Nobility of Italy
The Nobility of Italy comprises individuals and their families of the Italian peninsula, the islands linked with it, recognized by sovereigns, such as the Holy Roman Emperor, the Holy See, the Kings of Italy, certain other Italian kings and sovereigns, as members of a class of persons enjoying hereditary privileges which distinguished them from other persons and families. They held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1871, "Italy" was not a single country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states, with many reigning dynasties; these were related through marriage to each other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a large nobility in Italy. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, the existence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Parma, the Duchy of Modena, the Duchy of Savoy, the Duchy of Milan, the Papal States, various republics and the Austrian and French dependencies in Northern Italy led to parallel nobilities with different traditions and rules.
16th-, 17th- and 18th-century Italy was home to myriad noble families that had risen to prominence via judicial appointment, election to the various regional senates or appointment to Catholic Church office. There were families, part of Italian nobility for many decades or centuries. Writing in the 19th century, Leopold von Ranke recorded: In the middle of the seventeenth century there were computed to be fifty noble families in Rome of three hundred years' standing, thirty-five of two hundred, sixteen of one hundred years. None were permitted to claim a more ancient descent, or were traced to an obscure, or a low origin. During this period, throughout Italy, various influential families came to positions of power through the election of a family member as Pope or were elevated into the ranks of nobility through ecclesiastic promotion; these families intermarried with aristocratic nobility. Like other noble families, those with both papal power and money were able to purchase comunes or other tracts of land and elevate family patriarchs and other relatives to noble titles.
Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke and Prince of various 16th- and 17th-century principalities. According to Ranke: Under Innocent X, there existed for a considerable time, as it were, two great factions, or associations of families; the Orsini, Borghese, Aldobrandini and Giustiniani were with the Pamphili. Popes elevated members of prominent families to the position of Cardinal. Popes elevated their own family members – nephews – to the special position of Cardinal-Nephew. Prominent families could purchase curial offices for their sons and did, hoping that the son would rise through Church ranks to become a Bishop or a Cardinal, from which position they could dispense further titles and positions of authority to other family members; the period was famous for papal nepotism and many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, benefited from having a papal relative. Families, limited to agricultural or mercantile ventures found themselves, sometimes within only one or two generations, elevated to the Roman nobility when a relative was elected to the papal throne.
Modern Italy is dotted with the fruits of their success – various family palazzi remain standing today as a testament to their sometimes meteoric rise to power. Modern Italy became a nation-state during the Risorgimento on 17 March 1861, when most of the states of the peninsula and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies were united under King Victor Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty, hitherto monarch of the Kingdom of Sardinia, a realm that included Piedmont; the architect of Italian unification was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel. Rome itself remained for a further decade under the Papacy, became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. In September of that year, invading Italian troops entered the city, the ensuing occupation forced Pope Pius IX to his palace where he declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican, as did his successors, until the Lateran Pacts of 1929. Under the united Kingdom of Italy a new national nobility, with an attempt to impose a uniform nobiliary law, was created, including male succession, some acknowledgement by the King of Italy of titles conferred by Francis II of the Two Sicilies in exile by making new grants in the same name.
Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility. After the unification, the kings of Italy continued to create titles of nobility to eminent Italians, this time with a validity for all of the Italian territory. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification; the practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be made by the Prime Minister of Italy and approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government. Examples include General Armando Diaz, Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Commodore Luigi Rizzo, Costanzo Ciano, Dino Grandi (Conte di Mordan
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, led by the Venetian Republic and the Spanish Empire, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras. The Ottoman forces were sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto when they met the fleet of the Holy League, sailing east from Messina, Sicily; the Holy League was a coalition of European Catholic maritime states, arranged by Pope Pius V and led by John of Austria. The league was financed by Philip II of Spain, the Venetian Republic was the main contributor of ships. In the history of naval warfare, Lepanto marks the last major engagement in the Western world to be fought entirely between rowing vessels, namely the galleys and galeasses which were the direct descendants of ancient trireme warships; the battle was in essence an "infantry battle on floating platforms". It was the largest naval battle in Western history since classical antiquity, involving more than 400 warships.
