Ian Lancaster Fleming was an English author and naval intelligence officer, best known for his James Bond series of spy novels. Fleming came from a wealthy family connected to the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co. and his father was the Member of Parliament for Henley from 1910 until his death on the Western Front in 1917. Educated at Eton and the universities of Munich and Geneva, Fleming moved through several jobs before he started writing. While working for Britain's Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, Fleming was involved in planning Operation Goldeneye and in the planning and oversight of two intelligence units, 30 Assault Unit and T-Force, his wartime service and his career as a journalist provided much of the background and depth of the James Bond novels. Fleming wrote his first Bond novel, Casino Royale, in 1952, it was a success, with three print runs being commissioned to cope with the demand. Eleven Bond novels and two collections of short stories followed between 1953 and 1966.
The novels revolved around James Bond, an officer in the Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6. Bond was known by his code number, 007, was a commander in the Royal Naval Reserve; the Bond stories rank among the best-selling series of fictional books of all time, having sold over 100 million copies worldwide. Fleming wrote the children's story Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang and two works of non-fiction. In 2008, The Times ranked Fleming 14th on its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Fleming was married to Ann Charteris, divorced from the second Viscount Rothermere because of her affair with the author. Fleming and Charteris had Caspar. Fleming was a heavy smoker and drinker for most of his life and succumbed to heart disease in 1964 at the age of 56. Two of his James Bond books were published posthumously. Fleming's creation has appeared in film twenty-six times, portrayed by seven actors. Ian Lancaster Fleming was born on 28 May 1908, at 27 Green Street in the wealthy London district of Mayfair.
His mother was Evelyn, his father was Valentine Fleming, the Member of Parliament for Henley from 1910 to 1917. As an infant he lived, with his family, at Braziers Park in Oxfordshire. Fleming was a grandson of the Scottish financier Robert Fleming, who founded the Scottish American Investment Trust and the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co. In 1914, with the start of the First World War, Valentine Fleming joined "C" Squadron, Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars, rose to the rank of major, he was killed by German shelling on the Western Front on 20 May 1917. Because the family owned an estate at Arnisdale, Valentine's death was commemorated on the Glenelg War Memorial. Fleming's elder brother Peter became married actress Celia Johnson. Peter served with the Grenadier Guards during the Second World War, was commissioned under Colin Gubbins to help establish the Auxiliary Units, became involved in behind-the-lines operations in Norway and Greece during the war. Fleming had two younger brothers and Richard, a younger maternal half-sister born out of wedlock, the cellist Amaryllis Fleming, whose father was the artist Augustus John.
Amaryllis was conceived during a long-term affair between John and Evelyn that started in 1923, six years after the death of Valentine. In 1914 Fleming attended a preparatory school on the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset, he did not enjoy his time at Durnford. In 1921 Fleming enrolled at Eton College. Not a high achiever academically, he excelled at athletics and held the title of Victor Ludorum for two years between 1925 and 1927, he edited a school magazine, The Wyvern. His lifestyle at Eton brought him into conflict with his housemaster, E. V. Slater, who disapproved of Fleming's attitude, his hair oil, his ownership of a car and his relations with women. Slater persuaded Fleming's mother to remove him from Eton a term early for a crammer course to gain entry to the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, he spent less than a year there, leaving in 1927 without gaining a commission, after contracting gonorrhea. In 1927, to prepare Fleming for possible entry into the Foreign Office, his mother sent him to the Tennerhof in Kitzbühel, Austria, a small private school run by the Adlerian disciple and former British spy Ernan Forbes Dennis and his novelist wife, Phyllis Bottome.
