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Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. He had a long-lasting influence on the development of church and secular music in Europe on the development of counterpoint, his work is considered as the culmination of Renaissance polyphony. Palestrina was born in the town of Palestrina, near Rome part of the Papal States to Napoli parents and Palma Pierluigi, in the year 1525, presumed on February 3, his mother died on 16 January 1536, when Palestrina was aged 10. Documents suggest that he first visited Rome in 1537, when he is listed as a chorister at the Santa Maria Maggiore basilica, Cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, he studied with Firmin Lebel. He spent most of his career in the city. Palestrina came of age as a musician under the influence of the northern European style of polyphony, which owed its dominance in Italy to two influential Netherlandish composers, Guillaume Dufay and Josquin des Prez, who had spent significant portions of their careers there.

Italy itself had yet to produce anyone of comparable skill in polyphony. From 1544 to 1551, Palestrina was the organist of the Cathedral of St. Agapito, the principal church of his native city. In 1551 Pope Julius III appointed Palestrina maestro di cappella or musical director of the Cappella Giulia, the choir of the chapter of canons at St. Peter's Basilica. Palestrina dedicated to Julius III a book of Masses, it was the first book of Masses by a native composer, since in the Italian states of Palestrina's day, most composers of sacred music were from the Low Countries, France, or Spain. In fact the book was modeled on one by Cristóbal de Morales: the woodcut in the front is an exact copy of the one from the book by the Spanish composer. During the next decade, Palestrina held positions similar to his Julian Chapel appointment at other chapels and churches in Rome, notably St. John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore. In 1571 he remained at St Peter's for the rest of his life; the decade of the 1570s was difficult for him personally: he lost his brother, two of his sons, his wife in three separate outbreaks of the plague.

He seems to have considered becoming a priest at this time, but instead he remarried, this time to a wealthy widow. This gave him financial independence and he was able to compose prolifically until his death, he died in Rome of pleurisy on 2 February 1594. It is said; as was usual, Palestrina was buried on the same day he died, in a plain coffin with a lead plate on, inscribed Libera me Domine. A five-part psalm for three choirs was sung at the funeral. Palestrina's funeral was held at St. Peter's, he was buried beneath the floor of the basilica, his tomb was covered by new construction and attempts to locate the site have been unsuccessful. Palestrina left hundreds of compositions, including 105 masses, 68 offertories, at least 140 madrigals and more than 300 motets. In addition, there are at least 72 hymns, 35 magnificats, 11 litanies, four or five sets of lamentations; the Gloria melody from Palestrina's Magnificat Tertii Toni is used today in the resurrection hymn tune, Victory. His attitude toward madrigals was somewhat enigmatic: whereas in the preface to his collection of Canticum canticorum motets he renounced the setting of profane texts, only two years he was back in print with Book II of his secular madrigals.

He published just two collections of madrigals with profane texts, one in 1555 and another in 1586. The other two collections were spiritual madrigals, a genre beloved by the proponents of the Counter-Reformation. Palestrina's masses show, his Missa sine nomine seems to have been attractive to Johann Sebastian Bach, who studied and performed it while writing the Mass in B minor. Most of Palestrina's masses appeared in thirteen volumes printed between 1554 and 1601, the last seven published after his death. One of his most important works, the Missa Papae Marcelli, has been associated with erroneous information involving the Council of Trent. According to this tale, it was composed in order to persuade the Council of Trent that a draconian ban on the polyphonic treatment of text in sacred music was unnecessary. However, more recent scholarship shows that this mass was in fact composed before the cardinals convened to discuss the ban. Historical data indicates that the Council of Trent, as an official body, never banned any church music and failed to make any ruling or official statement on the subject.

These stories originated from the unofficial points-of-view of some Council attendees who discussed their ideas with those not privy to the Council's deliberations. Those opinions and rumors have, over centuries, been transmuted into fictional accounts, put into print, incorrectly taught as historical fact. While Palestrina's compositional motivations are not known, he may have been quite conscious of the need for intelligible text.

Winged mapleleaf

The winged mapleleaf known as false mapleleaf, or hickory nut shell, with the scientific name Quadrula fragosa, is a species of freshwater mussel. It is an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Unionidae, the river mussels, it is endemic to the United States. Quadrula fragosa is only located in a few parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota and Missouri — in the Midwestern United States, it is a federal critically endangered river mussel species. The anterior end of the Quadrula fragosa shell is rounded and the posterior end of the shell is more of a square shape; the shell can range in color from a yellowish-green to dark brown. The inside of the shell is white, there is sometimes iridescent coloring at one end of the shell; the diameter of a mature mussel of this species is about 4 inches. The shells of these mussels are thick, unlike many other mussels, there are bumps on the shell surface running down from the hinge of the shell to the outside edges, it is the patterns of these bumps that help to distinguish the winged mapleleaf from many other mussels that look similar in appearance.

