure built between 1833 and 1838, which combined a Doric portico modeled on the Temple of Theseus in Athens, with a low saucer dome inspired by the Pantheon in Rome.
The building's granite blocks were hauled to Montpelier on the frozen Winooski River from quarries at Barre. But a fire in 1857 destroyed much of the building, except for some of the walls. With considerable respect for Young's original design, the Vermont State House was rebuilt, although now with wings extended by a bay, a cupola crowning the roof – the plan of Thomas Silloway, trained in Young's office from 1847 until 1851; the result was considered by architect Stanford White the finest example of the Greek Revival style in the country. Entering the 1837 competition to design the Boston Custom House, Young submitted another cruciform scheme combining a Greek Doric portico with a Roman dome. Planned on a large scale at what was the waterfront, the building reflected the strength and confidence of the young, growing nation, it won. Young was appointed supervisor of construction, which took from 1837 until 1847. In 1838, he established a Boston drafting room; the building's 32 columns were each carved from a single piece from Quincy granite.
They measured 5 foot 4 inches in diameter, stood 32 feet high, weighed 42 tons. Purists decried the Roman dome on a Greek form. Far less sympathetic to the building's Greek form, would be the soaring Custom House Tower which replaced the dome from 1913 to 1915. Boston's first skyscraper, it was designed by Peabody & Stearns to add both office space and presence to a building obscured by others. Young entered the 1850 competition to design enlargements to the U. S. Capitol in Washington. Although considered a leading competitor, he lost to Thomas U. Walter; as a sort of compensation, he was appointed in 1852 as the first Supervising Architect of the U. S. Treasury Department, a position created by Thomas Corwin, Secretary of the Treasury during the Fillmore administration. From a studio in the Treasury, Young produced designs and specifications for federal buildings ordered by the government to facilitate its various functions throughout the nation. Mandated to be fire-proof, the custom houses, post offices and hospitals he built featured masonry foundations and vaulting, with cast iron interior structural and decorative elements, including columns and railings.
Heavy iron shutters were mounted on the inside of windows. Floors and treads were marble, roofs were galvanized metal. Column capitols and pediments on the exterior, when not stone, were cast iron painted to look like stone—which drew criticism of parsimony by the federal architect. Cast iron components were manufactured to Young's specifications in New York state shipped to building sites. At the same time, ongoing modifications to the Treasury Building concerned Young, expected to create working drawings based on plans by Walter. For the South Wing, he invented a column capital which symbolized the department, substituting acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order with eagles and a fist holding a key. Young held the role until he retired on July 24, 1862, dismissed by Salmon P. Chase of the Lincoln administration. Chase's friend from Cincinnati, Isaiah Rogers, succeeded him as Supervising Architect, although the Civil War curtailed the department's activities. Several of Young's buildings would play a part in the rebellion his custom house in Richmond, which served as the Confederate Treasury.
When Richmond in April 1865 was evacuated by the Army of Northern Virginia, with orders to burn warehouses and factories, the Richmond Custom House survived the conflagration—a testament to its fire-proofing. Indeed, from its
Gilmanton Academy is a historic school building on Province Road in Gilmanton, New Hampshire. Built in 1894, it is a well-preserved example of a 19th-century academy building, was one of the last to be built in the state; the building, now housing town offices and the local historical society, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. The former Gilmanton Academy building occupies a prominent location in the village center of Gilmanton, at the back of a semicircular drive between the Congregational church and the public library, it is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, its main section covered by a hip roof and wooden clapboards. A projecting gabled section to the front, a hip-roofed section to the rear, combine to give the building a cruciform shape; the inner corners on either side of the front projection are filled by single-bay two-story blocks with a lower profile. The front gable facade has fluted corner pilasters, which rise to an entablature and pedimented gable.
