Girona is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Galligants, Güell and has an official population of 101,852 in 2019. It is the capital of of the comarca of the Gironès, it is located 99 km northeast of Barcelona. Girona is a major Catalan city; the first historical inhabitants in the region were Iberians. The Romans built a citadel there, given the name of Gerunda; the Visigoths ruled in Girona until it was conquered by the Moors in 715. Charlemagne reconquered it in 785 and made it one of the fourteen original counties of Catalonia, it was wrested temporarily from the Moors, who recaptured it in 793. From this time until the Moors were driven out in 1015, the city changed hands, it was sacked by the Moors in 827, 842, 845, 935, 982. Wilfred the Hairy incorporated Girona into the County of Barcelona in 878. In the 11th century, Alfonso I of Aragon declared Girona a city; the ancient county became a duchy in 1351 when King Peter III of Aragon gave the title of Duke to his first-born son, John.

In 1414, King Ferdinand I in turn gave the title of Prince of Girona to his first-born son, Alfonso. The title is carried by Princess Leonor of Asturias, the second since the 16th century to do so; the 12th century saw the Jewish community of Girona flourish, having one of the most important Kabbalistic schools in Europe. The Rabbi of Girona, Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi was appointed Great Rabbi of Catalonia; the presence of the Jewish community of Girona came to an end in 1492, when the Catholic Monarchs outlawed Judaism throughout Spain and Jews were given the choice of conversion or exile. Today, the Jewish quarter or Call is one of the best preserved in Europe and is a major tourist attraction. On the north side of the old city is the Montjuïc, where the Jewish cemetery was located. Girona has been captured seven times, it was besieged by the French royal armies under Charles de Monchy d'Hocquincourt in 1653, under Bernardin Gigault de Bellefonds in 1684, twice in 1694 under Anne Jules de Noailles.

In May 1809, it was besieged by 35,000 French Napoleonic troops under Vergier, Augereau and St. Cyr, held out obstinately under the leadership of Alvarez until disease and famine compelled it to capitulate on 12 December; the French conquered the city in 1809, after seven months of siege. Girona was center of the Ter department during the French rule, which lasted from 1809 to 1813; the defensive city walls of the western side were demolished at the end of the 19th century to allow for the expansion of the city, while the walls of the eastern side remained untouched but abandoned. In recent years, the missing parts of the city walls on the eastern side of the city have been reconstructed. Called the Passeig de la Muralla it now forms a tourist route around the old city. In the Köppen climate classification, Girona has a humid subtropical climate, with cool winters and hot summers. In winter, temperatures can drop to below −2 °C. In summer, maximum temperatures are 27–34 °C. Although rainfall is evenly spread throughout the year, it is more common in autumn.

The driest month is July. Thunderstorms are common in the summer. Notice that the following climate chart is based on Girona airport, further inland and affected by the thermal inversion. Girona is a popular destination for tourists and Barcelona day-trippers - the train journey from Barcelona Sants to Girona takes forty minutes on express trains; the old town stands on the steep hill of the Capuchins to the east of the river Onyar, while the more modern section stands on the plains to the west. The ancient cathedral, which stood on the site of the present one, was used by the Moors as a mosque, after their final expulsion was either remodelled or rebuilt; the present edifice is one of the most important monuments of the school of the Majorcan architect Jaume Fabre and an excellent example of Catalan Gothic architecture. It is approached by eighty-six steps. An aisle and chapels surround the choir, which opens by three arches into the nave, of which the pointed stone vault is the widest in Christendom.

Among its interior decorations is a retable, the work of the Valencian silversmith Pere Bernec. It is divided into three tiers of statuettes and reliefs, framed in canopied niches of cast and hammered silver. A gold and silver altar-frontal was carried off by the French in 1809; the cathedral contains the tombs of his wife. The old fortifications are another popular sight; these have played a vital role in protecting Girona from invaders for hundreds of years. The city wall of the old town was an important military construction built in Roman times in the 1st century BC, it was rebuilt under the reign of Peter III the Ceremonious in the second half of the 14th century. The Roman wall was used as a foundation. At the start of the 16th century, the wall was absorbed in the city; the walled precinct lost its military value. Bit by bit, the wall was degrading, as parts were altered from the inside and the outside; the walls and lookout towers that make up these fortifications are split in two - a small section in the north of the old town and a much larger section to the east and south.

It is possible to walk the walls and climb the towers, where visitors can enjoy panoramic views of Girona and the surrounding countryside. The Collegiate Church of Sant Feliu is noteworthy from an

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