The winged mapleleaf is found in medium to large rivers. It can sometimes be found in the mud, but it is more either found in gravel or sandy bottoms; the mussel does need to be in moving water in order to survive, the depth of this running water needs to be somewhere between 0.4 and 2.0 meters. The water must clean. At one time the winged mapleleaf could be found in thirteen states, it streams that flow into the Mississippi River. It was once found in some rivers and streams that flow into the Missouri River. Today however, the mussel can only be found in four rivers in the Midwestern United States, only found in limited areas of those four rivers: in a five-mile stretch of the St. Croix River, which flows between the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Of these 4 locations, The population of these mussels in the St. Croix River is the only one, proven to be reproducing and growing in population; the mussels in the other 3 locations have no evidence that their populations are growing or that there is offspring is being produced.

It is estimated that there is somewhere between 50-1000 individuals that are still alive today. The mussel filters out either phytoplankton or zooplankton; the young winged mapleleafs attach themselves to the gills of a host fish for feeding and growing purposes until they reach the stage in their life cycle that they can themselves siphon in the water from the river of the stream that they are in. Reproduction of the winged mapleleaf is similar to that of many other freshwater mussels; the males release their sperm into the water as the females siphon in water the sperm fertilizes the eggs which are located on their gills. After fertilization the eggs develop into a larva, once the larva reaches a certain stage it is released from the gills of the mother mussel into the river current; the larva must reach the gills of a host fish where it can continue its growing process. The only known host fish are the Channel catfish and the Blue catfish; the larva continue growing on the host fish until they reach their next life cycle stage, once this stage is reached they are released from the gills of the host fish and find their way to the bottom of the river or stream.

Once they have reached the bottom, they begin maturing into the adult stage of their life cycle. The actual reason for the Channel catfish and the Blue catfish being the only host fish to have a larva mature on them is still unknown. Research was done by a group of researchers where they used divers to see if they could plant the larva from the mother onto the gills of fish other than the two kinds of catfish; the research was limited from a number of different causes, a limited number of eggs found in the area to transplant on to captive fish, the deal of many of the fish that they had captive. The results, however they were limited, still only showed the Channel and the Blue catfish to be successful host fish for the winged mapleleaf; the oldest known organism in this species is in the St. Croix River and is estimated to be 22 years old, the life span of the mussel is unknown; the winged mapleleaf faces a number of different threats to its survival. The invasion of the Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, is one of the biggest threats to the survival of the winged mapleleaf.

The Zebra mussel is an invasive species and in 2000 the Zebra mussel began being a problem in the St. Croix River. Sediment accumulation and loss of water quality are major threats to the population of the mussel; the reproducing population in the St. Croix River area is near the metropolitan area of St. Paul, as the larger cities begin to become further developed, sediment is dispersed into the river and more and more pollution occurs; this can change the flow of the river, causing erosion and a change in water levels. The winged mapleleaf needs to be in a clean environment and can only survive in certain water levels. Upstream dam operations cause changes in the water level, another issue that the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service is trying to take action towards; the biggest issue that the mussel faces right now is that there is only one known reproducing population. This means that a severe rainstorm that caused flooding, a pollution spill, or the outbreak of

Pavel Mochalov

Pavel Stepanovich Mochalov was thought to be the greatest tragedian of Russian Romanticism, much admired by Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Lermontov and other contemporaries. During his prolonged career at the Malyi Theatre of Moscow, Mochalov gave inspired although uneven performances in melodrama and neoclassical tragedy, as well as Shakespearean works, he excelled in plays by Friedrich Schiller, in the title role of Don Carlos, as both Karl Moor and Franz Moor in The Robbers, as Mortimer in Maria Stuart. His acting had a Byronic flavour and relied upon inspiration. Sometimes styled the "Russian Kean", Mochalov was compared with his St Petersburg rival, Vasily Karatygin, whose acting was more poised and calculated. Works by or about Pavel Mochalov at Internet Archive

