Giovanni Battista Piranesi was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons". He was the father of Laura Piranesi. Piranesi was born in Mogliano Veneto, near Treviso part of the Republic of Venice, his father was a stonemason. His brother Andrea introduced him to Latin language and the ancient civilization, he was apprenticed under his uncle, Matteo Lucchesi, a leading architect in Magistrato delle Acque, the state organization responsible for engineering and restoring historical buildings. From 1740, he had an opportunity to work in Rome as a draughtsman for Marco Foscarini, the Venetian ambassador of the new Pope Benedict XIV, he resided in the Palazzo Venezia and studied under Giuseppe Vasi, who introduced him to the art of etching and engraving of the city and its monuments. Giuseppe Vasi found. According to Legrand, Vasi told Piranesi that "you are too much of a painter, my friend, to be an engraver." After his studies with Vasi, he collaborated with pupils of the French Academy in Rome to produce a series of vedute of the city.
From 1743 to 1747 he sojourned in Venice where, according to some sources, he visited Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, a leading artist in Venice. It was Tiepolo who expanded the restrictive conventions of reproductive and antiquarian engravings, he returned to Rome, where he opened a workshop in Via del Corso. In 1748 -- 1774 he created a long series of vedute of the city. In the meantime Piranesi devoted himself to the measurement of many of the ancient edifices: this led to the publication of Le Antichità Romane de' tempo della prima Repubblica e dei primi imperatori. In 1761 he opened a printing facility of his own. In 1762 the Campo Marzio dell'antica Roma collection of engravings was printed; the following year he was commissioned by Pope Clement XIII to restore the choir of San Giovanni in Laterano, but the work did not materialize. In 1764, one of Pope's nephews, Cardinal Rezzonico, appointed him to start his sole architectural works of importance, the restoration of the church of Santa Maria del Priorato in the Villa of the Knights of Malta, on Rome's Aventine Hill.
He combined certain ancient architectural elements and escutcheons, with a venetian whimsicality for the facade of the church and the walls of the Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta. This was the only time he expressed himself in actual stone. In 1767 he was made a knight of the Golden Spur, which enabled him henceforth to sign himself "Cav Piranesi". In 1769 his publication of a series of ingenious and sometimes bizarre designs for chimneypieces, as well as an original range of furniture pieces, established his place as a versatile and resourceful designer. In 1776 he created his best known work as a'restorer' of ancient sculpture, the Piranesi Vase, in 1777–78 he published Avanzi degli Edifici di Pesto, he died in Rome in 1778 after a long illness, was buried in the church he had helped restore, Santa Maria del Priorato. His tomb was designed by Giuseppi Angelini. Though the social structure by an aristocracy remained rigid and oppressive, Venice revived through the Grand Tour as the center of intellectual and international exchange in the eighteenth century.
The ideas of the Enlightenment stimulated theorists and artists all over Europe including Paris and London. New forms of artistic expression emerged: veduta and veduta ideata, topographical view, architectural fantasy, accurate renderings of ancient monuments assembled with imaginary compositions in response to the demand of increased visitors; the developing center of the Grand Tour was Rome. Rome became a new meeting place and intellectual capital of Europe for the leaders of a new movement in the arts; the city was attracting artists and architects from all over Europe beside the Grand Tourists and antiquarians. While many came through official institutions such as the French Academy, others came to see the new discoveries at Herculaneum and Pompeii. Coffee shops were frequent gathering places, most famously the Antico Caffè Greco, established 1760; the Caffe degli Inglesi opened several years at the foot of the Spanish Steps in Piazza di Spagna, with wall paintings by Piranesi. With his own print workshop and museo of antiquities nearby, Piranesi was able to cultivate relationships in both places with wealthy buyers on the tour English.
