Giovanni "Gianni" Agnelli known as L'Avvocato, was an influential Italian industrialist and principal shareholder of Fiat. As the head of Fiat, he controlled 4.4% of Italy's GDP, 3.1% of its industrial workforce and 16.5% of its industrial investment in research. He was the richest man in modern Italian history; as a public figure, Agnelli was known worldwide for his impeccable eccentric fashion sense, which has influenced both Italian and international men's fashion. Agnelli was awarded the decoration Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1967 and the title Knight of Labour in 1977. Following his death in 2003, control of the firm was passed to his grandson and chosen heir, John Elkann. Agnelli was born in Turin, but maintained strong ties with the village of Villar Perosa, near Turin in the Piedmont region, his father was the prominent Italian industrialist Edoardo Agnelli and his mother was Princess Virginia Bourbon del Monte, daughter of Carlo, 4th Prince of San Faustino, head of a noble family established in Perugia.
Agnelli was named after his grandfather Giovanni Agnelli, the founder of the Italian car manufacturer Fiat. His maternal grandmother was American. Gianni – as he was known to differentiate from his grandfather, with whom he shared his first name – inherited the command of Fiat and the Agnelli family assets in general in 1966, following a period in which Fiat was temporarily "ruled" by Vittorio Valletta while Gianni was learning how his family's company worked. Agnelli raised Fiat to become the most important company in Italy, one of the major car-builders of Europe, he developed the accessory business, with minor companies operating in military industry. Agnelli and Fiat would come to share a common vision, Agnelli meaning Fiat and, more sensibly, Fiat meaning Agnelli. Agnelli was educated at Pinerolo Cavalry Academy, studied law at the University of Turin, although he never practiced law, he joined a tank regiment in June 1940 when Italy entered World War II on the side of the Axis powers. He fought on the Eastern Front.
He served in a Fiat-built armoured-car division in North Africa, where he was shot in the arm by a German officer during a bar fight over a woman. After Italy surrendered, due to his fluency in English, Agnelli became a liaison officer with the occupying American troops, his grandfather, who had manufactured vehicles for the Axis powers during the war, was forced to retire from Fiat, but named Valletta to be his successor. Gianni's grandfather died, leaving Gianni head of the family but Valletta running the company. Fiat began producing Italy's first inexpensive mass-produced car. Prior to his marriage on 19 November 1953 to Donna Marella Caracciolo dei principi di Castagneto – a half-American, half-Neapolitan noblewoman who made a small but significant name as a fabric designer, a bigger name as a tastemaker – Agnelli was a noted playboy whose mistresses included the socialite Pamela Harriman and Jackie Kennedy. Though Agnelli continued to be involved with other women during his marriage, including the film star Anita Ekberg and the American fashion designer Jackie Rogers, the Agnellis remained married until his death of prostate cancer in 2003 at the age of 81.
He was universally considered to be a man of exquisite taste. He left his extraordinary paintings to the city of Turin in 2002, his only son, Edoardo Agnelli, was born seven months after the couple's wedding, in New York on 9 June 1954. Gianni gave up trying to groom him to take over Fiat, seeing how the boy was more interested in mysticism than making cars. Edoardo, who seemed burdened by the mantle of his surname, committed suicide on 15 November 2000 by jumping off a bridge near Turin. Edoardo never married, but he had one son, not recognized by Gianni Agnelli; the Agnellis had Countess Margherita Agnelli de Pahlen. She is the mother of Lapo Elkann and Ginevra Elkann, she has five other childrens from her second marriage to Count Serge de Pahlen. Maria de Pahlen, Peter de Pahlen, Anna de Pahlen and Tatiana de Pahlen. Agnelli became president of Fiat in 1966, he opened factories in many places, including Russia and South America, started international alliances and joint-ventures, which marked a new industrial mentality.