Over the following decades, the increasing importance of the galleon and the line of battle tactic would displace the galley as the major warship of its era, marking the beginning of the "Age of Sail". The victory of the Holy League is of great importance in the history of Europe and of the Ottoman Empire, marking the turning-point of Ottoman military expansion into the Mediterranean, although the Ottoman wars in Europe would continue for another century, it has long been compared to the Battle of Salamis, both for tactical parallels and for its crucial importance in the defense of Europe against imperial expansion. It was of great symbolic importance in a period when Europe was torn by its own wars of religion following the Protestant Reformation, strengthening the position of Philip II of Spain as the "Most Catholic King" and defender of Christendom against Muslim incursion. Historian Paul K. Davis writes that, "More than a military victory, Lepanto was a moral one. For decades, the Ottoman Turks had terrified Europe, the victories of Suleiman the Magnificent caused Christian Europe serious concern.
The defeat at Lepanto further exemplified the rapid deterioration of Ottoman might under Selim II, Christians rejoiced at this setback for the infidels. The mystique of Ottoman power was tarnished by this battle, Christian Europe was heartened." The Christian coalition had been promoted by Pope Pius V to rescue the Venetian colony of Famagusta on the island of Cyprus, being besieged by the Turks in early 1571 subsequent to the fall of Nicosia and other Venetian possessions in Cyprus in the course of 1570. On 1 August the Venetians had surrendered after being reassured. However, the Ottoman commander, Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha, who had lost some 50,000 men in the siege, broke his word, imprisoning the Venetians. On 17 August Marco Antonio Bragadin was flayed alive and his corpse hung on Mustafa's galley together with the heads of the Venetian commanders, Astorre Baglioni, Alvise Martinengo and Gianantonio Querini; the members of the Holy League were the Republic of Venice, the Spanish Empire, the Papal States, the Republic of Genoa, the Duchies of Savoy and Tuscany, the Knights Hospitaller and others.
The banner for the fleet, blessed by the Pope, reached the Kingdom of Naples on 14 August 1571. There, in the Basilica of Santa Chiara, it was solemnly consigned to John of Austria, named leader of the coalition after long discussions among the allies; the fleet moved to Sicily and, leaving Messina, reached the port of Viscardo in Cephalonia, where news arrived of the fall of Famagusta and of the torture inflicted by the Turks on the Venetian commander of the fortress, Marco Antonio Bragadin. All members of the alliance viewed the Ottoman navy as a significant threat, both to the security of maritime trade in the Mediterranean Sea and to the security of continental Europe itself. Spain was the largest financial contributor, though the Spaniards preferred to preserve most of their galleys for Spain's own wars against the nearby sultanates of the Barbary Coast rather than expend its naval strength for the benefit of Venice; the combined Christian fleet was placed under the command of John of Austria with Marcantonio Colonna as his principal deputy.
The various Christian contingents met the main force, that of Venice, in July and August 1571 at Messina, Sicily. The Christian fleet consisted of 206 galleys and six galleasses and was commanded by Spanish Adm. John of Austria, the illegitimate son of Emperor Charles V and half-brother of King Philip II of Spain, supported by the Spanish commanders Don Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga and Don Álvaro de Bazán, Genoan commander Gianandrea Doria; the Republic of Venice contributed 109 galleys and six galleasses, 49 galleys came from the Spanish Empire, 27 galleys of the Genoese fleet, seven galleys from the Papal States, five galleys from the Order of Saint Stephen and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, three galleys each from the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta and some owned galleys in Spanish service. This fleet of the Christian alliance was manned by oarsmen. In addition, it carried 20,000 fighting troops: 7,000 Spanish regular infantry of excellent quality
Piali Pasha, was an Ottoman Grand Admiral between 1553 and 1567, a Vizier after 1568. He is known as Piale Pasha in English. Born in Viganj on the Pelješac peninsula, he was of Croatian origin, he became an Ottoman soldier under Turgut Reis. Piyale Pasha received his formal education at the Enderun School in Ottoman Empire, he graduated from the Enderun with the title of Kapıcıbaşı and was appointed Sanjak Bey of Gallipoli. He was promoted to Bahriye Beylerbeyi and became Admiral-in-Chief of the Ottoman Fleet at the age of 39. In 1554 he captured the islands of Elba and Corsica with a large fleet which included famous Ottoman admirals like Turgut Reis and Salih Reis; the following year Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent assigned him with the task of helping France against the Spaniards upon request by the mother of King Francis II, Piyale Pasha set sail on 26 June 1555. The Ottoman fleet met the French fleet at Piombino and repulsed a Spanish attack on France while conquering several Spanish fortresses on the Mediterranean Sea.
