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Girolamo Savonarola

Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian Dominican friar from Ferrara and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, his calls for Christian renewal, he denounced despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. In September 1494, when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and threatened Florence, such prophecies seemed on the verge of fulfilment. While Savonarola intervened with the French king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medicis and, at the friar's urging, established a "popular" republic. Declaring that Florence would be the New Jerusalem, the world centre of Christianity and "richer, more powerful, more glorious than ever", he instituted an extreme puritanical campaign, enlisting the active help of Florentine youth. In 1495 when Florence refused to join Pope Alexander VI's Holy League against the French, the Vatican summoned Savonarola to Rome.

He disobeyed and further defied the pope by preaching under a ban, highlighting his campaign for reform with processions, bonfires of the vanities, pious theatricals. In retaliation, the pope excommunicated him in May 1497, threatened to place Florence under an interdict. A trial by fire proposed by a rival Florentine preacher in April 1498 to test Savonarola's divine mandate turned into a fiasco, popular opinion turned against him. Savonarola and two of his supporting friars were imprisoned. On 23 May 1498, Church and civil authorities condemned and burned the three friars in the main square of Florence. Savonarola's devotees, the Piagnoni, kept his cause of republican freedom and religious reform alive well into the following century, although the Medici—restored to power in 1512 with the help of the papacy—eventually broke the movement; some Protestants consider Savonarola to be a vital precursor of the Reformation. Savonarola was born on 21 September 1452, in Ferrara to Elena, his father Niccolò was born in Ferrara to a family from Padua, his mother, claimed a lineage from the Bonacossi family of Mantua.

She and her husband, Niccolò, had seven children. His grandfather, Michele Savonarola, a noted and successful physician and polymath, oversaw Girolamo's education; the family amassed a great deal of wealth from Michele's medical practice. After his grandfather's death in 1468, Savonarola may have attended the public school run by Battista Guarino, son of Guarino da Verona, where he would have received his introduction to the classics as well as to the poetry and writings of Petrarch, father of Renaissance humanism. Earning an arts degree at the University of Ferrara, he prepared to enter medical school, following in his grandfather's footsteps. At some point, however, he abandoned his career intentions. In his early poems, he expresses his preoccupation of the world, he began to write poetry of an apocalyptic bent, notably "On the Ruin of the World" and "On the Ruin of the Church", in which he singled out the papal court at Rome for special obloquy. About the same time, he seems to have been thinking about a life in religion.

As he told his biographer, a sermon he heard by a preacher in Faenza persuaded him to abandon the world. Most of his biographers reject or ignore the account of his younger brother and follower, that in his youth Girolamo had been spurned by a neighbor, Laudomia Strozzi, to whom he proposed marriage. True or not, in a letter, he wrote to his father when he left home to join the Dominican Order he hints at being troubled by desires of the flesh. There is a story that on the eve of his departure he dreamed that he was cleansed of such thoughts by a shower of icy water which prepared him for the ascetic life. In the unfinished treatise he left behind called "De contemptu Mundi", or "On Contempt for the World", he calls upon readers to fly from this world of adultery, sodomy and envy. On 25 April 1475, Girolamo Savonarola went to Bologna where he knocked on the door of the Convent of San Domenico, of the Order of Friars Preachers, asked to be admitted; as he told his father in his farewell letter, he wanted to become a knight of Christ.

In the convent, Savonarola took the vow of obedience proper to his order, after a year was ordained to the priesthood. He studied Scripture, Aristotelian philosophy and Thomistic theology in the Dominican studium, practised preaching to his fellow friars and engaged in disputations, he matriculated in the theological faculty to prepare for an advanced degree. As he continued to write devotional works and to deepen his spiritual life he was critical of what he perceived as the decline in convent austerity. In 1478 his studies were interrupted when he was sent to the Dominican priory of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Ferrara as assistant master of novices; the assignment might have been a normal, temporary break from the academic routine, but in Savonarola's case it was a turning point. One explanation is that he had alienated certain of his superiors fra Vincenzo Bandelli, or Bandello, a professor at the studium and future master general of the Dominicans, who resented the young friar's opposition to modifying the Order's rules against the ownership of property.

