Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Ascoli Piceno is a town and comune in the Marche region of Italy, capital of the province of the same name. Its population is around 48,278 but the urban area of the city has more than 93,000; the town lies at the confluence of the Tronto River and the small river Castellano and is surrounded on three sides by mountains. Two natural parks border the town, one on the northwestern flank and the other on the southern. Ascoli has good rail connections to the Adriatic coast and the city of San Benedetto del Tronto, by highway to Porto d'Ascoli and by the Italian National Road 4 Salaria to Rome. Ascoli was founded by an Italic population several centuries before Rome's founding on the important Via Salaria, the salt road that connected Latium with the salt production areas on the Adriatic coast. In 268 BC it became a "federated" city with nominal independence from Rome. In 91 BC, together with other cities in central Italy, it revolted against Rome, but in 89 BC was reconquered and destroyed by Pompeius Strabo.
Its inhabitants acquired Roman citizenship, following the developments and the eventual fall of the Roman Republic. During the Middle Ages Ascoli was ravaged by the Ostrogoths and by the Lombards of King Faroald. After nearly two centuries as part of the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto, Ascoli was ruled by the Franks through their vicars, but it was the bishops that gained influence and power over the city. In 1189 a free republican municipality was established but internal strife led to the demise of civic values and freedom and to unfortunate ventures against neighboring enemies; this unstable situation opened the way to foreign dictatorships, like those of Galeotto I Malatesta recruited as a mercenary in the war against Fermo, Francesco Sforza. Sforza was ousted in 1482. In 1860 it was annexed, together with Umbria, into the newly unified Kingdom of Italy. Many of the buildings in the central historical part of the city are built using marble called travertino, a grey-hued stone extracted from the surrounding mountains.
Its central Renaissance square, Piazza del Popolo is surrounded by a number of buildings utilizing this stone, now hosting open-air markets. A few blocks away, the Piazza Arringo, or piazza dell'Arengo, was the administrative and religious center of the town, surrounded by the Cathedral, the baptistery, the Bishop's residence, the Palace of the Commune. According to traditional accounts, Ascoli Piceno once housed some two hundred towers in the Middle Ages: today some fifty can still be seen. Main sights include: Cathedral of Sant'Emidio, dedicated to Saint Emygdius, houses an altarpiece by Carlo Crivelli. Tempietto di Sant'Emidio alle Grotte Tempietto di Sant'Emidio Rosso San Francesco: gothic style church begun in 1258; the dome was completed in 1549. A monument to Pope Julius II is in the side portal, while the central portal is one of the finest examples of local travertine decoration. Adjacent to the church is the 16th-century Loggia dei Mercanti, in Bramantesque style of the Roman High Renaissance.
Convent of San Francesco: adjacent to the above-named church, of which two noteworthy cloisters remain today. It was once a prestigious center of culture, whose students included Pope Sixtus V. Sant'Agostino: 14th century church built with a single nave, was enlarged with two aisles in the late 15th century; the rectangular façade has a 1547 portal similar to that of Sant'Emidio. The convent houses the Contemporary Art Gallery and an auditorium. San Cristoforo is a Catholic baroque church located in the historic center of the city. San Domenico: former convent, now school, has a Renaissance cloister with 17th-century frescoes. Santa Maria Inter Vineas: 13th century church San Pietro Martire: 13th century church with a 1523 side portal by Nicola Filotesio, known locally as Cola d'Amatrice; the interior contains the precious reliquary of a gift of Philip IV of France. San Tommaso: 1069 Romanesque-style church built with spolia from the neighboring Roman amphitheater. San Vittore: Romanesque church documented from 996 with a low bell tower.
Edicola di Morelli: Monumental baroque niche attached to the exterior of the church of San Francesco at the Piazza del Popolo. The niche housed a venerated Madonna image, putatively designed by Lazzaro Morelli, a disciple of Gianlorenzo Bernini; the Palazzo dei Capitani del Popolo. Built in the 13th century connecting three pre-existing edifices, it was the seat of the podestà, the people's captains and of the Papal governors. In the 15th century the southern side was enlarged, and, in 1520, a Mannerist façade was added in the rear side. In 1535 it underwent a general renovation, in 1549 a new portal, with a monument of Pope Paul III, was added. Palazzo dell'Arengo, located near the Cathedral Palazzo Malaspina: Palace in Corso Mezzini, previous 14th-century structure reconstructed in the 16th century using designs attributed to architect Cola dell'Amatrice. Roman Solestà Bridge Porta Gemina: an ancient Roman gate from the 1st century BC, through which the Via Salaria entered the city; the ruins of the ancient theater are located nearby.