In June 1558, joined by Turgut Reis, Piyale Pasha sailed to the Strait of Messina and the two admirals captured Reggio Calabria. From there, they went to the Aeolian Islands and captured several of them, before landing at Amalfi, the Gulf of Salerno, capturing Massa Lubrense and Sorrento, they landed at Torre del Greco, the coasts of Tuscany, Piombino. In September 1558 they assaulted the coasts of Spain before capturing Menorca and inflicting particular damage on the island's ports; this caused fear throughout the Mediterranean coasts of Spain, King Philip II appealed to Pope Paul IV and his allies in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat. In 1560 King Philip II succeeded in organizing a Holy League between Spain, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta; the joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of 54 galleys and 66 other types of vessels under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria.
On 12 March 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. As a response, Suleiman the Magnificent sent an Ottoman fleet of 86 galleys and galliots under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on 11 May 1560 and destroyed the Christian fleet in a matter of hours at the Battle of Djerba. Giovanni Andrea Doria managed to escape with a small vessel, but the surviving Christians, now under the command of Álvaro de Sande, took refuge in the fort on the island of Djerba which they had constructed during the expedition. Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis forced the garrison to surrender and Piyale Pasha took 5,000 prisoners, including de Sande, to Constantinople, where he was met by joyous crowds, he married Sultana Gevher Han, daughter of Suleiman's son Selim II. In 1563 Piyale Pasha captured Naples and the fortresses around the city on behalf of France, but after the Ottoman forces left the city the French could not hold on to these and the Spaniards took them back.
In 1565 Piyale Pasha, together with the general Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha and Turgut Reis, was charged by Suleiman with the capture of Malta, but the effort failed in the face of determined resistance by the Maltese Knights, costing the Ottoman fleet not only large numbers of casualties, but the life of Turgut Reis. In 1566 Piyale captured the island of Chios and brought an end to the Genoese presence in the Aegean Sea, he landed on Apulia in Italy and captured several strategic fortresses. In 1568 he was promoted to Vizier. In 1570 he set sail for Cyprus a Venetian possession, with a large invasion force on board his ships. Having left Constantinople on 15 May 1570, the fleet arrived at Cyprus on 1 July 1570. On 22 July the Turks, under the command of Lala Mustafa, commenced the siege of Nicosia, capturing the city on 9 September. After capturing Paphos and Larnaca in rapid succession, they surrounded Magosa, the final Venetian stronghold on the island, on 18 September 1570 and took it on 1 August 1571, completing the conquest of Cyprus.