The remains of Rome kindled Piranesi's enthusiasm. Informed by his experience in Venice and his study of the works of Marco Ricci and Giovanni Paolo Panini, he appreciated not only the engineering of the ancient buildings but the poetic aspects of the ruins, he was able to faithfully imitate the actual remains. His masterful skill at engraving introduced groups of vases, tombs that were absent in reality. A number of the Views are notable for depicting human figures whose poverty, apparent drunkenness, other visible flaws appear to echo the decay of the ruins; this is consi
The 68th Grey Cup was played on November 23, 1980, before 54,661 fans at Exhibition Stadium in Toronto. The Edmonton Eskimos defeated the Hamilton Tiger-Cats 48–10 in one of the most lopsided victories in Grey Cup history. Edmonton Eskimos - 48 Touchdowns - Tom Scott. Though Eskimo fans cherish this as Edmonton's most dominating triumph and their third consecutive of a record five straight Grey Cup victories, the 1980 game was hardly a classic; the only larger margin of victory in a Grey Cup game came in 1923 in the 11th Grey Cup, when Queen's University blanked the Regina Rugby Club 54–0. As of 2018, the 1980 game is the most recent Grey Cup. All the Tiger-Cats' points were scored by kicker Bernie Ruoff. "Grey Cup: 1980". Canadian Football League. Archived from the original on 2011-10-13
Westfield Galleria at Roseville is an upscale shopping mall in Roseville, California. Owned by the Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield, it is located at the corner of Galleria Boulevard and Roseville Parkway near the junction of State Route 65 and Interstate 80. An early plan considered building a mall in the neighboring city of Rocklin. After a long and tedious process, the Rocklin plans were submitted to Roseville. On July 25, 1995, a phased mall with three anchors was approved. On June 25, 1998, after stronger than anticipated demand, a single phase mall with four anchors was approved after Nordstrom committed to building a store as the fourth anchor; the $100 million Galleria at Roseville was built and opened on August 25, 2000 by Urban Retail Properties, Inc. In 2000, Urban was acquired by Rodamco North America, N. V, a Netherlands-based real estate investment company; the center was subsequently sold to the Westfield Group in 2002 with the dissolution of Rodamco. At that time, the center was renamed "Westfield Shoppingtown Galleria at Roseville."
The Shoppingtown moniker was dropped from all Westfield properties in 2005. In 2018, its management and owner Westfield Corporation got acquired by Unibail-Rodamco, was rebranded as Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield. In 2015, Sears Holdings spun off 235 of its properties, including the Sears at Westfield Galleria at Roseville, into Seritage Growth Properties. On April 17, 2018, Sears announced, it shuttered in July 2018. The building will be repurposed to accommodate a Century Theatres cinema complex and a Round One Entertainment center, scheduled to open in 2020; the former auto center was repurposed for an AAA car care center. In 2004, Westfield announced plans to expand the Galleria. After several changes, the expansion consisting of 400,000 square feet of new and reconfigured retail space, a new Dining Terrace, expansions to the two department stores was approved; the mall's original food court and part of its outdoor Promenade area were demolished, an existing Crate & Barrel store was relocated to accommodate the project.
The expansion was completed in 2009 at a final cost of $270 million. From late 2008 to mid-2009, new retailers began coming to a luxury wing. Upon completion, the expanded property surpassed Arden Fair Mall as the largest mall in the Sacramento metropolitan area both in size and number of stores. JCPenney Macy's Nordstrom On October 21, 2010, at around 10:30 am, a major fire started in the GameStop store as a result of arson; the suspect claimed to have a handgun when he entered the store. The suspect claimed that his "sister had been kidnapped by aliens" told employees to exit the GameStop, at which point, he barricaded himself in the GameStop and set fire to the merchandise. SWAT, firemen and the police arrived after a call, a standoff occurred outside the GameStop while the mall was evacuated; the suspect, Alexander Piggee, 23 years old at the time, was arrested. The bomb squad had tried to search the backpack, but their attempt was stopped when the fire unexpectedly erupted again, after having been quieted down by the sprinklers.
The fire caused significant damage to part of the mall, but was brought under control after four hours. It has been reported that the night before he had set a fire at a Walmart in nearby Antelope and police were searching for him. Piggee had set fire to his grandmother's house the week before the incident at the Galleria. No injuries were reported during these incidents. Extra firefighters from nearby communities were called in to help fight the fire. A total of 20 stores were destroyed by the fire, including the GameStop, Anchor Blue, FYE, American Eagle Outfitters, PacSun. A section of the roof collapsed into the fire area. Damage was estimated by ATF officials at around $55 million. Though the majority of the building was left intact after the fire, the mall was closed for a week. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency in Placer County the day after the fire. Roseville city officials have said that as many as 40 stores in the undamaged sections of the mall reopened on Thursday, October 28.
Another 80 stores, including Macy's were re-opened by Thanksgiving and the 40 stores near the fire area plan to be reopened after the first of the year. On October 28 the undamaged part of the mall re-opened, two days a party was held at the mall to celebrate the reopening, as well as Halloween and to get support in the rebuilding of the mall. On October 6, 2011, the mall unveiled a renovation that included new lighting, new ceiling decor, new carpet and railings, reopened the Macy's wing with a mix of new tenants and returning stores. Alexander Piggee subsequently pleaded guilty to setting the fire, Federal Judge John Mendez sentenced Piggee to 15 years, after which he will be on probation for 6 years. Both defense and prosecution attorneys had requested a sentence of 10 years, but Mendez issued a longer sentence, calling Piggee a threat to public safety. Westfield Corporation Westfield Galleria at Roseville Official Site Westfield Galleria at Roseville Development Website City of Roseville