In the 1970s, during the international petrol crisis, he sold part of the company to Lafico, a Libyan company owned by Colonel Qaddhafi. His relationships with the Left with Enrico Berlinguer's Communist Party, were the essence of the relationships between labour forces and Italian industry; the social conflicts related to Fiat's policies always saw Agnelli keeping the leading role. This marked the demise of the power of trade unions, which to this day have not recovered their influence on Italy's politics and economy. In the 1970s, Fiat and its leaders were attacked by the Red Brigades, Prima Linea and NAP. Several people working for the group were killed, trade unions were suspected of hiding some of the attackers in their organizations, though the same terrorists targeted trade unionists like Guido Rossa. Agnelli's politics and the events at Fiat in
Fiat Aviazione was an Italian aircraft manufacturer, at one time part of the Fiat group, focused on military aviation. After World War I, Fiat consolidated several Italian small aircraft manufacturers, like Pomilio and Ansaldo. Most famous were the Fiat biplane fighter aircraft of the 1930s, the Fiat CR.32 and the Fiat CR.42. Other notable designs were the fighters CR.20, G.50, G.55 and a bomber, the Fiat BR.20. In the 1950s, the company designed the G.91 light ground attack plane. In 1969, Fiat Aviazione merged with Aerfer to create Aeritalia, which would become Alenia Aeronautica in 1990. In 1908, aeronautical production started taking its first steps in Turin, by Fiat, with the decision to design and produce an engine, the SA 8/75, derived from racing cars, it was the beginning of a centennial story. The first mass-produced engine produced by Fiat was the A10, created in 1,070 units between 1914 and 1915: at this point the pioneer age had come to an end and the company decided to design and construct complete aircraft.
Thus in 1916 the Società Italiana Aviazione was founded. In Turin, besides aircraft engines, always along the lines of the internal-combustion engine, Fiat diversified production with the constitution in 1909 of Fiat San Giorgio for marine diesel engines, the area from which activities in the field of industrial engines for electric power generation ensued. In Colleferro, the Bombrini Parodi-Delfino-BPD Company, established in Genoa in 1912, started manufacturing explosives and chemical products, from which the space segment originated. In the aeronautical field, roots grew in Brindisi with the SACA Company. Many other realities began such as the CMASA di Marina Company in Pisa, founded in 1921 by German design engineer Claude Dornier, in collaboration with Rinaldo Piaggio and Attilio Odero. Interactions and exchanges, accumulation of skills and experience, multi-faceted stimuli have come from the many varied forms of international collaboration that have taken place with major companies like General Electric, Rolls-Royce, Pratt & Whitney and Eurocopter, just to mention a few of the most important names with whom current partnerships go back over half a century.
After the first pioneering design of aircraft engines at the beginning of the twentieth century, against the opinion of over-cautious directors towards new technologies and areas of activity, Giovanni Agnelli, one of Fiat’s founder members, technical director Guido Fornaca, supported aeronautical production, started up on an industrial basis during the Great War to meet military orders. Therefore, the Società Italiana Aviazione was established in 1916, passed to the Aviation Section of Fiat in 1918; the first mass-produced aeronautical engine, the Fiat A.10, was installed in several aircraft between 1914 and 1915, such as the Farman produced under licence, the three-engined Caproni bomber aircraft. At the end of the First World War, the technical and production resources accumulated during the conflict were directed at the emerging sector of the commercial aeroplane; the production of complete aircraft started up with the SP series, intensified under the guidance of design engineer Celestino Rosatelli who began his collaboration with Fiat in 1918.
For about fifteen years, Rosatelli contributed to the famous CR and BR fighter and bomber aircraft while, thanks to its technical and reliable engines, Fiat aircraft had a run of world records: power, with the A14 of 700HP produced between 1917 and 1919. In 1926, with the acquisition of the Ansaldo factory in Corso Francia, Fiat Aviazione merged with the Società Aeronautica d’Italia. In 1931, Vittorio Valletta, the General Manager of Fiat, employed a young design engineer, Giuseppe Gabrielli, to head the Aviation Technical Office. In 1934, the acquisition of the CMASA Company marked the entry of Fiat into the production of seaplanes. A great many of the targets achieved in the subsequent thirty-year period were linked to the genius of Gabrielli who made a name for himself, beginning with the G2, a commercial plane with six seats besides the pilot, destined to be used by the Società Aviolinee Italiane, with Fiat as majority shareholder, which boasted original innovations and developments under six patents.