In 1482, instead of returning to Bologna to resume his studies, Savonarola was assigned as lector, or teacher, in the Convent of San Marco in Florence. In San Marco, fra Girolamo taught logic to the novices, wrote instructional manuals on ethics, logic and government, composed

The Winstons

The Winstons were an American 1960s funk and soul music group, based in Washington, D. C. United States, they are known for their 1969 recording of an EP featuring a song entitled "Color Him Father" on the A-side, "Amen, Brother" on the B-side. Half-way into "Amen, Brother", there is a drum solo which would cause the EP to become the most sampled record in the history of electronic music. Sampled audio clips of the drum solo became known as the Amen Break, used in thousands of tracks in many musical genres, including drum and bass, hip hop, big beat and electronica; the "Color Him Father" record sold over one million copies, received a gold record awarded by the Recording Industry Association of America on 24 July 1969. It won a Grammy Award for the Best Rhythm and Blues Song; the Winstons line-up included: Richard Lewis Spencer Ray Maritano Quincy Mattison Phil Tolotta Sonny Pekerol, J. Lee Zane Gregory C. Coleman The Winstons toured as backup for The Impressions. "Color Him Father" — "Amen, Brother" — "Love of the Common People" — Amen break Breakbeat Oldschool jungle Drum and bass The Winstons at AllMusic

H. S. Rawail

Harnam Singh Rawail credited as H. S. Rawail, was an Indian filmmaker, he debuted as a director with the 1940 Bollywood film Dorangia Daku and is best known for romantic films like Mere Mehboob, Mehboob Ki Mehndi and Laila Majnu. His son Rahul Rawail and nephew Rajat Rawail are film directors too. Rawail was born in Lyallpur, British India and moved to Mumbai to aspire to be a filmmaker, he moved to Kolkata where he wrote several film scripts and debuted as a director with Dorangia Daku. His three consecutive films, his next film Patanga was successful and was the seventh highest grossing Bollywood film of 1949. The film is still remembered for the song "Mere Piya Gaye Rangoon" performed by Shamshad Begum. Rawail's nine consecutive films from 1949 till 1956 did not perform well on the box office. In March 1956, Rawail started with two new projects, Chaalbaaz with Meena Kumari and Baazigar with Vyjayanthimala. Both the films were dropped eventually. However, in 1958 director Nanabhai Bhatt revived both the project starring Nirupa Roy.

Rawail took three years sabbatical and returned in 1959 with a comedy film Shararat, starring Raaj Kumar, Kishore Kumar and Meena Kumari. The film was not a commercial success along with his next two films, Roop Ki Rani Choron Ka Raja, starring Dev Anand and Waheeda Rehman and Kanch Ki Gudiya starring Manoj Kumar, but the film brought recognition to Manoj Kumar after having starred in various unsuccessful films before. Rawail's major success came with 1963 musical film Mere Mehboob starring Rajendra Kumar and Sadhana Shivdasani. Kumar had earlier worked as an assistant director to Rawail; the film was praised for Rawail's direction and is remembered for title song composed by music director Naushad and performed by singers Mohammed Rafi and Lata Mangeshkar. His next film Sunghursh was based on a novel written by the Bengali author Mahashweta Devi; the film was showcased the lives of bandits. It was praised for the "exceptional performances" by its actors like Dilip Kumar, Balraj Sahni, Sanjeev Kumar and Jayant.

The actor-director Rakesh Roshan had worked as an assistant director on the film. His next film Mehboob Ki Mehndi, featuring Rajesh Khanna and Leena Chandavarkar performed average at the box office but was recognised for its music composed by Laxmikant-Pyarelal. However, his 1976 film Laila Majnu, starring Rishi Kapoor and Ranjeeta Kaur in lead roles, became a success. Rawail's last film as director Deedar-E-Yaar was a commercial failure with which he took sabbatical from the film industry, his son Rahul Rawail is a film director and is best known for films like Love Story, Betaab and Anjaam. He paid a tribute to his father's "best work" Sunghursh by titling one of his film as Jeevan Ek Sanghursh. Rawail's grandson Bharat Rawail is an upcoming director, who assisted Yash Chopra for his last film, Jab Tak Hai Jaan. Rawail died on 17 September 2004 at the age of 83 in Mumbai. National Film Awards1963 – 11th National Film Awards – Certificate of Merit for the Second Best Feature Film – Mere Mehboob as both producer and director.

Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards1968 – 32nd Annual BFJA Awards – Fourth Best Indian Film – Sunghursh H. S. Rawail on IMDb