The entrance is recessed in the center bay, articulated by pilasters, with the recess topped by an entablature and broken gable pediment. The building was erected in 1894, was the third main building for the Academy, founded in 1794 as a private school, it is one of the last private academy buildings to be built in the state, which had ten years earlier required towns to fund secondary education, leading to a decline in enrollments at such private schools. The building was designed by Bodwell & Sargent of Concord, one of whose principals was a Gilmanton native; the school closed in 1910, the building was leased to the town for use as a school in 1916. It served first as the town's public high school, as an elementary school, until 1966, it is now owned by the town, houses the town clerk's office. National Register of Historic Places listings in Belknap County, New Hampshire
Grace Metalious was an American author known for her controversial novel Peyton Place, one of the best-selling works in publishing history. Marie Grace DeRepentigny was born into poverty and a broken home in the mill town of Manchester, New Hampshire. Writing from an early age, at Manchester Central High School, she acted in school plays. After graduation she married George Metalious in a Catholic church in Manchester in 1943, thus becoming a housewife and mother; the couple lived in near squalor but she continued to write. With one child, the couple moved to Durham, New Hampshire, where George attended the University of New Hampshire. In Durham, Grace Metalious began writing seriously; when George graduated, he took a position as principal at a school in New Hampshire. In the fall of 1954, at the age of 30, she began work on a manuscript about the dark secrets of a small New England town; the novel had the Blossom. By the spring of 1955, she had finished a first draft. By her husband's account, both Metaliouses regarded The Tree and the Blossom as an unwieldy title and decided to give the town a name which could be the book's title.
They first considered Potter Place. Realizing their town should have a fictional name, they found Payton, they combined this with Place and changed the "a" to an "e". Thus, Peyton Place was born. Peyton Place. Peyton Place, New Hampshire. Peyton Place, New England. Peyton Place, USA. A composite of all small towns where ugliness rears its head, where the people try to hide all the skeletons in their closets." Other accounts cite her publishers as changing the name. Metalious found an agent, M. Jacques Chambrun, who submitted the draft manuscript to three major publishers. In the summer of 1955 Leona Nevler, a freelance manuscript reader, read it for Lippincott and liked it but knew it was too steamy for a major publisher to accept, she showed it to Kathryn G. Messner and editor in chief of the small firm Julian Messner. Messner acquired the novel and asked Nevler to step in as a freelance editor for final polishing before publication. In the summer of 1956, the Metalious family moved into a new hilltop house, a publicity campaign was launched for the book, published September 24, 1956.
Dismissed by most critics, it remained on The New York Times bestseller list for more than a year and became an international phenomenon. The town of Peyton Place was a combination of several New Hampshire towns: Gilmanton, the town where she lived; the village of Gilmanton Ironworks is where in December 1946, a daughter had murdered her sexually abusive father. The murder was investigated by the Sheriff of Belknap County, Sheriff Homer Crockett, members of the New Hampshire State Police. Hollywood lost no time in cashing in on the book's success—a year after its publication, the sanitized movie Peyton Place was a major box office hit; the movie's premiere was held at the Colonial Theatre in New Hampshire. A prime time television series that began airing the fall after her death was a ratings success as well. Metalious was promoted by her publisher in a photo captioned "Pandora in Blue Jeans". Commenting on her critics, she observed, "If I'm a lousy writer an awful lot of people have lousy taste," and as to the frankness of her work, she stated, "Even Tom Sawyer had a girlfriend, to talk about adults without talking about their sex drives is like talking about a window without glass."
Her other novels never achieved the same success as her first. Return to Peyton Place was followed by The Tight White No Adam in Eden. Suffering from cirrhosis of the liver from years of heavy drinking, Metalious died on February 25, 1964, age 39. "If I had to do it over again," she once remarked, "it would be easier to be poor. Before I was successful, I was as happy as anyone gets." She is buried in Smith Meeting House Cemetery in Gilmanton. Hours before her death she was convinced by her final lover, John Rees, to sign a will leaving her entire estate to him, with the understanding that he would take care of her children, her family was able to invalidate the will, but to little result as her estate proved to be insolvent from years of lavish living, overgenerosity towards "friends", embezzlement by an agent. At the time of her death she had bank accounts totalling $41,174 and debts of more than $200,000. After her death, Peyton Place resurfaced as the setting for eight novels by Don Tracy, writing as Roger Fuller, including Evils of Peyton Place and Temptations of Peyton Place, but this series achieved only modest sales.