After the defeat of the Ottoman fleet under the command of Müezzinzade Ali Pasha at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, Piyale Pasha was called to take back the command of the Ottoman navy. The Ottomans managed to rebuild a fleet as large as that lost at Lepanto in less than a year, Uluç Ali Reis reconquered Tunisia from Spain and their Hafsid vassals in 1574. In 1573 Piyale Pasha once again landed on Puglia in Italy; this was his final naval expedition. Piyale Pasha died on 21 January 1578 and is buried at the Piyale Pasha Mosque in Istanbul which he had built, under the direction of the architect Mimar Sinan, in his final years. Several warships of the Turkish Navy have been named after him. List of Kapudan Pashas Ottoman Navy E. Hamilton Currey, Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean, London, 1910 Bono, Salvatore: Corsari nel Mediterraneo, Oscar Storia Mondadori. Perugia, 1993. Corsari nel Mediterraneo: Condottieri di ventura. Online database in Italian, based on Salvatore Bono's book. Bradford, The Sultan's Admiral: The life of Barbarossa, London, 1968.
Wolf, John B. The Barbary Coast: Algeria under the Turks, New York, 1979. Turkish Navy official website: Historic heritage of t
Melfi is a town and comune in the Vulture area of the province of Potenza, in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata. In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. On a hill at the foot of Mount Vulture, Melfi is the most important town in Basilicata's Vulture, both as a tourist resort and economic centre, its municipality lies next to the borders with Campania and Apulia, borders with Aquilonia, Ascoli Satriano, Lacedonia, Monteverde, Rionero in Vulture and Rocchetta Sant'Antonio. Its hamlets are the villages of Camarda, Foggianello, Isca ricotta, Masseria Casella, Masseria Catapane, Masseria Menolecchia, San Giorgio di Melfi, San Nicola and Villa Mariannina. Inhabited by the Daunians and Lucanians, under the Romans it was included in the area of the colony of Venusia, founded in 291 BC. After the fall of Western Roman Empire, Melfi gained importance in the Middle Ages as a strategic point between areas controlled by the Byzantines and those controlled by the Lombards. Melfi was captured several times by the struggling powers of the region, until it was assigned to the Norman leader William I of Hauteville.
The Hauteville family started from here their conquest of southern Italy, which, in the early 12th century, led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1059 Melfi became the capital of the Duchy of Apulia. Papal councils were held in the city in the same year and in 1109. In 1231, Emperor Frederick II proclaimed the Constitutions of Melfi here, reinforcing control over his ever-expanding territory, he created a bureaucracy of paid officials, who among other things imposed a tax system on the local feudal rulers, who resented it but could not resist. The town shared the fate of the entire Kingdom of Naples, falling into a long period of decline. Under the Angevin crown, Charles II ordered the castle to be renovated and enlarged, making it the official residence of his wife Mary of Hungary. During the war between Francis I of France and Charles V of Spain for the Kingdom of Naples, the French army headed by Odet de Foix sieged Melfi in March 1528, slaying about 3.000 people, without sparing women or children.
Beating the French occupation, Charles V gave to Andrea Doria the title of Prince of Melfi, for having fought for his cause. His family held the city until the end of the feudal system and maintained properties and estates until the agrarian reform in the middle of the 20th century. During the Parthenopean Republic, proclaimed in 1799, Melfi was controlled by the republicans until the arrival of the sanfedisti headed by the cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo on May 29 of the same year. Unlike other centers, Ruffo was able to prevent the sack of Melfi, although many revolutionaries died in prisons due to diseases or abuses. After the Italian unification, Melfi was involved in a bloody civil war labeled as brigandage and was occupied by the peasant army of Carmine Crocco on April 15, 1861. During the Fascist regime, it was land of exile for antifascists such as Manlio Rossi-Doria, Franco Venturi, Eugenio Colorni and his wife Ursula Hirschmann. Melfi was devastated by the 1930 Irpinia earthquake and, during the Second World War, suffered a bombardment by the Allied Forces on September 26, 1943.
The city enjoyed a revival of sorts from the end of the 20th century, has gained additional prosperity when the Italian auto firm FIAT built a factory here. Melfi was candidated as a capital of an autonomous province for several times; the first proposal dates back to 1866 and many were advanced over the years. The Castle, dominates the whole town, it was constructed ex novo by the Normans, as no trace of pre-existing Byzantine or Lombard edifices has been found. It was a simple rectangle with square towers, with further towers defending the main gate. One of the main internal buildings was turned into a baronial palace by enclosing the walls between the towers within new walls. Under the Angevine rule a new section was added on the slope descending to the Melfia stream, with several constructions rising at different altitudes; the Castle was chosen by Mary of Hungary, as her residence. The Aragon kings gave it to the Caracciolo family, who rebuilt the side facing the city and dug a moat, it was a possession of the powerful House of Doria.