It had two passageways, each 5.70 metres tall and 2.95 metres wide Porta Tufilla, a tower-like gate built in 1552–55. It is annexed to a medieval bridge built in 1097 over the River Tronto. Ponte di Cecco, over the Castellano identified of being of Roman Republican origin Ponte Maggiore ("Great
Accademia di San Luca
The Accademia di San Luca, was founded in 1577 as an association of artists in Rome, with the purpose of elevating the work of "artists", which included painters and architects, above that of mere craftsmen. Other founders included Pietro Olivieri; the Academy was named after Saint Luke the evangelist who, legend has it, made a portrait of the Virgin Mary, thus became the patron saint of painters' guilds. From the late 16th century until it moved to its present location at the Palazzo Carpegna, it was based in an urban block by the Roman Forum and although these buildings no longer survive, the Academy church of Santi Luca e Martina, does. Designed by the Baroque architect, Pietro da Cortona, its main facade overlooks the Forum; the Academy's predecessor was the Compagnia di San Luca, a guild of painters and miniaturists, which had its statutes and privileges renewed at the much earlier date of 17 December 1478 by Pope Sixtus IV. Included among its founding members, was the famous painter Melozzo da Forlì, as he was the pictor papalis in that period.
In 1605, Pope Paul V granted the Academy the right to pardon a condemned man on the feast of St. Luke. In the 1620s, Urban VIII extended its rights to decide, considered an artist in Rome and it came under the patronage of his nephew, Cardinal Francesco Barberini. In 1633, Urban VIII gave it the right to tax all artists as well as art-dealers, monopolize all public commissions; these latter measures raised strong opposition and were poorly enforced. Over the early years, the papal authorities exerted a large degree of control over the leadership of the institution; some modern critics have stated "with the ostensible purpose of giving artists a higher education and the real one of asserting the Church's control over art,". The prìncipi of the institution have included some of the pre-eminent painters of the 17th century, including Domenichino, Bernini and Romanelli. However, many prominent artists never were admitted to the academy. Artistic issues debated within the Academy included the Cortona-Sacchi controversy about the number of figures in a painting.
Disdain was espressed by many academicians for the Bamboccianti. Giovanni Bellori gave famous lectures on painting in the Academy. In the early 18th century, the painter Marco Benefial was inducted, expelled for criticizing the academy as an insider; the Academy is still active. From the beginning, the statutes of the Academy directed that each candidate-academician was to donate a work of his art in perpetual memory and a portrait, thus the Academy, in its current premises in the 16th-century Palazzo Carpegna, located in the Piazza dell'Accademia di San Luca, has accumulated a unique collection of paintings and sculptures, including about 500 portraits, as well as an outstanding collection of drawings. Prominent artists to become Principi of the academy over the first 200 years include: Claude Lorrain was a member but declined the offer of being principi; the Academy can boast modern members, including sculptors Ernesto Biondi and Piccirilli Brothers. Accademia Nazionale di San Luca Official site Galleria Nazionale di San Luca Accademia San Luca The History of the Accademia di San Luca, c.
1590–1635: Documents from the Archivio di Stato di Roma
A herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.. The specimens may be whole plants or plant parts; the specimens in a herbarium are used as reference material in describing plant taxa. The same term is used in mycology to describe an equivalent collection of preserved fungi, otherwise known as a fungarium. A xylarium is a herbarium specialising in specimens of wood; the term hortorium has been applied to a herbarium specialising in preserving material of horticultural origin. The oldest traditions of making herbarium collection or Hortus sicci have been traced to Italy. Luca Ghini and his students created herbaria of which the oldest extant one is that of Gherardo Cibo from around 1532. While most of the early herbaria were prepared with sheets bound into books, Carolus Linnaeus came up with the idea of maintaining them on free sheets that allowed their easy re-ordering within cabinets. Commensurate with the need of wildlife conservation, it is desirable to include in a herbarium sheet as much of the plant as possible, or at least representative parts of them in the case of large specimens.
To preserve their form and colour, plants collected in the field are arranged and spread flat between thin sheets, known as'flimsies', dried in a plant press, between blotters or absorbent paper. During the drying process the specimens are retained within their flimsies at all times to minimise damage, only the thicker, absorbent drying sheets are replaced. For some plants it may prove helpful to allow the fresh specimen to wilt before being arranged for the press. An opportunity to check and further lay out the specimen to best reveal the required features of the plant occurs when the damp absorbent sheets are changed during the drying/pressing process; the specimens, which are mounted on sheets of stiff white paper, are labelled with all essential data, such as date and place found, description of the plant and special habitat conditions. The sheet is placed in a protective case; as a precaution against insect attack, the pressed plant is frozen or poisoned, the case disinfected. Certain groups of plants are soft, bulky, or otherwise not amenable to drying and mounting on sheets.