Andy Feeley

Andrew James Feeley is an English retired professional football right back who appeared in the Football League for Leicester City, Brentford and Hereford United. He became manager of North West Counties League club Ramsbottom United and worked as scout. A right back, Feeley joined hometown club Hereford United as an apprentice and made his first team debut in a Fourth Division match versus Bournemouth on 14 October 1978, at the age of just 17 years and 14 days, he became a regular pick throughout the rest of the 1978–79 season, making 25 appearances and captaining the club, the youngest player to do so. After signing a professional contract, he was again a first team regular during the 1979–80 season, making 29 appearances and scoring three goals, he departed Edgar Street in 1980, after scoring three goals. Feeley failed to make an appearance. For a time after leaving Hereford United, Feeley played for Herefordshire Sunday League Second Division club Moorfields. Feeley signed for Southern League Midland Division club Trowbridge Town in 1980.

He enjoyed a good season with the club, which finished third and was the only club from the division to win promotion to the Alliance Premier League. Feeley averaged 28 games per season in the Alliance Premier League for struggling Trowbridge, before departing Frome Road in January 1984, he made 85 appearances and scored 12 clubs during his time with the club in the Alliance Premier League. In a surprise move, Feeley signed for First Division club Leicester City in January 1984, he had to wait until 10 March to make his debut, which came with a baptism of fire against Manchester United at Old Trafford. Feeley was brought off for Tommy English, he made two further appearances during -- 84 season. He established himself in the first team in the 1984–85 season, making 41 appearances and winning the club's Player of the Year award. Knee injuries reduced his appearance-count over the next two seasons and he departed the club in June 1987, after refusing a new contract. Feeley made 86 appearances during three and a half years at Filbert Street.

Feeley dropped down to Third Division to sign on trial for Brentford in August 1987 and subsequently signed a permanent contract. Though never fit during his two years at Griffin Park, he managed 88 appearances and was a member of the team which reached the quarter finals of the FA Cup during the 1988–89 season, going out 4–0 to eventual winners Liverpool. Feeley joined Third Division club Bury in July 1989, he scored three goals in two seasons with the Shakers. While working in the youth system at Bury in 2002, Feeley turned out for a Bury Veterans XI in a benefit match against their Bolton Wanderers counterparts. Feeley dropped back into Non-League football in 1991 to sign for Conference club Northwich Victoria, he scored one goal during his spell. Feeley's final club was North West Counties League First Division club Atherton Laburnum Rovers, he celebrated promotion to the Northern Premier League First Division as champions at the end of the 1993–94 season. Feeley remained with the club until 1996.

Feeley had a spell with Manchester League Premier Division club Highfield United in 1996. Feeley signed for Bolton Combination club Seedfield Sports in the summer of 1996, he scored with a 30-yard strike to send the club through to the last 16 of the Lancashire Amateur Shield. While with Seedfield Sports, Feeley served as the club's assistant manager. In the late 1990s, Feeley returned to former club Bury, working in the commercial and community areas, he returned to the football club, serving as Director of Youth, overseeing the club's Centre of Excellence and managing the club's youth and reserve teams. He oversaw the development of future international players Colin Kazim-Richards, he coached the U19 team to the semi-finals of the 1999–00 Youth Alliance Cup, losing 2–0 to Scunthorpe United to be denied a chance of a place in the final at Wembley Stadium. For a time Feeley served as first team coach, before being replaced by Billy Ayre in December 2000. While Ayre was receiving treatment for cancer in July 2001, Feeley again stepped into the role.

Feeley was appointed manager of North West Counties League Premier Division club Ramsbottom United in June 2008. Despite having to rebuild the playing squad from scratch, he led the Rams to the top of the table early in the 2008–09 season. Feeley departed the club in February 2009. After leaving professional football, Feeley was employed as a psychiatric nurse at Prestwich Hospital. In August 2009, he received a 22-month jail sentence for committing Grievous Bodily Harm. Atherton Laburnum Rovers North West Counties League First Division: 1993–94Individual Leicester City Player of the Year: 1984–85

Kenneth E. Hagin

Kenneth Erwin Hagin was an American preacher. He is known for pioneering the Word of Faith movement, is considered a preacher of the prosperity gospel. Kenneth E. Hagin was born in McKinney, the son of Lillie Viola Drake Hagin and Jess Hagin. According to Hagin's testimony, he was born with a deformed heart and what was believed to be an incurable blood disease, he was not expected to live and at age 15 became paralyzed and bedridden. In April 1933 he converted to Christianity. During a dramatic conversion experience, he reported dying, due to the deformed heart, three times in 10 minutes, each time seeing the horrors of hell and returning to life, he remained paralyzed after his conversion. On August 8, 1934, he says he was raised from his deathbed by a revelation of "faith in God's Word" after reading Mark 11:23-24; the Bible scripture in Mark 11:23-24 defined his ministry and was his most quoted verse:For verily I say unto you, That whosoever shall say unto this mountain, be thou removed and be thou cast into the sea, shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass, he shall have whatsoever he saith.

Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, ye shall have them. In 1936, he founded his first non-denominational church, he preached his first sermon as the pastor of a small, community Baptist church in Texas. In 1937, he became an Assemblies of God minister. During the next twelve years he pastored five Assemblies of God churches in Texas: in the cities of Tom Bean, Talco and Van. Van, Texas was the last church. On November 25, 1938 he married Oretha Rooker, they had two children. Their first child Kenneth Wayne Hagin, known as Kenneth Hagin Jr. was born on September 3, 1939. A daughter, Patricia Harrison, was born 19 months on March 27, 1941, his son Kenneth Wayne Hagin is the pastor of Rhema Bible Church and President of Kenneth Hagin Ministries. Hagin began an itinerant ministry as a Bible teacher and evangelist in 1949 after an appearance by Jesus, he joined the Voice of Healing Revival in the U. S. with Oral Roberts, Gordon Lindsay and T. L. Osborn between 1947 and 1958.

Hagin was given full admission to the Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International, established in 1951. On January 23, 1963, he formed the Kenneth E. Hagin Evangelistic Association in Texas. In September 1966, the ministry offices were moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma into a space used by T. L. Osborn, he started selling his sermons on reel-to-reel tape in 1966. In November of that year, he taught for the first time on radio on KSKY in Dallas; the North Texas District Council of the Assemblies of God ordained him a minister in 1967. In 1967, he began a regular radio broadcast that still continues as "Faith Seminar of the Air." Teaching by his son, Rev. Kenneth Hagin Jr, is heard on the program. Since Hagin's incorporation 1963, his organization grew to include numerous media outreaches and ministries; these are: Faith Library Publications – with 65 million book copies in circulation "RHEMA Praise" – a weekly television program on the Trinity Broadcasting Network "Faith Seminar of the Air" – a radio program heard on many stations nationwide and on the Internet "The Word of Faith" – a free monthly magazine with 600,000 subscribers Crusades conducted throughout the nation RHEMA Correspondence Bible School RHEMA Prayer and Healing Center, located on the Rhema campus in Broken Arrow, OklahomaAt a camp meeting in 1973, Hagin announced the creation of a "bible training center."

In 1974, Hagin opened RHEMA Bible Training College, in Broken Arrow, which now has training centers in fourteen different countries, planted over 1,500 congregations worldwide, has 25,000 alumni. In 1979, he founded the Prayer and Healing Center to provide a place for the sick to come and "have the opportunity to build their faith." Its Healing School continues to be held free of charge twice a day on the RHEMA campus. On May 20, 1994 Hagin received an Honorary Doctor of Divinity Degree from Faith Theological Seminary in Tampa, Florida. Hagin went to bed on Saturday September 13th feeling well, according to a news release from his ministry, he sat at the breakfast table Sunday morning and smiled at his wife, Oretha sighed and his head fell to his chest. He was checked into a cardiac intensive care unit in Tulsa, OK, where he died at 7am Friday, September 19, 2003 at the age of 86. Hagin founded Rhema Bible Training College Rhema Bible Training Center, in 1974; the college is accredited by Transworld Accrediting Commission International.

This Bible institute is located on 110 acres in a suburb of Tulsa, Oklahoma. The curriculum is derived from a Charismatic/Pentecostal heritage. There are seven ministry concentrations specializing in Children's Ministry, Youth Ministry, Pastoral Care, Biblical Studies, Supportive Ministry. Rhema has established training centers in Austria, Colombia, India, Italy, Peru, Greece, South Africa, the South Pacific, Nigeria, Zambia and the Philippines. After Hagin's death in 2003, his son, Kenneth W. Hagin, continued to run the institution. Rhema has trained over minister in 52 countries. Locally, Rhema is known for its annual Christmas display, which in recent years has included more than 2 million lights synchronized to Christmas music. Bible Faith Study Course Right and Wrong Thinking for Christians What Faith Is The Real Faith I Beli


