The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade
A halberd is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries. The word halberd is most equivalent to the German word Hellebarde, deriving from Middle High German halm and barte joint to helmbarte. Troops that used the weapon are called halberdiers; the halberd consists of an axe blade topped with a spike mounted on a long shaft. It always has a thorn on the back side of the axe blade for grappling mounted combatants, it is similar to certain forms of the voulge in design and usage. The halberd was 1.5 to 1.8 metres long. The word has been used to describe a weapon of the Early Bronze Age in Western Europe; this consisted of a blade mounted on a pole at a right angle. A similar weapon, the dagger-axe, from Bronze Age China, has been called "halberd" in English; the halberd was inexpensive to produce and versatile in battle. As the halberd was refined, its point was more developed to allow it to better deal with spears and pikes, as was the hook opposite the axe head, which could be used to pull horsemen to the ground.
A Swiss peasant used a halberd to kill Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, decisively ending the Burgundian Wars in a single stroke. Researchers suspect that a halberd or a bill sliced through the back of King Richard III's skull at the Battle of Bosworth; the halberd was the primary weapon of the early Swiss armies in the early 15th centuries. The Swiss added the pike to better repel knightly attacks and roll over enemy infantry formations, with the halberd, hand-and-a-half sword, or the dagger known as the Schweizerdolch used for closer combat; the German Landsknechte, who imitated Swiss warfare methods used the pike, supplemented by the halberd—but their side arm of choice was a short sword called the Katzbalger. As long as pikemen fought other pikemen, the halberd remained a useful supplemental weapon for push of pike, but when their position became more defensive, to protect the slow-loading arquebusiers and matchlock musketeers from sudden attacks by cavalry, the percentage of halberdiers in the pike units decreased.
The halberd all but disappeared as a rank-and-file weapon in these formations by the middle of the sixteenth century, though Hakluyt's'Voyages' relate the death of a halberdier named Zachary Saxy in fighting on the coast of Ecuador during Cavendish's circumnavigation in 1587. The halberd has been used as a court bodyguard weapon for centuries, is still the ceremonial weapon of the Swiss Guard in the Vatican and the Alabarderos Company of the Spanish Royal Guard; the halberd was one of the polearms sometimes carried by lower-ranking officers in European infantry units in the 16th through 18th centuries. In the British army, sergeants continued to carry halberds until 1793, when they were replaced by pikes with cross bars; the 18th century halberd had, become a symbol of rank with no sharpened edge and insufficient strength to use as a weapon. It served as an instrument for ensuring that infantrymen in ranks stood aligned with each other and that their muskets were aimed at the correct level.
Bardiche, a type of two-handed battle axe known in the 16th and 17th centuries in Eastern Europe Bill, similar to a halberd but with a hooked blade form. Ge or dagger-axe, a Chinese weapon in use from the Shang Dynasty that had a dagger-shaped blade mounted perpendicular to a spearhead Fauchard, a curved blade atop a 2 m pole, used in Europe between the 11th and 14th centuries Guisarme, a medieval bladed weapon on the end of a long pole. Lochaber axe, a Scottish weapon that had a heavy blade attached to a pole in a similar fashion to a voulge Naginata, a Japanese weapon that had a 30 cm – 60 cm long blade attached by a sword guard to a wooden shaft Partisan, a large double-bladed spearhead mounted on a long shaft that had protrusions on either side for parrying sword thrusts Pollaxe, an axe or hammer mounted on a long shaft—developed in the 14th century to breach the plate armour worn by European men-at-arms Ranseur, a pole weapon consisting of a spear-tip affixed with a cross hilt at its base derived from the earlier spetum Spontoon, a 17th-century weapon that consisted of a large blade with two side blades mounted on a long 2 m pole, considered a more elaborate pike Voulge, a crude single-edged blade bound to a wooden shaft War scythe, an improvised weapon that consisted of a blade from a scythe attached vertically to a shaft Welsh hook, similar to a halberd and thought to originate from a forest-bill Woldo, A Korean polearm that had a crescent-shaped blade mounted on a long shaft, similar in construction to the Chinese Guandao, served as a symbol of the Royal Guard Dagger-axe Viking halberd O'Flaherty, Ronan.
Brandtherm, Dirk & O'Flaherty, Ronan. R. E. Oakeshott, European weapons and armour: From the Renaissance to the industrial revolution, 44–48
Yasaka Shrine, once called Gion Shrine, is a Shinto shrine in the Gion District of Kyoto, Japan. Situated at the east end of Shijō-dōri, the shrine includes several buildings, including gates, a main hall and a stage. Initial construction on the Shrine began in 656; the Shrine became the object of Imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers be sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan; these heihaku were presented to 16 shrines. Three years in 994, Ichijō refined the scope of that composite list by adding Umenomiya Shrine and Gion Shrine. From 1871 through 1946, Yasaka Shrine was designated one of the Kanpei-taisha, meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines. In 869 the mikoshi of Gion Shrine were paraded through the streets of Kyoto to ward off an epidemic that had hit the city; this was the beginning of an annual festival which has become world famous. Today, in addition to hosting the Gion Matsuri, Yasaka Shrine welcomes thousands of people every New Year, for traditional Japanese New Year rituals and celebrations.