After improving his language skills there, he studied at Munich University and the University of Geneva. While in Geneva, Fleming began a romance with Monique Panchaud de Bottens and the couple were engaged in 1931, his mother made him break off the relationship. He failed the examinations, his mother again intervened in his affairs, lobbying Sir Roderick Jones, head of Reuters News Agency, in October 1931 he was given a position as a sub-editor and journalist for the company. In 1933 Fleming spent time in Moscow, where he covered the Stalinist show trial of six engineers from the British company Metropolitan-Vickers. While there he applied for an interview with Soviet premier Joseph Stalin, was amazed to receive a signed note apologising for not being able to attend. Fleming bowed to family pressure in October 1933, went into banking with a position at the financiers Cull & Co. In 1935 he moved to Pitman on Bishopsgate as a stockbroker. Fleming was unsuccessful in both roles. Early in 1939 Fleming began an affair with Ann O'Neill (née Ch
Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games. Shuffling is followed by a cut, to help ensure that the shuffler has not manipulated the outcome. One of the easiest shuffles to accomplish. Johan Jonasson wrote, "The overhand shuffle... is the shuffling technique where you transfer the deck from, your right hand to your left hand by sliding off small packets from the top of the deck." In detail as performed, with the pack held in the left hand, most of the cards are grasped as a group from the bottom of the pack between the thumb and fingers of the right hand and lifted clear of the small group that remains in the left hand. Small packets are released from the right hand a packet at a time so that they drop on the top of the pack accumulating in the left hand; the process is repeated several times. The randomness of the whole shuffle is increased by the number of small packets in each shuffle and the number of repeat shuffles performed.
The overhand shuffle offers sufficient opportunity for sleight of hand techniques to be used to affect the ordering of cards, creating a stacked deck. The most common way that players cheat with the overhand shuffle is by having a card at the top or bottom of the pack that they require, slipping it to the bottom at the start of a shuffle, or leaving it as the last card in a shuffle and just dropping it on top. A common shuffling technique is called the riffle, or dovetail shuffle or leafing the cards, in which half of the deck is held in each hand with the thumbs inward cards are released by the thumbs so that they fall to the table interleaved. Many lift the cards up after a riffle, forming what is called a bridge which puts the cards back into place. While this method is more difficult, it is used in casinos because it minimizes the risk of exposing cards during the shuffle. There are two types of perfect riffle shuffles: if the top card moves to be second from the top it is an in shuffle, otherwise it is known as an out shuffle.
The Gilbert–Shannon–Reeds model provides a mathematical model of the random outcomes of riffling, shown experimentally to be a good fit to human shuffling and that forms the basis for a recommendation that card decks be riffled seven times in order to randomize them thoroughly. Known as the "Indian", "Kattar", "Kenchi" or "Kutti Shuffle"; the deck is held face down, with the middle finger on one long edge and the thumb on the other on the bottom half of the deck. The other hand draws off a packet from the top of the deck; this packet is allowed to drop into the palm. The maneuver is repeated over and over, with newly drawn packets dropping onto previous ones, until the deck is all in the second hand. Indian shuffle differs from stripping in that all the action is in the hand taking the cards, whereas in stripping, the action is performed by the hand with the original deck, giving the cards to the resulting pile; this is the most common shuffling technique in Asia and other parts of the world, while the overhand shuffle is used in Western countries.
Cards are dealt out into a number of piles the piles are stacked on top of each other. Though this is deterministic and does not randomize the cards at all, it ensures that cards that were next to each other are now separated; some variations on the pile shuffle attempt to make it random by dealing to the piles in a random order each circuit. Known as the Chemmy, scramble, beginner shuffle, schwirsheling, et al or washing the cards, this involves spreading the cards out face down, sliding them around and over each other with one's hands; the cards are moved into one pile so that they begin to intertwine and are arranged back into a stack. This method is useful for small children or if one is inept at shuffling cards. However, the beginner shuffle requires a large surface for spreading out the cards and takes longer than the other methods; the Mongean shuffle, or Monge's shuffle, is performed as follows: Start with the unshuffled deck in the left hand and transfer the top card to the right. Take the top card from the left hand and transfer it to the right, putting the second card at the top of the new deck, the third at the bottom, the fourth at the top, the fifth at the bottom, etc.