In 2005, novelist Barbara Delinsky used Grace Metalious and Peyton Place as a springboard for Looking for Peyton Place, her novel about the impact of Metalious' book on a small New Hampshire town, Middle River, where residents believe Peyton Place is about people in their community. In 2006, it was announced that Sandra Bullock was slated to star in and co-produce a biopic of Metalious' life, but this film never went into production. In 2007, the Manchester Historic Association and the University of New Hampshire at Manchester honored Metalious with an in-depth examination of her life and most famous book; the celebration, which included lectures, readings of her work and screenings of the 1957 film, marked
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal, that belongs to group 8 of the periodic table, it is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Pure iron is rare on the Earth's crust being limited to meteorites. Iron ores are quite abundant, but extracting usable metal from them requires kilns or furnaces capable of reaching 1500 °C or higher, about 500 °C higher than what is enough to smelt copper. Humans started to dominate that process in Eurasia only about 2000 BCE, iron began to displace copper alloys for tools and weapons, in some regions, only around 1200 BCE; that event is considered the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. Iron alloys, such as steel and special steels are now by far the most common industrial metals, because of their mechanical properties and their low cost. Pristine and smooth pure iron surfaces are mirror-like silvery-gray. However, iron reacts with oxygen and water to give brown to black hydrated iron oxides known as rust.
Unlike the oxides of some other metals, that form passivating layers, rust occupies more volume than the metal and thus flakes off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. The body of an adult human contains about 3 to 5 grams of elemental iron in hemoglobin and myoglobin; these two proteins play essential roles in vertebrate metabolism oxygen transport by blood and oxygen storage in muscles. To maintain the necessary levels, human iron metabolism requires a minimum of iron in the diet. Iron is the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals. Chemically, the most common oxidation states of iron are +2 and +3. Iron shares many properties of other transition metals, including the other group 8 elements and osmium. Iron forms compounds in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7. Iron forms many coordination compounds. At least four allotropes of iron are known, conventionally denoted α, γ, δ, ε; the first three forms are observed at ordinary pressures.
As molten iron cools past its freezing point of 1538 °C, it crystallizes into its δ allotrope, which has a body-centered cubic crystal structure. As it cools further to 1394 °C, it changes to its γ-iron allotrope, a face-centered cubic crystal structure, or austenite. At 912 °C and below, the crystal structure again becomes the bcc α-iron allotrope; the physical properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures have been studied extensively, because of their relevance to theories about the cores of the Earth and other planets. Above 10 GPa and temperatures of a few hundred kelvin or less, α-iron changes into another hexagonal close-packed structure, known as ε-iron; the higher-temperature γ-phase changes into ε-iron, but does so at higher pressure. Some controversial experimental evidence exists for a stable β phase at pressures above 50 GPa and temperatures of at least 1500 K, it is supposed to have a double hcp structure. The inner core of the Earth is presumed to consist of an iron-nickel alloy with ε structure.
The melting and boiling points of iron, along with its enthalpy of atomization, are lower than those of the earlier 3d elements from scandium to chromium, showing the lessened contribution of the 3d electrons to metallic bonding as they are attracted more and more into the inert core by the nucleus. This same trend appears for ruthenium but not osmium; the melting point of iron is experimentally well defined for pressures less than 50 GPa. For greater pressures, published data still varies by tens of gigapascals and over a thousand kelvin. Below its Curie point of 770 °C, α-iron changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic: the spins of the two unpaired electrons in each atom align with the spins of its neighbors, creating an overall magnetic field; this happens because the orbitals of those two electrons do not point toward neighboring atoms in the lattice, therefore are not involved in metallic bonding. In the absence of an external source of magnetic field, the atoms get spontaneously partitioned into magnetic domains, about 10 micrometres across, such that the atoms in each domain have parallel spins, but different domains have other orientations.