Radhakrishnan Velayutham Raghuvaran was an Indian actor who predominantly acted in movies made in South India. He has acted in more than 200 Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi films. According to the Hindustan Times, "The actor had carved a niche for himself with his special style and voice modulation."He played the protagonist of a Tamil soap opera, Oru Manidhanin Kadhai, about a well-to-do man who becomes an alcoholic. He received critical acclaim for his role as Father Alphonso in the Malayalam movie Daivathinte Vikruthikal, directed by Lenin Rajendran and based on M. Mukundan's novel of the same name. Raghuvaran's 6 songs and sung by him, was released by actor Rajinikanth and the music album was received by actress Rohini and Raghuvaran's son Rishi Varan, he was born as the eldest among four children in 1958 at Kollengode in Chittur taluk, Palakkad district in Kerala. He was the grandson of Mr. N. Radhakrishna Nair and son of Chunkamannathu Velayuthan Nair and Kasthuri Chakkungal; when his father moved his hotel business from Mathur to Coimbatore, the family shifted to Coimbatore.

He had his primary education from St. Ann's Matric. Higher Secondary School, Coimbatore, he learned piano from Trinity College London. He discontinued his Bachelor of Arts in History from Coimbatore to pursue a career in acting, he landed a minor role in the Kannada film Swapna Thingalgal. He began acting in minor roles in Kannada films. From 1979 to 1983, he was part of an acting drama troupe in Chennai, "Chennai Kings", which included the Kannada/Tamil actor, Nassar, he was spotted and cast as the lead actor in Ezhavathu Manithan, his biggest role to date. He married Rohini in 1996 and their son Rishi Varan was born in 1998; the couple separated and divorced in 2004. Following his beginnings on the stage, a diploma in acting from M. G. R. Government Film and Television Training Institute in Chennai, Raghuvaran approached many Kollywood studios aiming for performance oriented roles and got selected as hero; the offbeat film named Ezhavathu Manithan, directed by Hariharan won many awards, but not many offers for him.

A few more films followed with him as hero, like Oru Odai Nadhiyagirathu and Nee Thodumbothu released, but didn't become huge successes. But the villain role in Silk Silk Silk was noticed and the film's success opened the gate of offers for him; the villain act continued in films like Kutravaaligal, Mr. Bharath, Mandhira Punnagai and Oorkavalan, he appeared as hero as well as supporting actor in between releases as well. The major ones are Samsaram Adhu Minsaram. In the mid 1980s, Raghuvaran did many films as hero and most of them did good business as well; the films Michael Raj, Megam Karuththirukku, Kootu Puzhukkal and Kavithai Paada Neramillai helped to stabilize his career. The lawyer in Kaliyugam, the police officer in Thaimel Aanai, the rowdy with a golden heart in Kai Naattu, the honest Medical student turned Goonda in Kuttravali and the common man in En Vazhi Thani Vazhi helped Raghuvaran's market value as hero to reach greater heights, but his desire to try all types of roles, like supporting actor as well as villain halted the progress as hero though he played hero roles in Vyooham and Anjali later.

His supporting roles in Annanagar Mudhal Theru and Siva were well received too. Raghuvaran was pitted against Dilip Kumar in his Bollywood debut Izzatdaar and his popularity further soared at the national level with Ram Gopal Varma' s gangster flick Shiva, where he played the dreaded gangster Bhawani. Other Bollywood films include Rakshak opposite Sunil Shetty, Lal Baadshah opposite Amitabh Bachchan, Hitler opposite Mithun Chakraborty and Grahan along with Jackie Shroff, where he replaced a busy Nana Patekar in 2001. In a career span lasting for more than 26 years, Raghuvaran performed each role with his trademark mannerisms stealing the thunder from more established stars and heroes, his magnetic baritone voice was an advantage and he modulated it to suit his variety of roles. He set his own style of mannerisms and brought a distinct dialogue delivery and changed his gait in many films. All this dedication won him more fans and helped his popularity soar higher, he has received several state and Filmfare Awards for his performances in Tamil and Telugu films.

He began his career as a supporting actor in a number of films in Tamil including Mani Rathnam's Anjali as the father of an autistic child. He played villains in Baasha as Mark Anthony, Mudhalvan as Aranganathan and Muthu as Ilaimaran, he returned to supporting roles – sometimes as a father or as a mentor in films such as Alai, Yaaradi Nee Mohini and Bala. Raghuvaran died on 19 March 2008; the cause of death was due to lower sugar levelsHis death occurred during the filming stages of several films, including the Tamil film, wherein Raghuvaran's performances were left unused and were replaced with Ashish Vidyarthi, which resulted in the film's delayed release. His last film was a Telugu film starring Nithin. Raghuvaran on IMDb