The result, if one started with cards numbered consecutively 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …, 2 n, would be a deck with the cards in the following order: 2 n, 2 n − 2, 2 n − 4, …, 4, 2, 1, 3, …, 2 n − 3, 2 n − 1. For a deck of given size, the number of Mongean shuffles that it takes to return a deck to starting position, is known. Twelve perfect Mongean shuffles restore a 52-card deck. We
Cuarenta is the national card game of Ecuador. It is a fishing game played with the standard 52 card pack of Anglo-American playing cards, but all 10s, 9s and 8s are omitted; this game is exclusively played in Ecuador. The name of the game, cuarenta is Spanish for the number 40; this refers to the number of points that are required to win a chica and to the number of cards used to play it. Two chicas or the first chica with zapatería win the game; the game can be played by 4 players split into two teams. The score is kept with two kinds of the two-point tantos and the ten-point perros; when a standard 52 card pack is used, the 8s, 9s and 10s can be used to keep the score. Five cards are dealt to each player, given out as a hand of five cards at a time; the opponent of the dealer or the opponents of the dealer's team are given ten points if there are any irregularities during the deal itself, the dealer's turn is handed over to the opponent. A typical indication of these irregularities is that the dealer finds himself or herself with 4 or 6 cards in his or her hand after the second deal.
The cards left over. Before the first individual turn after each deal, special announcements have to be made by each player if applicable; these are the ronda. A doble ronda automatically wins the game; the player to the dealer's right begins. The turn to play passes counterclockwise; each player plays one card face up onto the table. Cards on the table may be captured by the opponent. If cards are captured, they are placed face down in front of his teammate. Played cards remain on the table until they are captured or the round ends. Cards can be captured in the following three ways: matching and sequence. Note that, due to the absence of 8s, 9s, 10s, the Jack follows the 7 in sequence. A table with the cards 3 4 J Q K can be cleaned with a 7; the Ace does not follow the King. The Ace counts as one for all purposes of this game. If a player clears the table by capturing all cards, he scores a limpia. If a player captures the card just played by the player before, this is called a caída (meaning a fall.
These two happen at the same time. In the Cuenca rules variation, both events are scored, for a total of 4 points; this variation in scoring is not regional. Some tournaments may give the match for a doble ronda or caida en ronda in the interest of shortening the duration of the entire tournament. In Quito only 4 points are given for doble caida en ronda. A summary of these variations is shown below: After all five cards are played, there is a new deal. After a new deal, caída does not apply to any cards remaining on the table. After all cards have been played, each player or team counts their collected cards. If the number of collected cards is 20, 6 points are scored. So, 21 cards gives 8 points, 22 cards still gives 8 points. 23 or 24 cards give 10 points. If both teams capture 20 cards, neither side scores 6 points. In this case and all other ties, the non-dealing team scores 2 points; this is called dos por darlas, "two for dealing". If neither team captures 20 cards, the team with more cards scores 2 points.
If a team reaches 38 points, that team is "out of play," called 38 que no juega. The final two points that achieve victory may only be scored by caída. Existing captured cards, ronda will not count towards closing the game for that team. A chica is won when a team reaches 40 points; the game is won when a player or a team wins two chicas or when the opponent doesn't reach ten points at the end of the first chica. Losing as zapatero disqualifies the team from a tournament or match. If the opponent loses with "zapatería", he's called "zapatero" because he ends up "poor" like a shoemaker, it may be related to the expression "Cero, zapatero", a common rhyme colloquially used when referring to the number cero. A similar game called. Mus Tute Cinquillo Rules of Card Games: Cuarenta Rules for one of many versions of the game
Zwickern is an old German fishing card game for two to eight players played in Schleswig-Holstein in North Germany. The rules vary in their details depending on the region, but the basics are identical in each variation, it has been described as "a simpler and jollier version of Cassino, "exciting and entertaining" and easy to learn. It was played with just a standard 52-card deck but now it is played with 6 jokers. 58-card decks have been in production since at least the 1950s. One source recommends leaving out the jokers; the following rules are based on Parlett. King: 14 Queen: 13 Jack: 12 Ace: 11 Pip cards: face value Jokers: 2 to 14 The aim of Zwicker is to capture Aces,'honour cards' and to make'sweeps' or zwicks; each player receives four cards and four are dealt face up to the table, henceforth referred to as the tableau. The rest form the stock, placed face down on the table; the aim is to collect cards the point-scoring ones, from the tableau in turn. Each player plays a card from his hand to the table and may use it to capture cards from the tableau.