In April, the crowds pass through the temple on their way to a popular hanami site. Lanterns decorate the stage with the names of festival sponsors. List of Shinto shrines Twenty-Two Shrines Modern system of ranked Shinto Shrines Breen and Mark Teeuwen.. Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2363-4 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449 ____________.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
Today, English-speakers use the term lantern to describe many types of portable lighting, but lanterns originated as a protective enclosure for a light source—usually a candle or a wick in oil—to make it easier to carry and hang up, more reliable outdoors or in drafty interiors. Lanterns were made from a metal frame with several sides with a hook or a hoop of metal on top. Windows of some translucent material would be fitted in the sides, now glass or plastic but thin sheets of animal horn, or tinplate punched with holes or decorative patterns. Though used to prevent a burning candle or wick being extinguished from wind, rain or other causes, another important function was to reduce the risk of fire should a spark leap from the flame or the light be dropped; this was important below deck on ships: a fire on a wooden ship was a major catastrophe. Use of unguarded lights was taken so that obligatory use of lanterns, rather than unprotected flames, below decks was written into one of the few known remaining examples of a pirate code, on pain of severe punishment.
The term used was "lanthorn", believed to be due to popular etymology, from the early use of horn windows. Lanterns may be used for signaling, as torches, or as general light-sources outdoors. Low-light level varieties can function as decoration, can be a variety of colours and sizes; the term "lantern" is used more generically to mean a light source, or the enclosure for a light source. Examples are glass-pane enclosed street lights, or the housing for the top lamp and lens section of a lighthouse; the term is associated with Chinese paper lanterns. The word "lantern" comes via French from Latin "lanterna" itself derived from Greek. Lanterns, some using a wick in oil, others protected candle-holders, have been used functionally, for light rather than decoration, since antiquity. Before the development of glass sheets, animal horn scraped thin and flattened was used as the translucent window. Decorative lanterns exist in a wide range of designs; some hang from buildings. Paper lanterns are made in societies around the world.
Modern varieties place an electric light in a decorative glass case. The ancient Chinese sometimes captured fireflies in transparent or semi-transparent containers and used them as lanterns. Raise the Red Lantern, a Chinese film, prominently features lanterns as a motif. Lanterns are used in many Asian festivals. During the Ghost Festival, lotus shaped lanterns are set afloat in rivers and seas to symbolic guide the lost souls of forgotten ancestors to the afterlife. During the Lantern Festival, the displaying of many lanterns is still a common sight on the 15th day of the first lunar month throughout China. In other Chinese festivities, the kongming lanterns can be seen floating high into the sky during Chinese festivities. Lanterns are the central theme of the Seoul Lantern Festival, too. Use of fireflies in transparent containers was a widespread practice in ancient India, but since these were short term solutions, the use of fire torches was more prevalent. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, lanterns are used in religious processions and liturgical entrances coming before the processional cross.
Lanterns are used to transport the Holy Fire from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on Great Saturday during Holy Week. The derived term "lantern jaw" is used in two quite different still current ways, comparing faces with different types of lantern. According to the OED, it refers to "long thin jaws, giving a hollow appearance to the cheek". Another meaning comes from a 15th-century lantern with a jutting base, compared with the face of a person with mandibular prognathism, with extended chin known as Habsburg jaw or Habsburg lip as it was a hereditary feature of the House of Habsburg. All fueled lanterns are somewhat hazardous owing to the danger of handling flammable and toxic fuel, danger of fire or burns from the high temperatures involved, potential dangers from carbon monoxide poisoning if used in an enclosed environment. Simple wick lanterns remain available, they are cheap and durable, but are unsuitable for reading. They require periodic trimming of the wick and regular cleaning of soot from the inside of the glass chimney.