While investments in the passenger and cargo transport sector continued with the opening up of European routes by civil airlines which used G18 and APR2 twin-engine monoplanes, the G50 was produced in 1937, in the CMASA factory in Marina di Pisa, the first single-seater fighter plane employed by the Italian Air Force. In 1949, having overcome the uncertainties and difficulties of the Second World War, the Fiat aeronautical activities were reorganised in the Aviation area. Delays in the production typologies accumulated in the years of autarchy were soon overcome thanks to the technical competences of Gabrielli and the new climate of Atlantic and inter-European collaboration. In 1951, Gabrielli had designed the G80, the first Italian jet aircraft powered by a De Havilland “Goblin” turbojet engine. In the early 1950s, Fiat Aviazione started a production revival by means of American orders and, in particular, was the only company in Europe to obtain the licence from NATO for the construction of
Carrozzeria Ghia SpA is an Italian automobile design and coachbuilding firm, established by Giacinto Ghia and Gariglio as Carrozzeria Ghia & Gariglio. The headquarters is located at 4 Corso Valentino in Turin. Ghia made lightweight aluminium-bodied cars, achieving fame with the Alfa Romeo 6C 1500, winning Mille Miglia. Between the world wars, Ghia designed special bodies for Alfa Romeo and Lancia, one of the most famous was the Fiat 508 Balilla sports coupe; the factory was rebuilt at Via Tomassi Grossi, after being demolished in an air raid during World War II. After Ghia's death, the company was sold to Giorgio Alberti; the Ghia-Aigle subsidiary was established in Switzerland. Following differences between Boano and the company's Naples-born chief engineer and designer Luigi Segre, Boano left the company in 1953 and ownership passed to Segre in 1954. Under the ownership of Luigi Segre, between 1953 and 1957, Giovanni Savonuzzi became Direttore Tecnico Progettazione e Produzione Carrozzerie e Stile and established GHIA as the most influential proponent of that Italian styling that came to define automobile design trends worldwide.
The decade between 1953 and 1963 saw many foreign firms ordering Ghia designs, such as Ford and Volvo. Chrysler and its designer Virgil Exner became a close partner for 15 years, resulting in eighteen Chrysler Ghia Specials, the K-310, the Chrysler Norseman, the Imperial Crown limousines, others. There are a few Ghia-bodied Ferraris. Ghia participated in the short-lived Dual-Ghia venture. Production by Ghia was always in low numbers, giving the company's products greater exclusivity than those of the other Italian coachbuilders. In June 1953, Pierre Lefaucheux, Renault's chairman, requested Carrozzeria Ghia assistance with the Renault Dauphine. In 1953, Boano left for Fiat, the factory moved to via Agostino da Montefeltro, Luigi Segre took over. Ghia brought in Pietro Frua, appointing Frua as head of Ghia Design, designing the Renault Floride. After Segres death, Ghia was sold to Ramfis Trujillo, who sold to Alejandro de Tomaso, owner of a rival design house, who took over, but had difficulty in running Ghia profitably.
In 1970, he sold his shares to the Ford Motor Company. During this transition period, Ghia had partial involvement in the De Tomaso Pantera, a high-performance, mid-engine car utilizing a Ford V8. After the Dual-Ghia project had ended, the more up-to-date Ghia L6.4 appeared in 1961. Fewer Mopar parts were used, but the car’s bespoke nature meant an astronomically high price and when production ended in 1963 only 25 cars had been built; the cars 6,277 cc Chrysler V8 has 340 hp SAE, suspension and transmission parts were hand-picked from Chrysler's production line. Both the front and the rear seats consist of separate buckets. From 1973, the Ghia name became Ford's top trim-level in its mainstream model range; the trend began in Europe and North America, but soon spread worldwide to the South American and Australian markets. One notable exception to this convention was the Scorpio model in the United Kingdom, where it was badged as a Granada Mk.3 – in this case the "Scorpio" name was instead used to designate a trim level higher than Ghia.
In the British market, the practice of using the Ghia name in such a capacity was phased out in 2010. The Titanium name has instead replaced Ghia as the flagship trim level, is now used globally across all of Ford's markets to denote the top trim level; the British Ford Fiesta retained the Ghia trim designation for the longest period of any model: 31 years 8 months, from February 1977 to November 2008. In the rest of Europe, the Ghia trim was discontinued as well; as of 2012, the Ghia studios produce various concept cars under the Ford banner. Ghia L6.4 Ghia 1500 GT Ghia 450 Giacinto Ghia Mario Boano Luigi Segre Sergio Sartorelli Giovanni Savonuzzi Giorgetto Giugiaro Tom Tjaarda Pietro Frua Coachbuild.com Encyclopedia: Ghia An enthusiast site on Ghia history
Albania the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2, it possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast; the area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire.