A player make capture either by'pairing', if the value of a card in his hand is equal to one in the tableau, or by'summing' if the value of his card equals that of two or more cards in the tableau. For example, a King may capture a 9 and a 5. A played card may make as many captures as possible. So a Queen can be used to take two Queens from the tableau and, if the two remaining cards together add up to 13, they may be collected. If a player clears all the cards in the tableau, as in the last example, it is called a'sweep' or zwick and counts more when it comes to scoring; when a player's hand cards are used up, he receives four new cards. If a player cannot capture a card or cards from the tableau, he must'trail', by adding a hand card to the tableau, or'build', by placing it half over one in the tableau; the values laid on top of each other must not exceed 14. Cards placed. Once all the cards have been used up, the round ends; the winner is the player who has the most points or reached the agreed total of points.
Points are awarded for method of capture. Scoring is as follows: 10 = 10 points Zwick = 3 points Ace = 2 points 7 = 1 point 7 = 1 point Most cards taken = 1 point In the variant by McLeod, there are the following differences in matching values and scoring: Matching values King - 4 or 14, Queen - 3 or 13, Jack - 2 or 12, Ace - 1 or 11. Jokers: small jokers - 15, middle jokers - 20, large jokers - 25. Scoring Large jokers - 7 Middle jokers - 6 Small jokers - 5 10 - 3 Taking most tricks - 3 10, 2, Aces and zwicks - 1
Three-card Monte – known as Find the Lady and Three-card Trick – is a confidence game in which the victim, or "mark", is tricked into betting a sum of money, on the assumption that they can find the "money card" among three face-down playing cards. It is the same as the shell game except. In its full form, Three-card Monte is an example of a classic "short con" in which a shill pretends to conspire with the mark to cheat the dealer, while in fact conspiring with the dealer to cheat the mark; the mark has no chance whatsoever of winning, at any point in the game. In fact, anyone, observed winning anything in the game can be presumed to be a shill; this confidence trick was in use by the turn of the 15th century. The Three-card Monte game itself is simple. To play, a dealer places three cards face down on a table on a cardboard box which provides the ability to set up and disappear quickly; the dealer shows that one of the cards is the target card, e.g. the queen of hearts, rearranges the cards to confuse the player about which card is which.
The player is given an opportunity to select one of the three cards. If the player identifies the target card, the player gets the amount bet back, plus the same amount again. Since there are only three cards, the jack of spades and jack of clubs complement the "money card", a queen; the queen is a red card the queen of hearts. Sometimes the ace of spades is used as the money card, since in some cultures the ace of spades is viewed as lucky, which might lure the mark into playing the game; when the mark arrives at the Three-card Monte game, it is that a number of other players will be seen winning and losing money at the game. The people engaged in playing the game are shills, confederates of the dealer who pretend to play so as to give the illusion of a straight gambling game; as the mark watches the game, they are to notice that they can follow the queen more than the shills seem to be able to, which sets them up to believe that they can win the game. If the mark enters the game, they will be cheated through any number of methods.
An example of a simple scheme involves a dealer and two shills: The dealer and shills act as if they do not know each other. The mark will come upon a game being conducted in a clandestine manner with somebody "looking out" for police; the dealer will be engaged with the first shill betting money. The first shill may be winning, leading the mark to observe that easy money may be had, or losing, leading the mark to observe that they could beat the game and win money where the first shill is losing it. While the mark is watching, the second shill, acting as a casual passerby like the mark, will casually engage a mark in conversation regarding the game, commenting on either how the first shill is winning or how they are losing money because they cannot win at what appears to the mark to be a simple game; this conversation is engineered to implicitly encourage the mark to play, it is possible the second shill could resort to outright encouragement. If the mark does not enter the game, the dealer may claim to see police and will fold up the operation and restart it elsewhere, or will wait for another mark to appear on the scene.
If the mark enters the game, they may be "had" by a number of techniques. A common belief is that the operator may let the mark win a couple of bets to suck them in, but this is never true. In a true Monte scam, the mark will never win a single bet. There are too many ways for a well-run mob to attract the marks, suck them in, convince them to put money down; when the dealer and the shills have taken the mark, a lookout, the dealer, or a shill acting as an observer will claim to have spotted the police. The dealer will pack up the game and disperse along with the shills. Dealers employ sleight of misdirection to prevent the mark from finding the queen. While various moves have been devised for Monte, there is one basic move, overwhelmingly used with all Monte games, it has to do with the way the cards are tossed to the table. The dealer will pick up one of the cards with one hand, two with the other; this is the key: although it appears that the dealer is tossing the lowermost card to the table, in actuality they can toss either the top or the bottom card at will.
