Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics and modes of employment". Special forces emerged in the early 20th century, with a significant growth in the field during the Second World War, when "every major army involved in the fighting" created formations devoted to special operations behind enemy lines. Depending on the country, special forces may perform functions including airborne operations, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, covert ops, direct action, hostage rescue, high-value targets/manhunting, intelligence operations, mobility operations, unconventional warfare. In Russian-speaking countries special forces of any country are called spetsnaz, an acronym for "special purpose". In the United States the term special forces refers to the US Army's Special Forces, while the term special operations forces is used more broadly for these types of unit.
Special forces capabilities include the following: Special reconnaissance and surveillance in hostile environments Foreign internal defense:Training and development of other states' military and security forces Offensive action Support to counter-insurgency through population engagement and support Counter-terrorism operations Sabotage and demolition Hostage rescueOther capabilities can include bodyguarding. Special forces have played an important role throughout the history of warfare, whenever the aim was to achieve disruption by "hit and run" and sabotage, rather than more traditional conventional combat. Other significant roles lay in reconnaissance, providing essential intelligence from near or among the enemy and in combating irregular forces, their infrastructure and activities. Chinese strategist Jiang Ziya, in his Six Secret Teachings, described recruiting talented and motivated men into specialized elite units with functions such as commanding heights and making rapid long-distance advances.
Hamilcar Barca in Sicily had specialized troops trained to launch several offensives per day. In the late Roman or early Byzantine period, Roman fleets used small, camouflaged ships crewed by selected men for scouting and commando missions. Muslim forces had naval special operations units, including one that used camouflaged ships to gather intelligence and launch raids and another of soldiers who could pass for Crusaders who would use ruses to board enemy ships and capture and destroy them. In Japan, ninjas were used for reconnaissance, espionage and as assassins, bodyguards or fortress guards, or otherwise fought alongside conventional soldiers. During the Napoleonic wars and sapper units were formed that held specialised roles in reconnaissance and skirmishing and were not committed to the formal battle lines; the British Indian Army deployed two special forces during their border wars: the Corps of Guides formed in 1846 and the Gurkha Scouts. During the Second Boer War the British Army felt the need for more specialised units became most apparent.
Scouting units such as the Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment made up of exceptional woodsmen outfitted in ghillie suits and well practised in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, military tactics filled this role. This unit was formed in 1900 by Lord Lovat and early on reported to an American, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts. After the war, Lovat's Scouts went on to formally become the British Army's first sniper unit. Additionally, the Bushveldt Carbineers, formed in 1901, can be seen as an early unconventional warfare unit; the German Stormtroopers and the Italian Arditi were the first modern shock troops. They were both elite assault units trained to a much higher level than that of average troops and tasked to carry out daring attacks and bold raids against enemy defenses. Unlike Stormtroopers, Arditi were not units within infantry divisions, but were considered a separate combat arm. Modern special forces emerged during the Second World War.
In 1940, the British Commandos were formed following Winston Churchill's call for "specially trained troops of the hunter class, who can develop a reign of terror down the enemy coast." A staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Dudley Clarke, had submitted such a proposal to General Sir John Dill, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Dill, aware of Churchill's intentions, approved Clarke's proposal and on 23 June 1940, the first Commando raid took place. By the autumn of 1940 more than 2,000 men had volunteered and in November 1940 these new units were organised into a Special Service Brigade consisting of four battalions under the command of Brigadier J. C. Haydon; the Special Service Brigade was expanded to 12 units which became known as Commandos. Each Commando numbered around 450 men. In December 1940 a Middle East Commando depot was formed with the responsibility of training and supplying reinforcements for the Commando units in that theatre. In February 1942 the Commando training depot at Achnacarry in the Scottish Highlands was established by Brigadier Charles Haydon.
Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Vaughan, the Commando depot was responsible for training complete units and indivi
Japanese air attacks on the Mariana Islands
During World War II, a series of Japanese air attacks on the Mariana Islands took place between November 1944 and January 1945. These raids targeted United States Army Air Forces bases and sought to disrupt the bombing of Japan by B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers operating from the islands; the Japanese lost 37 aircraft during this operation, but destroyed 11 B-29s and damaged a further 43. Preparations were made for commando raids on the bases in early and mid-1945 but these did not go ahead. While the attacks on the Mariana Islands did not disrupt the USAAF air campaign, they had an effect on other American operations. After determining that the Japanese raiders were staging through Iwo Jima, American forces stepped up their attacks on that island. While the decision to invade Iwo Jima had been made before the raids commenced, stopping the attacks formed part of the justification for the landing. In addition, further air defense units were deployed to the Mariana Islands to protect the B-29 bases.
United States forces recaptured Guam and captured Saipan and Tinian in the Mariana Islands between June and August 1944, as part of the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign. These islands were needed to provide bases for USAAF Twentieth Air Force B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers to attack the Japanese home islands. Construction of the large air bases needed to support B-29s began on Saipan in June 1944, before the end of the Battle of Saipan, work on air fields on Tinian and Guam commenced in July and August respectively; the B-29s of the XXI Bomber Command began to arrive at Saipan starting on October 12, the 73rd Bombardment Wing began flying warm-up missions against Japanese-held islands in the Pacific on October 27 in preparation for operations against Japan itself. The USAAF bases in the Mariana Islands were within range of a number of Japanese air bases in the Pacific; these included Wake Island to the east and the Gilbert and Marshall Islands to the southeast, Woleai to the south and Yap to the southwest.
To the north the Japanese had air bases in the Nampo Shoto chain of islands and Bonin Islands, which included three airstrips on Iwo Jima. Several of the minor islands in the Mariana chain remained in Japanese hands, there were airfields on Rota and Pagan; the Japanese were unable to use most of these bases, however, as they had been isolated and damaged by United States air attacks, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force and Imperial Japanese Navy had few aircraft and pilots available. Despite the limited threat of attack, the United States military took steps to protect the B-29 bases in the Mariana Islands; the USAAF's Seventh Air Force played the most important role, continuously attacked the Japanese-held islands until just before the end of the war. United States Navy and United States Marine Corps aircraft and XXI Bomber Command B-29s occasionally participated in these attacks; the Seventh Air Force provided air defence for the Mariana Islands. The Thunderbolts were responsible for suppressing the Japanese-held Mariana Islands, though it proved difficult to stop the 3,600-man garrison from repairing the airfield on Pagan.
In addition, the US Army stationed elements of eight anti-aircraft gun battalions and two searchlight battalions on Saipan between July 1944 and February 1945. The head of the USAAF General "Hap" Arnold, who directly commanded the Twentieth Air Force, was concerned about whether these defenses were sufficient given the high cost of the Superfortress bombers. Accordingly, he allocated a Microwave Early Warning radar to protect the bases on Saipan; this advanced radar was not installed, however, as the local commanders believed that the island's air defenses were adequate. The first Japanese air attacks on the B-29 bases occurred. Small numbers of Japanese aircraft flying from Guam, Iwo Jima and Truk made occasional raids on the American forces on Saipan during the fighting there, but caused little damage. Between June 24 and July 21 the 6th Night Fighter Squadron intercepted 37 raids on Saipan, claimed three "kills"; these raids comprised twelve IJN Mitsubishi G4M bombers, or IJAAF Mitsubishi Ki-67 bombers operating from bases on mainland Japan and staging through Iwo Jima.