In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans; the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour; the country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.
Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy, it provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC, it is an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean; the term Albania is the medieval Latin name of the country. It may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, who drafted a map in 150 AD, which shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of the city of Durrës.
The term may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon or Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place. In his history written in the 10th century, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë. Nowadays, Albanians call their country Shqipëria; as early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles"; the first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë close to Sarandë and Dajti near Tiranë. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture.
The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece. Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. The name Illyrians seems to be the name applied to a specific Illyrian tribe, the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, causing the name Illyrians to be applied pars pro toto to all people of similar language and customs.
The territory known as Illyria corresponded to the area east of the Adriatic sea, extending in the south to the mouth of the Vjosë river. The first accou
Chrysler Turbine Car
The Chrysler Turbine Car is an automobile powered by a turbine engine, produced by Chrysler from 1963 to 1964. Its body was made by the Italian design studio Ghia, Chrysler completed its assembly in Detroit; the Chrysler turbine engine program that produced the Turbine Car began during the late 1930s, created multiple prototypes that completed numerous long-distance trips in the 1950s and early 1960s. The A-831 engines that powered the Ghia-designed Turbine Car could operate on many different fuels, required less maintenance, lasted longer than conventional piston engines, although they were much more expensive to produce. A total of 55 cars were built: five prototypes and a limited run of 50 cars for a public user program; the car's design was created by the Chrysler studios. A two-door hardtop coupe, it featured power brakes, power steering, a TorqueFlite transmission, was coated with a metallic, root beer-colored paint known as "turbine bronze". After testing, Chrysler conducted a user program from October 1963 to January 1966 that involved 203 individual drivers in 133 different cities across the United States cumulatively driving more than one million miles.
The program helped the company determine a variety of problems with the cars, notably with their complicated starting procedure unimpressive acceleration, sub-par fuel economy and noise level. The experience revealed key advantages of the turbine engines, including their remarkable durability, smooth operation, modest maintenance requirements. After the conclusion of the user program in 1966, Chrysler reclaimed all of the cars and destroyed all but nine of them. Chrysler's turbine engine program ended in 1979 due to the failure of the engines to meet government emissions regulations poor fuel economy, as a prerequisite of receiving a government loan in 1979. Chrysler began researching turbine engines for aviation applications during the late 1930s, led by executive engineer George Huebner. After World War II, Huebner was part of a group of engineers who began exploring the idea of powering a car with a turbine. Other members of the secretive Chrysler research team which worked on automotive turbines included fellow engineers Bud Mann and Sam B. Williams.
The concept intrigued them because turbine engines have fewer moving parts than their piston-powered counterparts and can run on a variety of fuels. According to historian Charles K. Hyde, by the mid-1950s Chrysler "led the way in terms of gas turbine research". After improving their turbine design, most notably by engineering a regenerator to resolve an issue with heat exchange, the Chrysler team's efforts reached early maturity when they mated a turbine to an otherwise-stock 1954 Plymouth Belvedere. Heating and cooling and emissions and exhaust were among the principal engineering challenges which faced the turbine engine. Chrysler tested the Belvedere, claiming that its turbine engine contained 20 percent fewer parts and weighed 200 pounds less than comparable, conventional piston engines. On June 16, 1954, the company publicly unveiled the turbine-powered Belvedere at its Chelsea Proving Grounds in Chelsea, Michigan, in front of over 500 reporters. Chrysler unveiled its next turbine car, a 1956 Plymouth, on March 23, 1956.