Thus, having done so, while mixing up the cards, the mark will be following the wrong card from the beginning. The move, done properly, is undetectable; the shills pretending to play are unaware of where the money card is without the dealer employing signals of various kinds to let them know where it is. Once in a while the mark will manage to find the right location of the card by pure chance; this presents no problem at all for the mob. In other words, the mark puts down money on the right card, at which point a shill will place a double bet on top of the card, thereby winning the "right" to play that round. Of course, if the mark picks the wrong card, the dealer takes the money; the dealer will never accept a winning bid from a mark. The psychology of the con is to increase the mark's confidence until they believe they have a special ability to cheat the dealer and win easy money. Everything the Monte mob does is geared towards creating that mindset in the mark. To increase the mark's motivation to bet, they will employ standard strategies such as
Desmoche is a popular rummy card game played for small stakes which resembles other games in the rummy family, like Conquian and gin rummy, more than poker. It was devised in Nicaragua in the first half of the 20th century; the object of Desmoche is to play, in either runs or sets ten cards on the table. The game is played by 3 or 4 players with a standard deck of 52 playing cards. Any player may start out as the dealer, which rotates from round to round in a counterclockwise fashion; the player on the dealer's right may cut the deck before the dealer deals the cards face-down starting with the player on the right and continuing until each player receives nine cards. Cards that are not dealt remain in the deck, placed in the middle of the table and used throughout the remainder of the game. After players are dealt nine cards each, but before play begins, each player chooses one card from their hand and passes it face down to the player on their right; the "Cambio" can be a crucial factor in deciding one's hand.
If any of the "automatic win" specifications have been met either before or after the Cambio, the player with the winning hand must declare they have won and place their cards face up on the table for the other players to confirm the automatic win. Otherwise, normal play begins; the player to the right of the dealer begins play by drawing a card from the deck, being careful not to place that card into the cards in their hand. If the player can make use of the card to create a meld, he does so by placing the card on the table in front of him and adding the cards from his hand to finalize the meld, all cards in the meld must be face up. If the card cannot be used, it is placed face up in the discard pile. If any other player can use that card to create a meld, they can play it face up on the table in front of them. If more than one player can use the card, the first player in counter-clockwise order from the player who discarded it gets to take it. If no one can use the first card drawn, a second card is drawn by the same player to the right of the dealer.
Each player only draws one card before the next person's turn for the remainder of the game. Each player is to always maintains nine cards in their possession; this includes both the cards in the player's hand and the cards which have been played face up on the table. If a player uses a card from either the deck or the discard pile, in order to maintain a count of nine cards the player must "pay" for this card by discarding a card from their own hand. Once a player discards a card that no one can use, play continues to that player's right, regardless of whether any other player's turns seemed to have been skipped; the only time a player will have more than nine cards is when they have won, at which time they will have ten cards. If no player has played ten cards face up on the table by the time the final card has been discarded from the deck, there is no winner and, if playing for money, the bet for the next game is added to the current pot. Whether there is a winner or not, the player to the right of the previous dealer is now the dealer, play continues.
Much like Poker, game play ends when a player is out of money or no longer wishes to continue playing. Melds in Desmoche must contain a minimum of three cards, they can be runs of the same suit containing three to ten cards, or sets of three or four cards of identical rank. After a player has played a meld on the table, it can be added to by cards in that player's hand or by any cards that are discarded by a player that will continue the meld; the highest run allowed is J Q K, a meld of Q K A is not allowed. A 2 3 is the smallest run allowed, but is considered the highest valued run. Sometimes players enforce strict rules for laying down melds, in which a player is disqualified if their cards are not arranged in the correct order. Runs must be placed in ascending order, like 8♠ 9♠ 10♠ and not 8♠ 10♠ 9♠. Sets must be played with suit color alternating, i.e. 8♠ 8♥ 8♣ not 8♠ 8♣ 8♥. A player performs a Desmoche, which the game is named for, by taking a card from any of his face up melds to use in another meld, but only as long as all melds that remain on the table are still valid melds.
