Ginkgo biloba known as ginkgo or gingko known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is cultivated, was cultivated early in human history, it has various uses as a source of food. The genus name Ginkgo is regarded as a misspelling of the Japanese gin kyo, "silver apricot", derived from the Chinese 銀杏 used in Chinese herbalism literature such as Shaoxing Bencao and Compendium of Materia Medica. Engelbert Kaempfer first introduced the spelling ginkgo in his book Amoenitatum Exoticarum, it is considered that he may have misspelled "Ginkjo" as "Ginkgo". This misspelling was included by Carl Linnaeus in his book Mantissa plantarum II and has become the name of the tree's genus. Since the spelling may be confusing to pronounce, ginkgo is sometimes purposely misspelled as "gingko". Ginkgos are large trees reaching a height of 20–35 m, with some specimens in China being over 50 m.
The tree has an angular crown and long, somewhat erratic branches, is deep rooted and resistant to wind and snow damage. Young trees are tall and slender, sparsely branched. During autumn, the leaves turn a bright yellow fall, sometimes within a short space of time. A combination of resistance to disease, insect-resistant wood and the ability to form aerial roots and sprouts makes ginkgos long-lived, with some specimens claimed to be more than 2,500 years old. Ginkgo is a shade-intolerant species that grows best in environments that are well-watered and well-drained; the species shows a preference for disturbed sites. Accordingly, ginkgo retains a prodigious capacity for vegetative growth, it is capable of sprouting from embedded buds near the base of the trunk in response to disturbances, such as soil erosion. Old individuals are capable of producing aerial roots on the undersides of large branches in response to disturbances such as crown damage; these strategies are evidently important in the persistence of ginkgo.
Extracts of ginkgo leaves contain phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid glycosides, such as myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin, the terpene trilactones and bilobalides. The leaves contain unique ginkgo biflavones, as well as alkylphenols and polyprenols. Ginkgo branches grow in length by growth of shoots with spaced leaves, as seen on most trees. From the axils of these leaves, "spur shoots" develop on second-year growth. Short shoots have short internodes and their leaves are unlobed, they are short and knobby, are arranged on the branches except on first-year growth. Because of the short internodes, leaves appear to be clustered at the tips of short shoots, reproductive structures are formed only on them. In ginkgos, as in other plants that possess them, short shoots allow the formation of new leaves in the older parts of the crown. After a number of years, a short shoot may change into a long shoot, or vice versa; the leaves are unique among seed plants, being fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade, sometimes bifurcating, but never anastomosing to form a network.
Two veins enter the leaf blade at the base and fork in two. The leaves are 5–10 cm, but sometimes up to 15 cm long; the old popular name "maidenhair tree" is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris. Ginkgos are prized for their autumn foliage, a deep saffron yellow. Leaves of long shoots are notched or lobed, but only from the outer surface, between the veins, they are borne both on the more growing branch tips, where they are alternate and spaced out, on the short, stubby spur shoots, where they are clustered at the tips. Leaves have stomata on both sides. Ginkgos are dioecious, with separate sexes, some trees being female and others being male. Male plants produce small pollen cones with sporophylls, each bearing two microsporangia spirally arranged around a central axis. Female plants do not produce cones. Two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk, after pollination, one or both develop into seeds; the seed is 1.5–2 cm long. Its fleshy outer layer is light yellow-brown and fruit-like.
It is attractive in appearance, but contains butyric acid and smells like rancid butter or vomit when fallen. Beneath the sarcotesta is the hard sclerotesta and a papery endotesta, with the nucellus surrounding the female gametophyte at the center; the fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs via motile sperm, as in cycads, ferns and algae. The sperm are large and are similar to the sperm of cycads, which are larger. Ginkgo sperm were first discovered by the Japanese botanist Sakugoro Hirase in 1896; the sperm have a complex multi-layered structure, a continuous belt of basal bo
Annemarie Roeper was a pioneer in gifted education who founded the Roeper School. Annemarie was born on August 1918 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, to parents Max and Gertrud Bondy. Gertrud Bondy was a medical doctor as well as a psychologist in training with Sigmund Freud. Gertrud and her husband Max founded a series of schools focusing on, “psychoanalytic understanding of human development and a desire to educate children to build and thrive in a pluralistic, democratic society” including a school in the town of Marineau. Annemarie observed the strong independent educational ideals early in life in the school that her parents were creating. Though the family consisted of mainstream Lutherans, the Bondys were of Jewish heritage. After the Nazi party came to power and her father Max fled their school in the spring of 1937 with the help of George Roeper and continued on to the United States in 1939. Annemarie began a new adventure. Annemarie Roeper never finished any higher education past high school.
While a medical student at the University of Vienna in 1937, she was the youngest person to be accepted to study child psychoanalysis with Sigmund and Anna Freud. The March 1938 the German invasion of Austria prevented her from being able to begin her studies. Roeper was able to flee on the last train across the Austrian border before the Germans invaded while Sigmund and Anna Freud fled soon after. Eastern Michigan University awarded an honorary doctorate to Roeper and her husband, George Roeper, in 1978. Roeper and her husband, established The Roeper School in 1941 with only nine students. Today the school serves over 630 students, from preschool to 12th grade, still focusing on an intense recognition for every student's needs, a profound appreciation for emotional and intellectual commitments. Roeper is recognized as a pioneer for gifted education, her insistence that the soul of the gifted child is as important as their cognitive abilities has influenced how many gifted educators and counselors interact with these children.
In 1941 Roeper and her husband were invited to Detroit to direct a nursery school and established a grade school. Their schooling techniques caught on and the school grew rapidly; the Roeper School began expanding so much that in 1946 they purchased a campus in Bloomfield Hills, in 1981 they purchased a campus in Birmingham, Michigan. In 1946, they purchased a campus in Bloomfield Hills, in 1981 the school expanded to include a second campus in Birmingham, Michigan. In 1956, the same year that Roeper and her husband George established the first board of advisors for the Roeper School, they congregated a panel of national experts and developed a curriculum for gifted children. In September 1956 the Roeper School became only the second school in America to focus on gifted education. Annemarie Roeper's ideas about young childhood cognition caught the likes of Joan Ganz Cooney, together they worked and consulted on the development of Sesame Street. Roeper was a workshop consultant while working on the show.
Roeper taught courses at Oakland University on gifted education and retired from the Roeper School in 1980, although she remained on the board of trustees until 2002. In 1989, Roeper received the President's Award from the National Association for Gifted Children for a lifetime of distinguished service to the field. Roeper published over 100 articles and book chapters, three scholarly books, four children's books, her most recent – and last – publication, ‘Beyond Old Age’, she developed the Annemarie Roeper Method of Qualitative Assessment to provide a deeper understanding of a child's personality and abilities. She has been listed in Who's Who, Women of the World, Who's Who of American Women. Roeper was active with the Merrill Palmer Institute in the 1950s, a group of pediatricians and educators in Detroit that met to discuss children's emotional development. Roeper was the president of the Metropolitan Preschool Association in the late 1950s and early 1960s, served on the Michigan State Advisory Council for Early Childhood Education from 1965 to 1968 and was on the Oakland University Advisory Council from 1966 to 1968.
Roeper died from pneumonia and other health problems on May 2012, in Oakland, California. She was 93 years old. Roeper is survived by her brother, Heinz Bondy and his wife, Carolyn, of Germantown, Md.. Peter Roeper and his wife Martha Harnly, of Oakland, Calif. and Karen Roeper and her husband Peter Rosselli, of Muir Beach, Calif.. She wrote at least three books: Educating Children for Life: The Modern Learning Community Annemarie Roeper." Selected Writings and Speeches - The "I" of the Beholder: A Guided Journey to the Essence of a Child Kane, Michele. "An Evolving Field: A Conversation with Annemarie Roeper: A View from the Self." Roeper Review 26:1, 5-11. Roeper, Annemarie. Selected Speeches. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, 1995. A conversation with Annemarie Roeper. A YouTube interview. Obituary on Roeper School website
Bahauddin Zakaria Express is a passenger train operated daily by Pakistan Railways between Karachi and Multan. The trip takes 16 hours and 5 minutes to cover a published distance of 929 kilometres, traveling along a stretch of the Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line; the train named after Abu Muhammad Bahauddin Zakariya, a famous Sufi saint of the Suhrawardiyya order who lived in Multan between 1171-1262. Karachi City–Multan Cantonment via Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line The train AC Business class, AC Lower/Standard and economy accommodation. 1990 Sukkur rail disaster: On 4 January 1990, the Bahaudddin Zakaria Express was on a 560-mile overnight run from Multan to Karachi. Near Sangi village outside of Sukkur, Sindh the tracks were incorrectly set and sent the train hurdling into a siding where it collided with an empty 67-car freight train at a speed of at least 55 mph, killing 307 people, it remains one of the worst rail disasters in Pakistan Railways history. 2016 Landhi rail accident: 22 people were killed and more than 65 injured when the Bahauddin Zakaria Express collided with the Fareed Express at Juma Goth Train station situated in Landhi, Karachi on the morning of 3 November 2016