Although the car was shadowed by a 14-person convoy of mechanics with fuel and spare parts, it only required two minor repairs on the trip. The coast-to-coast journey's success led Chrysler to double the size of its turbine program and move it from Highland Park, Michigan, to a larger facility on Greenfield Road in Detroit; the program began generating a number of patent applications in 1957, due to the contributions of metallurgist Amedee Roy and engineer Giovanni Savonuzzi. The next iteration of the Chrysler turbine engine was placed into a 1959 Plymouth, which averaged 19.4 miles per US gallon on a trip from Detroit to Woodbridge, New Jersey. This mileage was higher than the 13 mpg‑US achieved with the first-generation turbine on the 1956 New York-to-Los Angeles journey. After Chrysler named former accountant Lynn Townsend its new president in 1961, the company unveiled its next, third-generation turbine engine on February 28. Unlike its more-experimental predecessors, the CR2A was designed with an eye on costs and production methods.
While the engine was under development in May 1960, Huebner said that it would serve as its own torque converter, generate 140 horsepower, have an acceleration lag of 1.5 seconds, weigh 450 lb —150 lb less than a comparably sized piston engine. Third-generation turbines were mated to a variety of vehicles, including a 2.5-ton 1960 Dodge truck and the Chrysler Turboflite concept car. Refined CR2A turbines were installed into a 1962 Dodge Plymouth Fury. After Huebner arrived in Los Angeles with the Dart, he spent two hours giving journalists rides in the turbine-powered car. Chrysler had barnstormed its fleet of turbine cars to dealers across North America and Mexico by February 1962, visiting 90 cities, gi
A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are waterwheels. Gas and water turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to Anglo-Irish engineer Sir Charles Parsons for invention of the reaction turbine, to Swedish engineer Gustaf de Laval for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern steam turbines employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery; the word "turbine" was coined in 1822 by the French mining engineer Claude Burdin from the Latin turbo, or vortex, in a memo, "Des turbines hydrauliques ou machines rotatoires à grande vitesse", which he submitted to the Académie royale des sciences in Paris.
Benoit Fourneyron, a former student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water turbine. A working fluid contains kinetic energy; the fluid may be incompressible. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy: Impulse turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet; the resulting impulse leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid or gas in the turbine blades, as in the case of a steam or gas turbine, all the pressure drop takes place in the stationary blades. Before reaching the turbine, the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blades on the rotor. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Impulse turbines are most efficient for use in cases where the flow is low and the inlet pressure is high.
Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to fluid's pressure or mass. The pressure of the gas or fluid changes. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage or the turbine must be immersed in the fluid flow; the casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept. For compressible working fluids, multiple turbine stages are used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Reaction turbines are better suited to higher flow velocities or applications where the fluid head is low. In the case of steam turbines, such as would be used for marine applications or for land-based electricity generation, a Parsons-type reaction turbine would require double the number of blade rows as a de Laval-type impulse turbine, for the same degree of thermal energy conversion.
Whilst this makes the Parsons turbine much longer and heavier, the overall efficiency of a reaction turbine is higher than the equivalent impulse turbine for the same thermal energy conversion. In practice, modern turbine designs use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees whenever possible. Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate a reaction lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the rotor. Wind turbines gain some energy from the impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Turbines with multiple stages may use either impulse blading at high pressure. Steam turbines were traditionally more impulse but continue to move towards reaction designs similar to those used in gas turbines. At low pressure the operating fluid medium expands in volume for small reductions in pressure. Under these conditions, blading becomes a reaction type design with the base of the blade impulse; the reason is due to the effect of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade height increases, the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip.
This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high reaction-style tip. Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. Vector analysis related the fluid flow with turbine rotation. Graphical calculation methods were used at first. Formulae for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well documented and a efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow condition; some of the calculations are empirical or'rule of thumb' formulae, others are based on classical mechanics. As with most engineering calculations, simplifying assumptions were made. Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage. Gas exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity Va1; the rotor rotates at velocity U. Relative to the rotor, the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the rotor entrance is Vr1; the gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at velocity Vr2. However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is Va2.
The velocity t
Dante Giacosa was an Italian automobile designer and engineer responsible for a range of Italian automobile designs — and for refining the front-wheel drive layout to an industry-standard configuration. When Fiat began marketing the Fiat 128 in 1969 — with its engine and gearbox situated in an in-line, transverse front-drive layout, combined unequal drive shafts, MacPherson strut suspension and an electrically controlled radiator fan — it became the layout adopted by every other manufacturer in the world for front-wheel drive; the approach of unequal drive shafts was crafted by Dante Giacosa. Transverse engine and gearbox front-wheel drive had been introduced to small inexpensive cars with the German DKW F1 in 1931, made more popular with the British Mini; as engineered by Alec Issigonis in the Mini cars, the compact arrangement located the transmission and engine sharing a single oil sump — despite disparate lubricating requirements — and had the engine's radiator mounted to the side of the engine, but with fan blades shaped to expel heated air into the left wheel arch, thus drawing cool rather than heated air over the engine.