For these plants, other methods of preparation and storage may be used. For example, conifer cones and palm fronds may be stored in labelled boxes. Representative flowers or fruits may be pickled in formaldehyde to preserve their three-dimensional structure. Small specimens, such as mosses and lichens, are air-dried and packaged in small paper envelopes. No matter the method of preservation, detailed information on where and when the plant was collected, habitat and the name of the collector is included; the value of a herbarium is much enhanced by the possession of “types”, that is, the original specimens on which the study of a species was founded. Thus the herbarium at the British Museum, rich in the earlier collections made in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, contains the types of many species founded by the earlier workers in botany, it is rich in types of Australian plants from the collections of Sir Joseph Banks and Robert Brown, contains in addition many valuable modern collections.
Most herbaria utilize a standard system of organizing their specimens into herbarium cases. Specimen sheets are stacked in groups by the species to which they belong and placed into a large lightweight folder, labelled on the bottom edge. Groups of species folders are placed together into larger, heavier folders by genus; the genus folders are sorted by taxonomic family according to the standard system selected for use by the herbarium and placed into pigeonholes in herbarium cabinets. Locating a specimen filed in the herbarium requires knowing the nomenclature and classification used by the herbarium, it requires familiarity with possible name changes that have occurred since the specimen was collected, since the specimen may be filed under an older name. Modern herbaria maintain electronic databases of their collections. Many herbaria have initiatives to digitize specimens to produce a virtual herbarium; these records and images are made publicly accessible via the Internet. Herbarium collections can have great significance and value to science, have a large number of uses.
Herbaria are essential for the study of plant taxonomy, the study of geographic distributions, the stabilizing of nomenclature. Linnaeus's herbarium now belongs to the Linnean Society in England. Specimens housed in herbaria may identify the flora of an area. A large collection from a single area is used in writing a field guide or manual to aid in the identification of plants that grow there. With more specimens available, the author of the guide will better understand the variability of form in the plants and the natural distribution over which the plants grow. Herbaria preserve a historical record of change in vegetation over time. In some cases, plants may become extinct altogether. In such cases, specimens preserved in a herbarium can represent the only record of the plant's original distribution. Environmental scientists make use of such data to track changes in human impact. Herbaria have proven useful as source
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
An antependium known as a parament or hanging, or, when speaking of the hanging for the altar, an altar frontal, is a decorative piece of textile, but metalwork, stone or other material that can adorn a Christian altar. And as the etymology of the word suggests, an antependium hangs down in front of whatever it covers, is to be distinguished from the altar linens which are used in the service of the Eucharist, an altar cloth which covers the top of the altar table. "Antependium" is the word used for elaborate fixed altar frontals, which, in large churches and in the Ottonian art of the Early Medieval period, were sometimes of gold studded with gems and ivories, in other periods and churches carved stone, painted wood panel, stucco, or other materials, such as azulejo tiling in Portugal. When the front of an altar is elaborately carved or painted, the additional cloth altar frontal reaches down only a few inches from the top of the altar table. In other cases it may reach to the floor. In both situations, it will cover the entire width of the altar.
A "Jacobean frontal" will cover the entire altar. The Anglican Canons of 1603 order that the Lord's Table should be "covered, in time of Divine Service, with a carpet of silk or other decent stuff, thought meet by the Ordinary of the place". Covers for lecterns and pulpits are similar to a frontlet covering the "desk" of the lectern or pulpit and handing down about a foot or longer in front. In the Orthodox Church, the Holy Table may be covered with two coverings. There is always an outer frontal, covering the top of the Holy Table and hanging down several inches on all four sides; this kind is used alone if the front of the Holy Table is elaborately decorated. For a "fully vested" Holy Table, a second, inner hanging is used; this covers the Holy Table on the top and hangs down to the floor on all four sides. The analogia are covered with a covering known as a proskynitarion; as with the coverings used on the Holy Table, there may, again, be only one outer covering or a second, inner covering that hangs to the floor.
A cloth antependium is of the same colour and of the same fabric and similar style as the vestments worn by the clergy. The fabric may vary from simple material, such as cotton or wool, to exquisitely wrought damasks, fine watermarked silk, velvet, or satin. Embellishment is by means of decorative bands of material called orphreys, embroidery or appliqués, fringes and tassels, all of a complementary colour to the fabric; the most used symbol on both vestments and hangings is the cross. The antependium is lined in satin, using a matching hue; the colours used tend to be suggested by the liturgical tradition of each denomination. Most Western Christian churches that observe a developed liturgical tradition use white, red, green and black, with each being used on specified occasions. A rose colour may be employed for the third Sunday in Advent. In Anglican circles, blue is sometimes prescribed for feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, although it is used, unofficially, in some areas of the Roman Catholic Church.