Thus a macroscopic piece of iron will have a nearly zero overall magnetic field. Application of an external magnetic field causes the domains that are magnetized in the same general direction to grow at the expense of adjacent ones that point in other directions, reinforcing the external field; this effect is exploited in devices that needs to channel magnetic fields, such as electrical transformers, magnetic recording heads, electric motors. Impurities, lattice defects, or grain and particle boundaries can "pin" the domains in the new positions, so that the effect persists after the external field is removed -- thus turning the iron object into a magnet. Similar behavior is exhibited by some iron compounds, such as the fer
Mean sea level is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevation may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum –, used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and aircraft flight levels. A common and straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied over geological time scales; however 20th century and current millennium sea level rise is caused by global warming, careful measurement of variations in MSL can offer insights into ongoing climate change. The term above sea level refers to above mean sea level. Precise determination of a "mean sea level" is difficult to achieve because of the many factors that affect sea level. Instantaneous sea level varies quite a lot on several scales of space.
This is because the sea is in constant motion, affected by the tides, atmospheric pressure, local gravitational differences, salinity and so forth. The easiest way this may be calculated is by selecting a location and calculating the mean sea level at that point and use it as a datum. For example, a period of 19 years of hourly level observations may be averaged and used to determine the mean sea level at some measurement point. Still-water level or still-water sea level is the level of the sea with motions such as wind waves averaged out. MSL implies the SWL further averaged over a period of time such that changes due to, e.g. the tides have zero mean. Global MSL refers to a spatial average over the entire ocean. One measures the values of MSL in respect to the land. In the UK, the Ordnance Datum is the mean sea level measured at Newlyn in Cornwall between 1915 and 1921. Prior to 1921, the vertical datum was MSL at the Victoria Liverpool. Since the times of the Russian Empire, in Russia and other former its parts, now independent states, the sea level is measured from the zero level of Kronstadt Sea-Gauge.
In Hong Kong, "mPD" is a surveying term meaning "metres above Principal Datum" and refers to height of 1.230m below the average sea level. In France, the Marégraphe in Marseilles measures continuously the sea level since 1883 and offers the longest collapsed data about the sea level, it is used for main part of Africa as official sea level. As for Spain, the reference to measure heights below or above sea level is placed in Alicante. Elsewhere in Europe vertical elevation references are made to the Amsterdam Peil elevation, which dates back to the 1690s. Satellite altimeters have been making precise measurements of sea level since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992. A joint mission of NASA and CNES, TOPEX/Poseidon was followed by Jason-1 in 2001 and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite in 2008. Height above mean sea level is the elevation or altitude of an object, relative to the average sea level datum, it is used in aviation, where some heights are recorded and reported with respect to mean sea level, in the atmospheric sciences, land surveying.
An alternative is to base height measurements on an ellipsoid of the entire Earth, what systems such as GPS do. In aviation, the ellipsoid known as World Geodetic System 84 is used to define heights; the alternative is to use a geoid-based vertical datum such as NAVD88. When referring to geographic features such as mountains on a topographic map, variations in elevation are shown by contour lines; the elevation of a mountain denotes the highest point or summit and is illustrated as a small circle on a topographic map with the AMSL height shown in metres, feet or both. In the rare case that a location is below sea level, the elevation AMSL is negative. For one such case, see Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. To extend this definition far from the sea means comparing the local height of the mean sea surface with a "level" reference surface, or geodetic datum, called the geoid. In a state of rest or absence of external forces, the mean sea level would coincide with this geoid surface, being an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravitational field.
In reality, due to currents, air pressure variations and salinity variations, etc. this does not occur, not as a long-term average. The location-dependent, but persistent in time, separation between mean sea level and the geoid is referred to as ocean surface topography, it varies globally in a range of ± 2 m. Adjustments were made to sea-level measurements to take into account the effects of the 235 lunar month Metonic cycle and the 223-month eclipse cycle on the tides. Several terms are used to describe the changing relationships between sea level and dry land; when the term "relative" is used, it means change relative to a fixed point in the sediment pile. The term "eustatic" refers to global changes in sea level relative to a fixed point, such as the centre of the earth, for example as a result of melting ice-caps; the term "steric" refers to global changes in sea level due to thermal expansion and salinity variations. The term "isostatic" refers to changes in