The layout required the engine be removed to service the clutch. As engineered by Dante Giacosa, the 128 featured a transverse-mounted engine with unequal length drive shafts and an innovative clutch release mechanism — an arrangement which Fiat had strategically tested on a previous production model, the Primula, from its less market-critical subsidiary, Autobianchi. Ready for production in 1964, the Primula featured the four-cylinder water-cooled 1,221 cc from the Fiat 1100D mounted transversely with the four-speed gearbox located inline with the crankshaft. With a gear train to the offset differential and final drive and unequal length drive shafts; the layout enabled the engine and gearbox to be located side by side without sharing lubricating fluid while orienting the cooling fan toward fresh air flow. By using the Primula as a test-bed, Fiat was able to sufficiently resolve the layout's disadvantages, including uneven side-to-side power transmission, uneven tire wear and potential torque steer, the tendency for the power of the engine alone to steer the car under heavy acceleration.
Fiat demonstrated the layout's flexibility, re-configuring the 128 drive-train as a mid-engined layout for the Fiat X1/9, the compact, efficient layout — a transversely-mounted engine with transmission mounted beside the engine driving the front wheels through an offset final-drive and unequal-length driveshafts — subsequently became common with competitors and arguably an industry standard. Born in Rome, where his father was undertaking military service, Giacosa's family roots were in Neive on the southern edge of Piedmont, he studied engineering at the Polytechnic University of Turin until 1927. After completing his compulsory military service he joined Fiat in 1928, at first working on military vehicles and in the aero engine division; the director of the aero-engine division was designer of Grand Prix cars for Fiat. In 1933 when work commenced on the Fiat 500, the director of the aero-engine division was Antonio Fessia, he had sufficient confidence to entrust the design of all the mechanical components of the car including the chassis to Giacosa.
Giacosa was engineering manager at Fiat by 1937 and he had become director of the engineering division of Fiat by 1950. He retired from his full-time position with Fiat in 1970, but retained close association with the company courtesy of a position which translates as "Consulting Engineer to Fiat's Presidency and General Management and a Company's Ambassador with National and International Organizations". Following his retirement he wrote several volumes of memoirs concerning his professional life. Giacosa served as President of FISITA, the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies, from 1967 to 1969 and authored Motori Endotermici, which discusses diverse features related to internal combustion machines with explanations of their design and function; the work became a reference for mechanical engineering courses in many universities and was translated into numerous languages. Giacosa died in Turin in 1996; the Fiat Topolino was a state of the art two-seat miniature car that soon proved popular when production commenced in 1936.
It was a two-seater and had a 569 cc side-valve engine, but the chassis with independent front suspension using a transverse leaf spring and wishbones and neat packaging was a big advance, with the engine located over the front wheels and radiator behind it over the four-speed synchromesh gearbox excellent hydraulic brakes. With fuel consumption around 18 km/l and a maximum speed of 90 km/h, but with handling good enough to allow average speeds of 60 km/h. Between 1936 when first introduced until the end of production in 1948, 122,000 were made of this original version. Giacosa's subsequently designed the Fiat 508C, replacing the 508 Balilla, the 508C or as it became known as the "Millecento", had a short-stroke 1,100 cc engine, with overhead valves, an outstanding chassis design that earned it a reputation for good handling and ride quality, it was with a 508C chassis that as engineering manager Giacosa led a team that developed the Fiat 508CMM a streamlined coupe. Fiat used the car to win the 1100 cc class in the Mille Miglia of 1938.
This model was produced in small numbers until 1940. The 508C was produced from 1937 to 1948, when it was replaced by an updated versions the 1100B and 1100E, produced until 1953. Wealthy Italian industrialist Piero Dusio approached Giacosa in 1944 with a request to design a single seat racing car that could be purchased