All automatic wins MUST be declared before the first card is drawn for game play, otherwise the win is forfeited and the game continues as normal. All automatic wins are valid if the terms are met either before or after the "Cambio". Ace is always considered the highest card for deciding upon multiple automatic wins. "Peladilla": A player's hand contains no matching sets of 2 cards or higher, no matching runs of 2 cards or higher of the same suit, i.e. A♠ 3♣ 4♦ 7♥ 8♠ 10♦ J♠ Q♥ K♦. If 2 or more players have Peladilla, the player with the highest ranking card in their hand wins "Cuatro Cuerpos": A player's hand contains four cards of identical ranks. If 2 or more players have Cuatro Cuerpos at the same time, the player with the highest ranking set of four identical rank cards wins. "Color": A player's hand contains only cards of the same color. If the players are "playing everything" as stated in the bonuses section below, all losing players must pay a bonus to
Viennese Rummy is a matching card game of the Rummy family for 2-6 people played in continental Europe. Unlike German Rummy and runs of cards are not melded but collected in the player's hand until he is able either to declare "Rummy" and lay his hand on the table or to "knock" and meld all cards except for low-scoring'deadwood'. Hence its other name of Rummy without Melding. Viennese Rummy is played with two packs of French playing cards of 52 cards and one joker each, making a total of 106 cards, it is suitable for two to six players. Each player is dealt ten cards, except for the dealer. Like German Rummy, there are no standardised rules for Viennese Rummy. In fact a raft of identical games go under different names including 101 Rummy and Elimination Rummy. Knock Rummy is a generic name for rummy games where players only reveal their hand at the end of the game. Another special variant for two people is the popular Gin Rummy; the following rules are therefore not to be regarded as binding in the sense of chess rules.
Unless otherwise stated, the rules of the game are the same as those for German Rummy. The card values are as follows: Joker - 20 points Ace - 11 points Court cards – K, Q, J – 10 points each Pip cards – 2 to 10 – score their value in pips Players now try to improve their hand by drawing and discarding cards, as they do in German Rummy. A game continues until one player melds ten cards and discards the eleventh; the other players lay out their cards and count them up as in Gin Rummy, by summing their deadwood, i.e. those that cannot be placed into sets or runs. The game can be ended by "knocking": if a player has only five or fewer card points in deadwood, he can knock, he reveals his hand as in a rummy call and announces his deadwood score. The other players do the same, but unlike a rummy call, they can try to improve their hand by drawing and discarding a card if they knock, they may not touch other players' cards. Viennese Rummy is played in'rubbers'. One rubber consists of several individual games.
Before a game begins, each player contributes five chips to the pot. After each game, the knocker or rummy caller wins the so-called knock money, i.e. a chip from all other participants still in play. Furthermore, for each player the negative points received in this game are noted and added cumulatively. Once a player has accumulated 101 or more points, they are eliminated. If a player has accumulated over 81 but not yet 101 negative points, he may'buy himself back' into the pot by contributing an additional five chips and reducing his bad point score to that of the second worst player still in play. However, a player may only buy back once during the game. De:Rommé Fritz Babsch: Internationale und österreichische Kartenspiel-Regeln, Vienna, 1983 Johannes Bamberger: Die beliebtesten Kartenspiele, Verlag Perlen-Reihe, Vol. 648, 21st edition, Vienna 19?? Claus D. Grupp: Rommé und Canasta in allen Variationen, Falken-Verlag Niedernhausen/Ts, 1982 Rudolf Heinrich: Rommé - Rummy international Alle Spielarten, Verlag Perlen-Reihe, Vol. 650, 7th edition, Vienna, 19??
John Smith-Creighton: Das Rummyspiel, 3rd edition, Vienna, 1927 Knock Rummy at www.rummy.ch. Räuber-Romme und Wiener Rummy Spielverlauf und Taktik – Kartenspiele für Erwachsene at 123sportwetten.eu. Internationale Rommé-Ordnung des DSkV. Rommé Rules of German Rummy at www.spielanleitung.org