The attacks disrupted airbase construction on several days and contributed to delays completing the B-29 base on Saipan, Isley Field. Small numbers of Japanese soldiers who had avoided capture at the end of the battles on the islands raided the B-29 bases on occasion in search of food; the main Japanese air offensive against the Mariana Islands began in early November 1944. On November 1, a B-29 flying from the Marianas overflew the Tokyo region for the first time; the next day, nine or ten IJN G4Ms belonging to the IJN Attack Hikōtai 703 struck Isley Field and the adjacent Kobler Field on Saipan. The raiders dropped their bombs from low altitude. Only five bombs struck Isley Field, these caused little damage. A Black Widow from the 6th Night Fighter Squadron shot down one of the G4Ms and another two were lost to other causes. On November 3 the Imperial General Headquarters issued a statement which falsely claimed that Japanese aircraft had bombed and destroyed fifteen locations in Saipan and Tinian.
A further attack by either five or ten G4Ms with fighter escorts took place at 1:30 am on November 7, but caused little damage. The USAAF official history states that three G4Ms were downed in this raid while another
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Type 30 bayonet
The Type 30 bayonet was a bayonet designed for the Imperial Japanese Army to be used with the Arisaka Type 30 Rifle and was used on the Type 38 and Type 99 rifles. Some 8.4 million were produced, it remained in front-line use from the Russo-Japanese War to the end of World War II. All Japanese infantrymen were issued with the Type 30, whether they were armed with a rifle or pistol, or if they were unarmed; the Type 30 Bayonet was a single-edged sword bayonet with a 400 millimetres blade and an overall length of 514 millimetres with a weight of 700 grams. The Type 30 bayonet is known as the “Pattern 1897 bayonet”. Early Type 30 bayonets sported a hooked quillion guard, designed to catch and trap the enemy's blade. By 1942 the quillon was eliminated to save materials and decrease production time, leaving only a straight guard. Type 30 scabbards went from metal, to vulcanized fibre, to wood or bamboo; the design was intended to give the average Japanese infantryman a long enough reach to pierce the abdomen of a cavalryman.
However, the design had a number of drawbacks, some caused by the poor quality of forgings used, which tended to rust and not hold an edge, to break when bent. The weapon was manufactured from 1897 to 1945 at a number of locations, including the Kokura Arsenal, Koishikawa Arsenal and Nagoya Arsenal, as well as under contract by private manufacturers including Matsushita, Toyoda Automatic Loom and others. Japanese Type 30 Bayonet
Kadena is a town located in Nakagami District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016, the town had an estimated population of 13,671 and a density of 910 persons per km²; the total area is 15.04 square kilometres. 85% of the town is controlled by the US Government including Kadena Air Base, the second-largest base in the United States Air Force. Kadena faces the East China Sea to the west. Kadena borders three other municipalities in Okinawa Prefecture. Yomitan to the north Okinawa to the east Chatan to the south The Kadena area has some of the oldest settlement remains, in the form of shell mounds, on Okinawa Island; the Hija River, the modern border between Yomitan and Kadena, was the focus of these early settlements. A number of ruins of minor gusuku can be found in the area. Amawari, an infamous warlord, was born in the Kadena area. Japan annexed the island in 1879, Chatan became a village in 1908. During the Pacific War, Japan built an airstrip in the Kadena area. During the Battle of Okinawa in 1945, the United States landed on the banks of the Hija River and captured the airstrip.
The airstrip became Kadena Air Force Base. On December 4th, 1948, the American military government separated Kadena from Chatan and established Kadena village; the United States built Kadena Circle outside the base. On January 1st, 1976, four years after Okinawa reverted to Japanese control, Kadena was elevated to town status; the economy of Kadena is dependent on the presence of Kadena Air Force Base. The town otherwise produces a small amount of pineapples and sugarcane. Kadena official website
A submachine gun is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges. The term "submachine gun" was coined by John T. Thompson, the inventor of the Thompson submachine gun; the submachine gun was developed during World War I. At its zenith during World War II, millions of SMGs were made. After the war, new SMG designs appeared frequently. However, by the 1980s, SMG usage decreased. Today, submachine guns have been replaced by assault rifles, which have a greater effective range and are capable of penetrating the helmets and body armor used by modern infantry. However, submachine guns are still used by military special forces and police SWAT teams for close quarters battle because they are "a pistol-caliber weapon that's easy to control, less to over-penetrate the target". During World War I, the Austrians introduced the world's first machine pistol the Steyr Repetierpistole M1912/P16; the Germans experimented with machine pistols by converting pistols such as the Mauser C96 and Luger P-08 from semiautomatic to automatic operation and adding detachable stocks.