The Duomo, built in the 11th century for want of Robert Guiscard, it was rehandled in the baroque style after the earthquakes, with exception of the original Norman bell tower. The interior contains the Madonna with Child and Angels; the Palazzo del Vescovado, erected in the 11th century but rebuilt in the baroque style in the 18th century because of the earthquakes. It contains paintings by Nicholas of Cristiano Danona; the town winds along the Norman walls, with various gates, the most noteworthy being the Venosina gate, an ogival arch with two cylindrical towers on either side. Since 1976 the Castle is home to the important Museo Nazionale Archeologico Melfese, with artifacts found in the area, from prehistoric times and all periods of settlement including the Daunian, Samnite and Roman periods; the most famous piece is the sarcophagus of Rapolla, a valuable example of imperial sculpture from the 2nd century CE, which came to light in 1856. There are collections of the archaic era with male and female funerary objects including amber pendants a
Tursi is a town and comune in the province of Matera, in the southern Italian region of Basilicata. In the 9th century it was a stronghold of the Saracens in southern Italy. In 968, Tursi became the capital of the Byzantine theme of Lucania and the seat of the bishop was transferred there from Anglona. Within the present municipality of Tursi there was a Greek colony called Pandosia, inland from the younger and more powerful Greek colony of Heraclea, so that it was in vicinity of Pandosia that what is known as the Battle of Heraclea was fought in 280 BC, it was destroyed in the Social War. The town of Anglona arose on its ruins, the first documentary evidence of the name being of the year 747: locus qui dicitur Anglonum. In 410 it was destroyed by the troops of Odoacer, in the 9th century a Saracen raid led to its temporary abandonment; the Byzantine reconquest under Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas of what became the (theme of Lucania in about 968, made Tursi the capital of the theme. The seat of the bishopric was moved from Anglona to the new capital.
At the end of the 11th century, the bishop's seat was again moved to Anglona, which held a better strategic position. It was at this time that the prestigious sanctuary church of Saint Mary of Anglona was built on the site of an earlier church. However, in the following centuries Anglona declined and Tursi became again more important. After some leading figures in Tursi destroyed the town of Anglona, the seat of the bishop was transferred again to Tursi by decrees of 1545 and 1546, which however required that Anglona was to have first place in the denomination of was called the Diocese of Anglona and Tursi. A restructuring of the dioceses of Basilicata on 8 September 1976 included a change of the name to Diocese of Tursi-Lagonegro, making Anglona a titular see; the Sanctuary of Saint Mary of Anglona is a national monument. It is on a hill at 263 metres above sea level and was built from the 11th-12th centuries by enlarging a pre-existing small church, it is a tuff and travertine construction notable for the external decoration of the apse, with numerous small arches, sculpted panels and a large central window flanked by small columns.
The narthex of the entrance has a portal with reliefs with the lamb, symbols of the four Evangelists and other symbolic figures. The bell tower is in Romanesque style The church is on the Latin cross plan, with a nave and two aisles separated by five arcades in different styles. Traces of the 14th-century frescoes with Scenes of the Old and Testament have been restored. In the ancient semi-fortified village of Rabatana there are the remains of a castle built in the 5th century by the Ostrogoths. There is the church of Santa Maria Maggiore (10th-11th centuries: rebuilt in the Baroque style, it has maintained its 15th-century façade; the interior has a nave and two aisles, is home to a priceless 14th century triptych portraying the Virgin Enthroned with Child and Scenes of the Life of Jesus, attributed to the school of Giotto. The cathedral of Tursi dates from the 15th-16th centuries