Mantle lanterns use a woven ceramic impregnated gas mantle to accept and re-radiate heat as visible light from a flame. The mantle does not burn; when heated by the operating flame the mantle becomes incandescent and glows brightly. The heat may be provided by a gas, by kerosene, or by a pressurized liquid such as "white gas", naphtha. For protection from the high temperatures produced and to stabilize the airflow, a cylindrical glass shield called the globe or chimney is placed around the mantle. Manually pressurized lanterns using white gas are manufactured by the Coleman Company in one and two-mantle models; some models are dual fuel and can use gasoline. These are being supplanted by a battery-powered fluorescent lamp and LED models, which are safer in the hands of young people and inside tents. Battery-operated lanterns are produced by many manufacturers including Coleman. Liquid fuel lanterns remain popular where the fuel is
A parade is a procession of people organized along a street in costume, accompanied by marching bands, floats, or sometimes large balloons. Parades are held for a wide range of reasons, but are celebrations of some kind. In Britain, the term parade is reserved for either military parades or other occasions where participants march in formation. In the Canadian Forces, the term has several less formal connotations. Protest demonstrations can take the form of a parade, but such cases are referred to as a march instead; the parade float got its name because the first floats were decorated barges that were towed along canals with ropes held by parade marchers on the shore. Floats were propelled from within by concealed oarsmen, but the practice was abandoned because of the high incidence of drowning when the lightweight and unstable frames capsized. Strikingly, among the first uses of grounded floats — towed by horses — was a ceremony in memory of drowned parade oarsmen. Today, parade floats are powered themselves.
Multiple grand marshals may be designated for an iteration of the parade, may or may not be in actual attendance due to circumstances. A community grand marshal or other designations may be selected alongside a grand marshal to lead the front or other parts of the parade. Since the advent of such technology, it became possible for aircraft and boats to parade. A flypast is an aerial parade of anything from one to dozens of aircraft, both in commercial context at airshows and to mark, e.g. national days or significant anniversaries. They are common in the United Kingdom, where they are associated with Royal occasions. For ships, there may be a sail-past of, e.g. tall ships or other sailing vessels as during the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of World War II. The longest parade in the world is the Hanover Schützenfest that takes place in Hanover every year during the Schützenfest; the parade is 12 kilometres long with more than 12,000 participants from all over the world, among them more than 100 bands and around 70 floats and carriages.
Boat Parade Carnival parade Cavalcade Circus Flypast Flower parade Lights and Sirens parade Military parade Motorcade Parade of horribles Pride parade Santa Claus parade Technoparade Ticker-tape parade Victory parade Walking day Anheuser-Busch Washington's Birthday Parade, held annually in Laredo, Texas Attestation Parade New South Wales Police College graduation parade in Goulburn, New South Wales, Australia. Bastille Day Military Parade - Held annually in Paris, France in celebration of the Bastille Day Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic - Second largest annual parade in the United States, Held on the second Saturday in August in Chicago, Illinois. Calgary Stampede Parade Carnaval San Francisco Carnival in the Netherlands Chief of Defence Force Parade - Australian Defence Force Academy - Marks completion of Initial Military Training for Officer Cadets and Midshipman at ADFA Dahlia parade in Zundert always held on the first Sunday in September Days of'47 Parade in Salt Lake City Day of the Armed Forces parade in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Defender of the Fatherland Day in Astana, Kazakhstan Disney Parks Christmas Day Parade Dragon of Shandon Samhain parade in Cork, held annually on the 31st of October at night Easter parade Gasparilla Pirate Festival in Tampa is the third largest parade in the US and commemorates a pirate sack of the city. Independence Day parade in Yerevan, Armenia International Bank of Commerce "Under the Stars" youth parade, held annually in Laredo, Texas Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade Mardi Gras Main Street Electrical Parade Marksmen's Parade, Hannover May Day Parade McDonald's Thanksgiving Parade, Illinois Mummers Parade World Famous Paint The Night Parade, Myeong-dong, Seoul National Memorial Day Parade New York's Village Halloween Parade Notting Hill Carnival Orange Bowl Parade Orange walk Orlando Citrus Parade Philippine Independence Day Parade Procession of the Species Republic Day Parade in India Republic Day Parade in Pakistan Rutland May Days - Kelowna BC Rose Parade in United States Saint Patrick's Day Parade Dublin, New York City and San Diego San Francisco Chinese New Year Festival and Parade Seminole Hard Rock Winterfest Boat Parade, Fort Lauderdale, Florida Singapore National Day Parade Torchlight Parade, Seattle WA Toronto Santa Claus Parade Tournament of Roses Parade Trooping the Colour Victory Day Parade, held annually in the Russian Federation held in Ukraine, celebrated in post-soviet nations.
Vikingland Band Festival Parade Marching Championship West Country Carnival Zinneke Parade At the end of hostilities in Europe in 1944-45, "victory parades" were a common feature throughout the liberated territories. For example, on 3 September 1944, the personnel of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division marched six abreast to the music of massed regimental pipe and drum bands through the streets of Dieppe, France to commemorate the liberation of the city from German occupation, as well as commemorate the loss of over 900 soldiers from that formation during the Dieppe Raid two years earlier. On the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 held in Moscow, Soviet Union in June 1945, the Red Army commemorated Victory in Europe with a parade and the ceremonial destruction of captured Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS standards. Anzac Day - Australia and New Zealand Army Day Canada Day Caribana Carnival Chinese New Year Christmas Easter Independence Day Labor Day Mardi Gras Memorial Day Navy Day New Year's Day The Olympics Pioneer Day - Days of'47 Parade
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa