Gin is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries. Gin is one of the broadest categories of spirits, all of various origins and flavour profiles, that revolve around juniper as a common ingredient. From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, the drink has evolved from a herbal medicine to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin emerged in England after the introduction of the jenever, a Dutch and Belgian liquor, a medicine. Although this development had been taking place since early 17th century, gin became widespread after the William of Orange-led 1688 Glorious Revolution and subsequent import restrictions on French brandy. Gin today is produced in subtly different ways, from a wide range of herbal ingredients, giving rise to a number of distinct styles and brands. After juniper, gin tends to be flavoured with botanical/herbal, floral or fruit-flavours or a combination, it is most consumed mixed with tonic water. Gin is often used as a base spirit to produce flavoured gin-based liqueurs such as, for example, Sloe gin, traditionally by the addition of fruit and sugar.

The earliest known written reference to jenever appears in the 13th-century encyclopaedic work Der Naturen Bloeme, with the earliest printed recipe for jenever dating from 16th-century work Een Constelijck Distileerboec. The physician Franciscus Sylvius has been falsely credited with the invention of gin in the mid-17th century, although the existence of jenever is confirmed in Philip Massinger's play The Duke of Milan, when Sylvius would have been about nine years old, it is further claimed that English soldiers who provided support in Antwerp against the Spanish in 1585, during the Eighty Years' War, were drinking jenever for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch courage is believed to have originated. According to some unconfirmed accounts, gin originated in Italy. By the mid-17th century, numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or malt wine with juniper, caraway, etc. which were sold in pharmacies and used to treat such medical problems as kidney ailments, stomach ailments and gout.

Gin emerged in England in varying forms by the early 17th century, at the time of the Restoration, enjoyed a brief resurgence. Gin became vastly more popular as an alternative to brandy, when William III, II & I and Mary II became co-sovereigns of England and Ireland after leading the Glorious Revolution. In crude, inferior forms, it was more to be flavoured with turpentine. Gin drinking in England rose after the government allowed unlicensed gin production, at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits such as French brandy; this created a larger market for poor-quality barley, unfit for brewing beer, in 1695–1735 thousands of gin-shops sprang up throughout England, a period known as the Gin Craze. Because of the low price of gin, when compared with other drinks available at the same time, in the same geographic location, gin began to be consumed by the poor. Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, not including coffee shops and drinking chocolate shops, over half were gin shops.

Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water. Gin, was blamed for various social problems, it may have been a factor in the higher death rates which stabilized London's growing population; the reputation of the two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane, described by the BBC as "arguably the most potent anti-drug poster conceived." The negative reputation of gin survives today in the English language, in terms like gin mills or the American phrase gin joints to describe disreputable bars, or gin-soaked to refer to drunks. The epithet mother's ruin is a common British name for gin, the origin of, the subject of ongoing debate; the Gin Act 1736 led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was reduced and abolished in 1742; the Gin Act 1751 was more successful, however. Gin in the 18th century was produced in pot stills, was somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today. In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled in residential houses and was flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper.

As late as 1913, Webster's Dictionary states without further comment, "'common gin' is flavoured with turpentine". Another common variation was to distill in the presence of sulphuric acid. Although the acid itself does not distil, it imparts the additional aroma of diethyl ether to the resulting gin. Sulphuric acid subtracts one water molecule from two ethanol molecules to create diethyl ether, which forms an azeotrope with ethanol, therefore distils with it; the result is a sweeter spirit, one that may have possessed additional analgesic or intoxicating effects – see Paracelsus. Dutch or Belgian gin known as jenever or genever, evolved from malt wine spirits, is a distinctly different drink from styles of gin. Schiedam, a city in the province of South Holland, is famous for its jenever-producing history; the same for Hasselt in the Belgian province of Limburg. The oude style of jenever remained popular throughout the 19th century, where it was referred to as Holland o


Anomalipes zhaoi is an extinct caenagnathid dinosaur discovered in China. It lived Campanian eon. the Wangshi Group in China. It is the only species in the genus Anomalipes; the remains of Anomalipes were discovered within a Shantungosaurus bonebed at the Kugou locality. The holotype is an incomplete left hind-limb, including a partial left thigh and shank, a complete metatarsal III and two toe bones. Anomalipes is derived from the Latin anomalus and pes; the species epithet, was named in honour of Zhao Xijin. 2018 in archosaur paleontology Tratayenia Timeline of oviraptorosaur research

Cartoons (Chris Rice song)

The Cartoon Song is a contemporary Christian song by Chris Rice, written in 1989 as a tongue-in-cheek skit for a church youth group of middle school students. The song mentions many cartoon characters popular in the United States at that time; the premise of the song describes what might happen if Christians succeeded in incorporating Christianity into cartoons. According to the song, cartoon characters would sing their own versions of the word "Hallelujah". For example and Wilma Flintstone would sing "Yabba-dabba-lujah"; the song mentions Scooby-Doo and Shaggy, the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Kermit the Frog, Elmer Fudd, Yogi Bear and Bullwinkle, the Smurfs, Beavis and Butt-head. Chris Rice wrote the song while in college, as a joke for students, but after much success, his former record label insisted that he record it for a CD, he reluctantly agreed. This track has received a lot of criticism from the Christian community due to its theology, more evidence that Rice's satirical intentions went well over the heads of his fans.

Chris Rice explains, "Also, in correcting my'theology' in the cartoon song, people were missing the fact that the whole song is about soul-less cartoons, none of whom can'get saved.'"This song has led to a boycott by Bible Belt Conservatives and some fans of Chris Rice's music. According to Rice's website article, Rice's intention was to "bring attention to the silliness of the typical Christian over-reaction to Beavis and Butthead during their popularity. By calling Butthead ` the other guy' I was satirizing many. I was trying to point out the snobbery of those who would limit Christianity to only a certain type of person. Many fans misinterpreted my satire of THEM. You can see why I have no desire to perpetuate the life of this song." Despite demand for the song, Rice stopped performing the song live in 2004, prompting Rice to write an article for his own official website entitled "Eulogy for a Song About Cartoons." In the article Rice explains that his misunderstood intention in writing the song/skit was to mock the commercial-Christian tendency to "make a Christian version of everything."

Rice states, "I was hoping everyone would get the satire, but they missed the satire, embraced the song as legit." This legitimizing of the song, evidence of his fans' misunderstanding of the purpose of the song/skit, frustrated Rice to the point of eliminating the song from his live performances, as well as refusal to discuss the song in interviews on the air. In 2004, Rice decided to stop playing the song at concerts, he has kept to his decision, despite popular demand for the song, despite the fact that Christian radio stations continue to air the song frequently. Feature on Chris Rice in The Baptist Standard The Fish on Chris Rice on the "Cartoons" controversy