Carbine-type automatic weapons firing pistol rounds were developed during the latter stages of World War I by Italy and the United States. Their improved firepower and portability offered an advantage in trench warfare. In 1915, the Italians introduced the Villar-Perosa aircraft machine gun, it fired pistol-caliber 9mm Glisenti ammunition, but was not a true submachine gun, as it was designed as a mounted weapon. This odd design was modified into the OVP 1918 carbine-type submachine gun, which evolved into the 9×19mm Parabellum Beretta Model 1918 after the end of World War I. Both the OVP 1918 and the Beretta 1918 had a traditional wooden stock, a 25-round top-fed box magazine, had a cyclic rate of fire of 900 rounds per minute; the Germans used heavier versions of the P08 pistol equipped with a detachable stock, larger-capacity snail-drum magazine and a longer barrel. By 1918, Bergmann Waffenfabrik had developed the 9 mm Parabellum MP 18, the first practical submachine gun; this weapon used the same 32-round snail-drum magazine as the Luger P-08.
The MP 18 was used in significant numbers by German stormtroopers employing infiltration tactics, achieving some notable successes in the final year of the war. However, these were not enough to prevent Germany's collapse in November 1918. After World War I, the MP 18 would evolve into the MP28/II SMG, which incorporated a simple 32-round box magazine, a semi & full auto selector, other minor improvements. The.45 ACP Thompson submachine gun had been in development at the same time as the Bergmann and the Beretta. However, the war ended. Although it had missed its chance to be the first purpose-designed submachine gun to enter service, it became the basis for weapons and had the longest active service life of the three. In the interwar period the "Tommy Gun" or "Chicago Typewriter" became notorious in the U. S. as a gangster's weapon. However, the FBI and other U. S. police forces themselves showed no reluctance to prominently display these weapons. The submachine gun was accepted by many military organizations as World War II loomed, with many countries developing their own designs.
The Italians were among the first to develop submachine guns during World War I. However, they were slow to produce them during World War II; the 9 mm Parabellum Beretta Model 1938 was not available in large numbers until 1943. The 38 was made in a successive series of improved and simplified models all sharing the same basic layout; the Beretta has the front for semi-auto and rear for full-auto. Most models use standard wooden stocks, although some models were fitted with an MP 40-style under-folding stock and are mistaken for the German SMG; the 38 series was robust and proved popular with both Axis forces and Allied troops. It is considered the most successful and effective Italian small arm of World War II; the 38 series is the longest serving of the world's SMGs, as models can still be seen in the hands of Italian military and police forces. In 1939, the Germans introduced the 9 mm Parabellum MP38 during the invasion of Poland. However, the MP38 production was still just starting and only a few thousand were in service at the time.
It proved to be far more practical and effective in close quarters combat than the standard-issue German Kar 98K bolt-action rifle. From it, the nearly identical MP40 was made in large numbers; the MP40 was lighter than the MP38. It used more stamped parts, making it faster and cheaper to produce; the MP38 and MP40 were the first SMGs to use a practical folding stock. They would set the fashion for all future SMG designs. During the Winter War, the badly outnumbered Finnish used the Suomi KP/-31 in large numbers against the Russians with devastating effect. Finnish ski troops became known for appearing out of the woods on one side of a road, raking Soviet columns with SMG fire and disappearing back into the woods on the other side. During the Continuation War, the Finnish Sissi patrols would equip every soldier with KP/-31s; the Suomi fired 9 mm Parabellum ammo from a 71-round drum magazine. "This SMG showed to the world the importance of the submachine gun to the modern warfare", prompting the development and mass production of submachine guns by mo