Among Eastern Christians, there tend to be two types of vestments: festal ones. Beyond that, no specific colours are required. Among groups such as the Russian Orthodox Church, a pattern of fixed colours has developed, somewhat similar to that used in the West, although they are not speaking, required. Antipendium can be used to describe the front of the altar itself if it is elaborately carved or gilded; the famous Pala d'Oro in St. Mark's Basilica in Venice originated as an antependium, although it is used as a reredos now. Altar cloth Liturgical colours Altar Frontal article from the Catholic Encyclopedia Orthodox altar with red frontal Jacobean Frontal St. John's Church, Scotland
Tempera known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium glutinous material such as egg yolk. Tempera refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are long lasting, examples from the first century CE still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint consisting of pigment and binder used in the United States as poster paint is often referred to as "tempera paint," although the binders in this paint are different from traditional tempera paint. Tempera painting has been found on early Egyptian sarcophagi decorations. Many of the Fayum mummy portraits use tempera, sometimes in combination with encaustic. A related technique has been used in ancient and early medieval paintings found in several caves and rock-cut temples of India. High-quality art with the help of tempera was created in Bagh Caves between the late 4th and 10th centuries CE and in the 7th century CE in Ravan Chhaya rock shelter, Orissa.
The art technique was known from the classical world, where it appears to have taken over from encaustic painting and was the main medium used for panel painting and illuminated manuscripts in the Byzantine world and Medieval and Early renaissance Europe. Tempera painting was the primary panel painting medium for nearly every painter in the European Medieval and Early renaissance period up to 1500. For example, every surviving panel painting by Michelangelo is egg tempera. Oil paint, which may have originated in Afghanistan between the 5th and 9th centuries and migrated westward in the Middle Ages superseded tempera. Oil replaced tempera as the principal medium used for creating artwork during the 15th century in Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe. Around 1500, oil paint replaced tempera in Italy. In the 19th and 20th centuries, there were intermittent revivals of tempera technique in Western art, among the Pre-Raphaelites, Social Realists, others. Tempera painting continues to be used in Greece and Russia where it is the traditional medium for Orthodox icons.
The term tempera is derived from the Late Latin distemperare. Tempera is traditionally created by hand-grinding dry powdered pigments into a binding agent or medium, such as egg yolk, milk and a variety of plant gums; the most common form of classical tempera painting is "egg tempera". For this form most only the contents of the egg yolk is used; the white of the egg and the membrane of the yolk are discarded. Egg yolk is used by itself with pigment; some agent is always added, in variable proportions. One recipe calls for vinegar, but only in small amounts. A few drops of vinegar will preserve the solution for a week. (1:3, 3 parts water, 1 part yolk. Some schools of egg tempera use various mixtures of egg water. Powdered pigment, or pigment, ground in distilled water, is placed onto a palette or bowl and mixed with a equal volume of the binder; some pigments require more binder, some require less. When used to paint icons on church walls, liquid myrrh is sometimes added to the mixture to give the paint a pleasing odor as worshipers may find the egg tempera somewhat pungent for quite some time after completion.
The paint mixture has to be adjusted to maintain a balance between a "greasy" and "watery" consistency by adjusting the amount of water and yolk. As tempera dries, the artist will add more water to preserve the consistency and to balance the thickening of the yolk on contact with air. Once prepared, the paint cannot be stored. Egg tempera is not waterproof. Different preparations use the egg white or the whole egg for a different effect. Other additives such as oil and wax emulsions can modify the medium. Egg tempera requires stiff boards. Adding oil in no more than a 1:1 ratio with the egg yolk by volume produces a water-soluble medium with many of the color effects of oil paint, although it cannot be painted thickly; some of the pigments used by medieval painters, such as cinnabar, orpiment, or lead white are toxic. Most artists today use modern synthetic pigments, which are less toxic but have similar color properties to the older pigments. So, many modern pigments are still dangerous unless certain precautions are taken.
Tempera paint dries rapidly. It is applied in thin, semi-opaque or transparent layers. Tempera painting allows for great precision when used with traditional techniques that require the application of numerous small brush strokes applied in a cross-hatching technique; when dry, it produces a smooth matte finish. Because it cannot be applied in thick layers as oil paints can, tempera paintings have the deep color saturation that oil paintings can achieve because it can hold less pigment. In this respect, the colors of an unvarnished tempera painting resemble a pastel, although the color deepens if a varnish is applied. On the other hand, tempera colors do not change over time, whereas oil paints darken and become transparent with age. Tempera adheres best to an absorbent ground that has a lower oil co