Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin, protected geographical indication, traditional specialities guaranteed and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs. Products registered under one of the three schemes may be marked with the logo for that scheme to help identify those products; the schemes are based on the legal framework provided by the EU Regulation No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. This regulation ensures that only products genuinely originating in that region are allowed to be identified as such in commerce; the legislation first came into force in 1992. The purpose of the law is to protect the reputation of the regional foods, promote rural and agricultural activity, help producers obtain a premium price for their authentic products, eliminate the unfair competition and misleading of consumers by non-genuine products, which may be of inferior quality or of different flavour.
These laws protect the names of wines, hams, seafood, olive oils, balsamic vinegar, regional breads, raw meats and vegetables. Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, the Waterford blaas, Herve cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Piave cheese, Asiago cheese, Herefordshire cider, cognac and champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region. To qualify as roquefort, for example, cheese must be made from milk of a certain breed of sheep, matured in the natural caves near the town of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon in the Aveyron region of France, where it is colonised by the fungus Penicillium roqueforti that grows in these caves; this system is similar to appellation systems used throughout the world, such as the appellation d'origine contrôlée used in France, the denominazione di origine controllata used in Italy, the denominação de origem controlada used in Portugal, the denumire de origine controlată system used in Romania and the denominación de origen system used in Spain.
In many cases, the EU PDO/PGI system works parallel with the system used in the specified country, in some cases is subordinated to the appellation system, instituted with wine, for example, in France with cheese, for example Maroilles has both PDO and AOC classifications, but only the AOC classification will be shown. In countries where Protected Geographical Status laws are enforced, only products which meet the various geographical and quality criteria may use the protected indication, it is prohibited to combine the indication with words such as "style", "type", "imitation", or "method" in connection with the protected indications, or to do anything which might imply that the product meets the specifications, such as using distinctive packaging associated with the protected product. Protected indications are treated as intellectual property rights by the Customs Regulation 1383/2003, infringing goods may be seized by customs on import. Within the European Union, enforcement measures vary: infringement may be treated as counterfeit, misleading advertising, passing off or as a question of public health.
Outside Europe, the protection of PGS products require bilateral agreements between the EU and the importing countries, while protected indications may not always supersede other intellectual property rights such as trademarks. On 15 November 2011, the European Court of Auditors presented its report Do the design and management of the Geographical Indications Scheme allow it to be effective? to the European Parliament. The preambles to the regulations cite consumer demand for quality foodstuffs, identify a number of goals for the protection regimes: the promotion of products with specific characteristics those coming from less-favoured or rural areas; the provision of a recompense for efforts to improve quality and the need for consumer protection are cited as justifications for trade mark protection in other domains, geographical indications operate in a similar manner to trademarks. The general regime governs the use of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications for food and certain other agricultural products.
There are separate regimes for aromatised drinks as well as for wines. The origin of the product is only one of the criteria for use of the protected terms: the product must meet various quality criteria; the label "Traditional Specialities Guaranteed" is a similar protected term which does not impose any restrictions on the geographical origin of the product. The protection of geographical indications was extended to foodstuffs and other agricultural products in 1992. Given the different national provisions, this "general regime" gives much more power to the European Commission to ensure a harmonised protection across the European Union
A sandwich is a food consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type. The sandwich began as a portable finger food in the Western world, though over time it has become prevalent worldwide. Sandwiches are a popular type of lunch food, taken to work, school, or picnics to be eaten as part of a packed lunch; the bread can be either plain, or coated with condiments such as mayonnaise or mustard, to enhance its flavour and texture. As well as being homemade, sandwiches are widely sold in restaurants and can be served hot or cold. There are both savoury sandwiches, such as deli meat sandwiches, sweet sandwiches, such as a peanut butter and jelly sandwich; the sandwich is named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The Wall Street Journal has described it as Britain's "biggest contribution to gastronomy"; the modern concept of a sandwich using slices of bread as found within the West can arguably be traced to 18th-century Europe.
However, the use of some kind of bread or bread-like substance to lie under some other food, or used to scoop up and enclose or wrap some other type of food, long predates the eighteenth century, is found in numerous much older cultures worldwide. The ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder is said to have wrapped meat from the Paschal lamb and bitter herbs in a soft matzah—flat, unleavened bread—during Passover in the manner of a modern wrap made with flatbread. Flat breads of only varying kinds have long been used to scoop or wrap small amounts of food en route from platter to mouth throughout Western Asia and northern Africa. From Morocco to Ethiopia to India, bread is baked in flat rounds, contrasting with the European loaf tradition. During the Middle Ages in Europe, thick slabs of coarse and stale bread, called "trenchers", were used as plates. After a meal, the food-soaked trencher was fed to a dog or to beggars at the tables of the wealthy, eaten by diners in more modest circumstances.
