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Giorgio Vasari

Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect and historian, best known for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. He was the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print. Vasari was born prematurely on 30 July 1511 in Tuscany. Recommended at an early age by his cousin Luca Signorelli, he became a pupil of Guglielmo da Marsiglia, a skillful painter of stained glass. Sent to Florence at the age of sixteen by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, he joined the circle of Andrea del Sarto and his pupils Rosso Fiorentino and Jacopo Pontormo, where his humanist education was encouraged, he was befriended by Michelangelo. He died on 27 June 1574 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, aged 62. In 1529, he visited Rome where he studied the works of Raphael and other artists of the Roman High Renaissance. Vasari's own Mannerist paintings were more admired in his lifetime than afterwards. In 1547 he completed the hall of the chancery in Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome with frescoes that received the name Sala dei Cento Giorni.

He was employed by members of the Medici family in Florence and Rome, worked in Naples and other places. Many of his pictures still exist, the most important being the wall and ceiling paintings in the Sala di Cosimo I in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, where he and his assistants were at work from 1555, the frescoes begun by him inside the vast cupola of the Duomo were completed by Federico Zuccari and with the help of Giovanni Balducci, he helped to organize the decoration of the Studiolo, now reassembled in the Palazzo Vecchio. In Rome he painted frescos in the Sala Regia. Among his other pupils or followers are included Sebastiano Flori, Bartolomeo Carducci, Domenico Benci, Tommaso del Verrocchio, Federigo di Lamberto, Niccolo Betti, Vittor Casini, Mirabello Cavalori, Jacopo Coppi, Piero di Ridolfo, Stefano Veltroni of Monte San Savino, Orazio Porta of Monte San Savino, Alessandro Fortori of Arezzo, Bastiano Flori of Arezzo, Fra Salvatore Foschi of Arezzo, Andrea Aretino. Aside from his career as a painter, Vasari was successful as an architect.

His loggia of the Palazzo degli Uffizi by the Arno opens up the vista at the far end of its long narrow courtyard. It is a unique piece of urban planning that functions as a public piazza, which, if considered as a short street, is unique as a Renaissance street with a unified architectural treatment; the view of the Loggia from the Arno reveals that, with the Vasari Corridor, it is one of few structures that line the river which are open to the river itself and appear to embrace the riverside environment. In Florence, Vasari built the long passage, now called Vasari Corridor, which connects the Uffizi with the Palazzo Pitti on the other side of the river; the enclosed corridor passes alongside the River Arno on an arcade, crosses the Ponte Vecchio and winds around the exterior of several buildings. It was once the home of the Mercado de Vecchio, he renovated the medieval churches of Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce. At both he removed the original rood screen and loft, remodelled the retro-choirs in the Mannerist taste of his time.

In Santa Croce, he was responsible for the painting of The Adoration of the Magi, commissioned by Pope Pius V in 1566 and completed in February 1567. It was restored, before being put on exhibition in 2011 in Rome and in Naples, it is planned to return it to the church of Santa Croce in Bosco Marengo. In 1562 Vasari built the octagonal dome on the Basilica of Our Lady of Humility in Pistoia, an important example of high Renaissance architecture. In Rome, Vasari worked with Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Bartolomeo Ammannati at Pope Julius III's Villa Giulia. Called "the first art historian", Vasari invented the genre of the encyclopedia of artistic biographies with his Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori, dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, first published in 1550, he was the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print, though an awareness of the ongoing "rebirth" in the arts had been in the air since the time of Alberti, he was responsible for our use of the term Gothic Art, though he only used the word Goth which he associated with the "barbaric" German style.

The Lives included a novel treatise on the technical methods employed in the arts. The book was rewritten and enlarged in 1568, with the addition of woodcut portraits of artists; the work has a consistent and notorious bias in favour of Florentines, tends to attribute to them all the developments in Renaissance art – for example, the invention of engraving. Venetian art in particular, is systematically ignored in the first edition. Between the first and second editions, Vasari visited Venice and while the second edition gave more attention to Venetian art, it did so without achieving a neutral point of view. There are many inaccuracies within his Lives. For example, Vasari writes that Andrea del Castagno killed Domenico Veneziano, not true, given Andrea died several years before Domenico. In another example, Vasari's biography of Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, whom he calls "Il Soddoma," published only in the Lives' second edition after Bazzi's death, condemns the artist as being immoral and vain. Vasari dismisses Bazzi's work as being

Pawtucket Congregational Church

The Pawtucket Congregational Church is an historic church building at 40 and 56 Walcott Street, at the junction of Broadway and Walcott St. in the Quality Hill neighborhood of Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Early in the town's history, the Baptists lived on the west side of the river, attended church services in Providence; the Congregationalists on the east side of the river attended services at the Newman Congregational Church three miles away in Rehoboth. The Congregationalists established their own Pawtucket Congregational Church on April 17, 1829, with nine members: eight women and one man; the first pastor was the Rev. Asa T. Hopkins; the congregation's first church was destroyed by fire in 1864. The Italianate/Romanesque style church building was designed by Boston, Massachusetts architect John Stevens and constructed in 1867–1868; the cost of construction was $64,000. By 1886 the congregation numbered 300 members. Members of the church included wealthy mill owners from Pawtucket and neighboring Central Falls, such as Darius Goff and Daniel Littlefield.

In 1936 a Colonial Revival parish house was built behind the church, to designs by local architects Monahan & Meikle. The church has been active in the community and leased a building to the first Rhode Island Children's Museum from the 1970s to 1990s; the church's main building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Since 2012, the church has been known as The Temple of Restoration Pentecostal Church, hosting a bilingual congregation. National Register of Historic Places listings in Pawtucket, Rhode Island NRHP Inventory Nomination Form The Temple of Restoration Pentecostal Church Temple of Restoration Church Facebook Page

Helen Lamoela

Helen Lamoela is a retired South Africa politician and educator. She served as a Member of the National Assembly from 2009 to 2014, representing the opposition Democratic Alliance, she served as Member of the National Council of Provinces from 2004 to 2009. She served in the Shadow Cabinet of Athol Trollip as Shadow Deputy Minister of Social Development from 2009 to 2012, in the Shadow Cabinet of Lindiwe Mazibuko as Shadow Minister of Women and Persons with Disabilities from 2012 to 2014. Lamoela was born in the Cape Eastern Cape, as it is presently known, she studied at the Zonnebloem College. She obtained a teaching diploma, she completed diplomas in business management and advanced bookkeeping. Lamoela joined the Democratic Party in 1992, she was appointed regional organiser for the Democratic Alliance in 2000 and was subsequently appointed an acting director of the Democratic Alliance in the western region of the province. She was elected to the National Council of Provinces in 2004, she was elected to the National Assembly in 2009.

Democratic Alliance Parliamentary Leader, Athol Trollip, announced his new Shadow Cabinet in May 2009. Lamoela was appointed Shadow Deputy Minister of Social Development, she served until February 2012. Lamoela was appointed Shadow Minister of Women and Persons with Disabilities. Lamoela left the National Assembly after the 2014 elections