The immediate culinary precursor with a direct connection to the English sandwich was to be found in the Netherlands of the seventeenth century, where the naturalist John Ray observed that in the taverns beef hung from the rafters "which they cut into thin slices and eat with bread and butter laying the slices upon the butter"— explanatory specifications that reveal the Dutch belegde broodje, open-faced sandwich, was as yet unfamiliar in England. Perceived as food that men shared while gaming and drinking at night, the sandwich began appearing in polite society as a late-night meal among the aristocracy; the sandwich's popularity in Spain and England increased during the nineteenth century, when the rise of industrial society and the working classes made fast and inexpensive meals essential. In London, for example, at least seventy street vendors were selling ham sandwiches by 1850. In the United States, the sandwich was first promoted as an elaborate meal at supper. By the early twentieth century, as bread became a staple of the American diet, the sandwich became the same kind of popular, quick meal as was widespread in the Mediterranean.
The first written usage of the English word appeared in Edward Gibbon's journal, in longhand, referring to "bits of cold meat" as a "Sandwich". It was named after 4th Earl of Sandwich, an eighteenth-century English aristocrat, it is said that he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread, others began to order "the same as Sandwich!" It is said that Lord Sandwich was fond of this form of food because it allowed him to continue playing cards cribbage, while eating, without using a fork, without getting his cards greasy from eating meat with his bare hands. The rumour in its familiar form appeared in Pierre-Jean Grosley's Londres, translated as A Tour to London in 1772; the sober alternative is provided by Sandwich's biographer, N. A. M. Rodger, who suggests Sandwich's commitments to the navy, to politics and the arts, mean the first sandwich was more to have been consumed at his desk. Before being known as sandwiches, this food combination seems to have been known as "bread and meat" or "bread and cheese".
These two phrases are found throughout English drama from the seventeenth centuries. In the United States, a court in Boston, Massachusetts ruled in 2006 that a sandwich includes at least two slices of bread and "under this definition, this court finds that the term'sandwich' is not understood to include burritos and quesadillas, which are made with a single tortilla and stuffed with a choice filling of meat and beans." The issue stemmed from the question of whether a restaurant that sold burritos could move into a shopping centre where another restaurant had a no-compete clause in its lease prohibiting other "sandwich" shops. In Spain, where the word sandwich is borrowed from the English language, it refers to a food item made with English sandwich bread, it is otherwise known as a bocadillo. Similar usage applies in other Spanish-speaking cultures, such as Mexico, where the word torta is used for a popular variety of roll-type sandwiches. In the United Kingdom and Australia, the term sandwich is more narrowly defined than in the United States: it refers only to an item which uses sliced bread from a loaf.
An item with similar fillings, but using an entire bread roll cut
The Bedfordshire clanger called the Hertfordshire clanger, Trowley Dumpling, or the clanger, is a dish from Bedfordshire and adjacent counties in England, such as Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire. It dates back to at least the 19th century; the word "clanger" is related to the dialect term "clung", which Joseph Wright glossed as meaning "heavy", in relation to food. The clanger is an elongated suet crust dumpling, sometimes described as a savoury type of roly-poly pudding, it was traditionally boiled in a cloth like other suet puddings, though some modern recipes use a shortcrust or other pastry and suggest baking it like a pasty, a method dating from a 1990s revival of the dish by a commercial bakery. Its name may refer to its dense consistency: Wright's 19th century English Dialect Dictionary recorded the phrase "clung dumplings" from Bedfordshire, citing "clungy" and "clangy" as adjectives meaning heavy or close-textured; the dumpling can be filled with liver and onion and potatoes, pork and onions, or other meat and vegetables, flavoured with the garden herb sage.
While savoury, the clanger was said to have been prepared with a sweet filling, such as jam or fruit, in one end. There is some doubt as to how much this was traditionally done in practice, though modern recipes imitate the folklore by including a sweet filling; the clanger was made by women for their husbands to take to their agricultural work as a midday meal: it has been suggested that the crust was not intended for consumption but to protect the fillings from the soiled hands of the workers. Clangers could be warmed by being wrapped in damp newspaper under a brazier. While sometimes associated with the hatmakers of the Luton district, the same dish was recorded in rural Buckinghamshire and western Hertfordshire, where it was sometimes called the Trowley Dumpling after the hamlet where it was supposed to have originated, it is still available at various bakers and served at some cafes and local places of interest. A similar dumpling was known in parts of Buckinghamshire Aylesbury Vale, as a "Bacon Badger".
It was made from bacon and onions, flavoured with sage and enclosed in a suet pastry case, was boiled in a cloth. The etymology of "badger" might relate to a former term for a dealer in flour. "Badger" was used in the Midland counties in the early 19th century to refer to a "cornfactor, mealman, or huckster". The same basic suet dumpling recipe is known by a variety of other names elsewhere in the country. A baked "clanger" featured as a signature bake in episode 8 of Series 8 of The Great British Bake Off. Pasty List of pastries Recipe from Bedford
A Bakewell tart is an English confection consisting of a shortcrust pastry shell beneath layers of jam, a topping of flaked almonds. It is a variant of the Bakewell pudding associated with the town of Bakewell in Derbyshire; the Bakewell tart developed as a variant of the Bakewell pudding in the 20th century. Although the terms Bakewell tart and Bakewell pudding have been used interchangeably, each name refers to a specific dessert recipe; the tart is associated with the town of Bakewell in Derbyshire, but there is no evidence that it originated there. A Cherry Bakewell known as a Bakewell cake, is a version of the tart where the frangipane is covered with a top layer of almond-flavoured fondant and a single half glacé cherry. In Gloucester, a similar tart was made using raspberry jam and almond essence. In 2013, council leader Paul James discovered a recipe for "Gloucester tart" in a Gloucester history book. Subsequently, Gloucester museums revived the recipe, serving complimentary Gloucester tarts to museum patrons.
List of almond dishes List of pastries List of pies and flans Food portal Bakewell Pudding or Bakewell Tart? - Bakewell.co.uk
British Rail Class 158
The British Rail Class 158 Express Sprinter is a diesel multiple-unit, built for British Rail between 1989 and 1992 by British Rail Engineering Limited at its Derby Litchurch Lane Works. They were built to replace many locomotive-hauled passenger trains, allowed cascading of existing Sprinter units to replace elderly'heritage' DMUs; the Class 159 DMUs are identical to the Class 158s, having been converted from Class 158 to Class 159 in two batches. A total of 182 units were built; the majority were built as two-car sets. 17 units were built as three-car units. The final ten units were built for West Yorkshire PTE Metro services around Leeds; when introduced, British Rail described the Class 158s as bringing "new standards of comfort and quality to rail travel on Regional Railways' key long-distance cross-country routes". As built, interiors were described as carpeted, with "panoramic" windows and a variety of seats arranged both airline-style and in bays of four around tables. Unlike previous members of the Sprinter family, such as the Class 156 SuperSprinter, the Class 158s featured air conditioning, an on-board payphone, power-operated interior doors, a toilet in each carriage, provision for a refreshment trolley service.
Despite an increased top speed of 90 miles per hour, the units promised a smoother, quieter ride than its predecessors. The Class 158s were expected to achieve 13,500 miles of operation between major services and a range of up to 1,600 miles from each refuelling. Despite the attention given to passenger facilities, the phrase "garden shed engineering" has been used to describe the build and technology of the Class 158s; as a lightweight unit and the first members of the Sprinter family to use disc brakes, autumn leaf mulch built up on wheel rims and prevented the units from operating signalling track circuits. Though solved by installing scrubbing blocks to clean the wheels, temporary solutions were sought in October 1992, with some units split and formed into hybrid units with Class 156 coaches, as the latter had tread brakes which cleaned the wheels as a by-product of their operation; the class has suffered from unreliable air-conditioning systems since the outlawing of the CFC gases with which they were designed to work.
Following privatisation, many operators undertook to re-engineer or replace such equipment. As a result, the systems in use and their effectiveness now vary across the fleet; the lightweight aluminium body of the Class 158s leads to a good'route availability' score, meaning that it is able to operate in parts of Britain where heavier units cannot. However, the units were refused permission by Network Rail to operate on the Conwy Valley and Borderlands lines due to station dwell times and issues of platform clearance. ScotRail was the first part of British Rail to introduce the Class 158s to public service in September 1990; these were employed on Glasgow Queen Street to Edinburgh Waverley services, as well as services to Aberdeen and Inverness. The Class 158s went on to be deployed elsewhere in Britain in the Midlands, Northern England and the South West. With the majority of the fleet coming under the control of the Regional Railways division, the Class 158s became a mainstay of secondary express services between provincial towns and cities.
Examples included long-distance Trans-Pennine services in the north of England, as well as a range of upgraded regional services under the Alphaline brand in the Midlands and the South West. A small batch of units numbered 158747-158751 were used by InterCity to supplement its core fleet on some cross-country services from the North West to Scotland, but to Portsmouth. Units appeared on off-peak workings between Birmingham and Manchester, on Sunday mornings between Birmingham and Doncaster. After the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 158 fleet was divided among several franchises; the first privatised incarnation of ScotRail inherited a 46-strong fleet. Following the introduction of newly built Class 170 Turbostar units on primary express services in 1999, the Class 158 fleet was reduced in number by six, with those remaining cascaded away to secondary routes such as the Far North Line. In 2003, plans existed for part of the fleet to be swapped with Class 156 units operated by Central Trains, as the latter were thought better suited to some of the short-distance routes now being operated by ScotRail's 158s.
However, this failed to materialise and by the mid-2000s operations of the ScotRail 158s ranged from short hops to rural lines and long-distance expresses, supplementing other express units. In 2010 these units started to appear at Glasgow Central station to run on the Glasgow Central to Edinburgh via Shotts line, on to the Glasgow Central to Whifflet line; some additional units have since been acquired from other operators to provide extra capacity. Refurbishment and reliverying has taken place since privatisation; the original ScotRail franchise applied its own livery to the Class 158s, followed by a further repaint by First ScotRail after it took control of the franchise. The fleet has now gained a permanent blue-and-white livery based on the Scottish Saltire, after Transport Scotland announced in September 2008 that it was specifying a permanent livery for all Scottish trains, which will not be changed in the event of a change of franchisee. Interiors have seen attention on more than one occasion.
The most recent refurbishment of 25 units involved repainting, new seating, extra luggag
Black bun is a type of fruit cake covered with pastry. It is Scottish in origin eaten on Twelfth Night but now enjoyed at Hogmanay; the cake mixture contains raisins, almonds, citrus peel, ginger and black pepper. It had been introduced following the return of Mary, Queen of Scots from France, but its original use at Twelfth Night ended with the Scottish Reformation, it was subsequently used for first-footing over Hogmanay. Black bun is a fruit cake wrapped in pastry; the cake itself is similar to a traditional Christmas cake or Christmas pudding mixture, including ingredients such as raisins and currants along with spices such as cinnamon, black pepper and allspice. It has been called a much bigger version of a Garibaldi biscuit, it has been suggested that the origin of that biscuit may have been influenced by the black bun because the inventor of the biscuit, John Carr, was Scottish. Outside Scotland, the black bun is eaten in the Appalachia region of the United States. In 2013, a recipe was demonstrated by Paul Hollywood on a Christmas special of The Great British Bake Off.
The cake was originated as a Scottish King cake for use on Twelfth Night on 5 January – the eve of Epiphany, the end of the Twelve Days of Christmas. It was introduced following the return of Mary, Queen of Scots from France, the tradition was that a bean was hidden in the cake – whoever found it became the King for the evening, it has been recorded that Mary herself participated in such games, in 1563 she dressed her childhood companion Mary Fleming in royal robes and jewellery after Fleming became Queen for the evening. This shocked the English Ambassador, who wrote "The Queen of the Bean was that day in a gown of cloth of silver, her head, her neck, her shoulders, the rest of her whole body, so beset with stones, that more in our whole jewel house was not to be found." Following the Scottish Reformation in 1560, the celebration of Christmas was outlawed in Scotland and the use of a King cake at that time ended. The black bun type of cake in its modern usage dates from the early nineteenth century called Scotch bun and Scotch Christmas bun.
The term "black bun" was first recorded in 1898, may have been a result of Robert Louis Stevenson referring to the cake as "a black substance inimical to life". The cake is now used as a Hogmanay custom, where people visit their neighbours after midnight to celebrate the New Year; this is called first-foot, the gift of a black bun was meant to symbolise that the receiving family would not go hungry during the forthcoming year. It was used a traditional cake to serve to those visiting homes as part of Hogmanay, to be consumed with whisky. List of pies and flans Food portal Scotland portal
Pasta is a staple food of Italian cuisine. Pasta is made from an unleavened dough of durum wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, formed into sheets or various shapes cooked by boiling or baking. Rice flour, or legumes, such as beans or lentils are sometimes used in place of wheat flour to yield a different taste and texture, or as a gluten-free alternative. Pastas are divided into two broad categories: fresh. Most dried pasta is produced commercially via an extrusion process, although it can be produced at home. Fresh pasta is traditionally produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines. Fresh pastas available in grocery stores are produced commercially by large-scale machines. Both dried and fresh pastas come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known by over 1300 documented names. In Italy, the names of specific pasta shapes or types vary by locale. For example, the pasta form cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending upon the town and region. Common forms of pasta include long and short shapes, flat shapes or sheets, miniature shapes for soup, those meant to be filled or stuffed, specialty or decorative shapes.
As a category in Italian cuisine, both fresh and dried pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes: as pasta asciutta, cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary side sauce or condiment. A third category is pasta al forno, in which the pasta is incorporated into a dish, subsequently baked in the oven. Pasta dishes are simple, but individual dishes vary in preparation; some pasta dishes are served for light lunches, such as pasta salads. Other dishes may be used for dinner. Pasta sauces may vary in taste and texture. In terms of nutrition, cooked plain pasta is 31% carbohydrates, 6% protein, low in fat, with moderate amounts of manganese, but pasta has low micronutrient content. Pasta may be made from whole grains. First attested in English in 1874, the word "pasta" comes from Italian pasta, in turn from Latin pasta, latinisation of the Greek παστά "barley porridge". In the 1st century AD writings of Horace, lagana were fine sheets of fried dough and were an everyday foodstuff.
Writing in the 2nd century Athenaeus of Naucratis provides a recipe for lagana which he attributes to the 1st century Chrysippus of Tyana: sheets of dough made of wheat flour and the juice of crushed lettuce flavoured with spices and deep-fried in oil. An early 5th century cookbook describes a dish called lagana that consisted of layers of dough with meat stuffing, an ancestor of modern-day lasagna. However, the method of cooking these sheets of dough does not correspond to our modern definition of either a fresh or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic ingredients and the shape; the first concrete information concerning pasta products in Italy dates from the 13th or 14th century. Historians have noted several lexical milestones relevant to pasta, none of which changes these basic characteristics. For example, the works of the 2nd century AD Greek physician Galen mention itrion, homogeneous compounds made of flour and water; the Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium, a kind of boiled dough, was common in Palestine from the 3rd to 5th centuries AD.
A dictionary compiled by the 9th century Arab physician and lexicographer Isho bar Ali defines itriyya, the Arabic cognate, as string-like shapes made of semolina and dried before cooking. The geographical text of Muhammad al-Idrisi, compiled for the Norman King of Sicily Roger II in 1154 mentions itriyya manufactured and exported from Norman Sicily: West of Termini there is a delightful settlement called Trabia, its ever-flowing streams propel a number of mills. Here there are huge buildings in the countryside where they make vast quantities of itriyya, exported everywhere: to Calabria, to Muslim and Christian countries. Many shiploads are sent. One form of itriyya with a long history is laganum, which in Latin refers to a thin sheet of dough, gives rise to Italian lasagna. In North Africa, a food similar to pasta, known as couscous, has been eaten for centuries. However, it lacks the distinguishing malleable nature of pasta, couscous being more akin to droplets of dough. At first, dry pasta was a luxury item in Italy because of high labor costs.
There is a legend of Marco Polo importing pasta from China which originated with the Macaroni Journal, published by an association of food industries with the goal of promoting pasta in the United States. Rustichello da Pisa writes in his Travels that Marco Polo described a food similar to "lagana". Jeffrey Steingarten asserts that Arabs introduced pasta in the Emirate of Sicily in the ninth century, mentioning that traces of pasta have been found in ancient Greece and that Jane Grigson believed the Marco Polo story to have originated in the 1920s or 30s in an advertisement for a Canadian spaghetti company. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the god Hephaestus invented a device that made strings of dough; this was the earliest reference to a pasta maker. In the 14th and 15th centuries, dried pasta became popular for its easy storage; this allowed people to store pasta on ships. A century pasta was present around the globe during the voyages of discovery. Although tomatoes were introduced to Italy in the 16th century and incorporated in Italian cuisine in the 17th century, description of the first