Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Kuranda is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in the Shire of Mareeba, Far North Queensland, Australia. The town of Myola is located within the locality of Kuranda, it is 25 kilometres via the Kuranda Range road. It is surrounded by tropical rainforest and adjacent to the Wet Tropics World Heritage listed Barron Gorge National Park, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. Kuranda is positioned on the eastern edge of the Atherton Tableland where the Barron River begins a steep descent to its coastal floodplain; the area is an important wildlife corridor between the Daintree/Carbine Tableland area in the north and Lamb Range/Atherton Tableland in the south, two centres of biodiversity. Parts of Kuranda along its eastern edge, are protected within the Kuranda National Park and Barron Gorge National Park. Both national parks belong to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Barron Gorge Forest Reserve and Formatine Forest Reserve have been established in the south of Kuranda.
Closer to the centre of the town is Jumrum Creek Conservation Park where a near threatened, endemic frog species is protected. An elongated dam created by a weir built for a power station was constructed in 1935 and is used to today for recreation; the rainforest around Kuranda has been home to the Djabugay people for over 10,000 years. Europeans began to explore the area throughout the nineteenth century, it is believed a massacre of indigenous people took place at the location in Kuranda known as Skeleton Creek. Kuranda was first settled in 1885 and surveyed by Thomas Behan in 1888. Construction of the railway from Cairns to Myola began in 1887 and the line reached Kuranda in 1891; the current railway station was built in 1915. Kuranda Post Office opened on 25 June 1891. Between 1912 and 1913 Eric Mjöberg lead an expedition to Queensland in which the Kuranda Aboriginal people were observed. Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated at the commencement of 2007 to create Kuranda District State College.
Although coffee was grown around Kuranda in the early twentieth century, timber was the town's primary industry for a number of years. Kuranda has been known as a tourist destination since the early 1900s, it was both the local Aboriginals which attracted people to the area. Today Kuranda is a'village in the rainforest' with tourism being the current backbone of the local economy. The'village in the rainforest' concept promoted from the 1970s onwards served two purposes, it attracted those seeking a bohemian enclave in which to reside as well as a being a tourist promotional strategy. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Kuranda was popular with alternative lifestylers, a theme that still runs through the local community today; the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station was built nearby in the 1960s. Kuranda Library opened in 1996 and underwent a major refurbishment in 2015. At the 2011 census, the locality Kuranda had a population of 2,966. Kuranda has a number of heritage-listed sites: Cairns-to-Kuranda railway line including the Kuranda railway station.
The town receives thousands of tourists each week who arrive from Cairns either on the Kuranda Scenic Railway, the Skyrail Rainforest cableway, coach or by public bus via the Kuranda Range Road, a 40-minute drive from Cairns. The town is surrounded by tropical rainforest, abundant with wildlife and popular amongst birdwatchers. There are several short walks around the village including the Jum Rum Creek Environmental Park which includes The River Walk. Walking to the Barron Gorge National Park to visit Barron Falls is popular. Another 1 kilometre each way on to Wright's Lookout. There is a shuttle service that provides an alternative to walking with a half-hourly service out to the Barron Gorge National Park; this service includes a visit to Wright's Lookout. Attractions in Kuranda include a bird aviary, butterfly sanctuary, wildlife rescue/rehabilitation centre, reptile park and koala sanctuary. There is a fossil and gemstone museum and candy making displays. Cruises are available aboard'Kuranda Riverboat' on the Barron River.
Kuranda provides the visitor with many shopping opportunities, all within easy walking distance around the CBD, including the markets which consist of a range of stalls with locally made arts and produce. Kuranda has numerous art galleries and specialty shops offering a wide selection of locally made and designed art and handicrafts as well as a variety of sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Kuranda is a major centre for opals and didgeridoos, it was the first home of the Tjapukai Indigenous Dance Theatre, established by former New Yorkers Judy and Don Freeman, together with indigenous dancer and actor, David Hudson. The theatre is now located adjacent the Skyrail Terminal at Smithfield. Mareeba Shire Council operate a public library in Kuranda at 18-22 Arara Street; the Kuranda Historical Society was established in 2017 and seeks to collect and display items of historical interest relating to the Kuranda area. The Kuranda Media Association publish a monthly newspaper called "The Kuranda Paper"; the Kuranda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Barang Street and Thongon Street.
Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated in 2007 to form Kuranda District State College. The nocturnal frog species Litoria myola is only found in the vicinity of a few creeks near Kuranda; the area boasts a rich diversity of invertebrate fauna including Australi
Babinda is a small town and locality in the Cairns Region, Australia. It is located 60 kilometres south of Cairns; the town is noted for its proximity to Queensland's two highest mountains Mount Bartle Frere and Mount Bellenden Ker. Babinda and Tully annually compete for an award for Australia's wettest town. Babinda is the winner, recording an annual average rainfall of over 4279.4 millimetres each year. Babinda takes its name from the local Indigenous Australian language for mountain. Other sources, claim it is a Yidinji word for water referring to the high rainfall of the area. Babinda State School opened on 4 November 1914. Babinda Post Office opened by 1915; the Babinda War Memorial was unveiled by the chairman of the Cairns Shire Council Seymour Warner on 25 April 1927. The Babinda Public Library building opened in 1955. In March 2006, Babinda was struck by Cyclone Larry. At the 2011 census the town recorded a population of 1,068. Babinda has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 65-85 Munro Street: Babinda Hotel 109 Munro Street: Babinda Air Raid Shelter The 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 1,167 persons in Babinda on census night.
Of these, 49.7% were male and 50.3% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being Italy and New Zealand; the age distribution of Babinda residents is skewed higher than the greater Australian population. 70.1% of residents were over 25 years in 2006, compared to the Australian average of 66.5%. The local newspapers are The Cairns Post. There are many different community events in Babinda; the annual Harvest Festival is celebrated in October and features some unusual events including the Sugar Bowl competition, the Gumboot Toss and the Umbrella Toss. The festival did not occur in 2006 due to Cyclone Larry. Babinda is served on the corner of Pollard and the Boulders Road. St Rita's School, on Church Street, Babinda Kindergarten on Church Street and Babinda Early Learning on Pollard Road; the Cairns Regional Council operates a public library in Babinda at 24 Munro Street. The Babinda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall in School Road.
The Boulders and Devil's Pool are popular tourist attractions. A picnic area is located nearby, beside Babinda Creek. Babinda is situated on the Bruce Highway; the town has a railway station for access to the long-distance train services only the Spirit of Queensland for which an advance booking must be made for the train to stop in Babinda. Babinda has a tropical rainforest climate with persistently wet weather, it is well known and recognised as the wettest town in Australia, with an annual average rainfall of 4279.4 mm. Monthly totals over 1000 mm are not uncommon, sometimes between January and April, whole months will go by without a single sunny day; the wet season lasts from December to May. During the wet season, heavy monsoonal downpours occur daily and even heavier rain from tropical lows or cyclones occurs. Rainfall still totals well over 100mm a month during the dry season. Thunderstorms with dangerous lightning and damaging winds can be a threat from October to December. Suburbs of Cairns Media related to Babinda, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Babinda Watch historical footage of Babinda and Far North Queensland from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.
Cairns Regional Council "Babinda". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 8 February 2004. Retrieved 30 March 2011
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Innisfail is a town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. The town was called Geraldton until 1910, it is the major township of the Cassowary Coast Region and is well renowned for its sugar and banana industries, as well as for being one of Australia's wettest towns. In March 2006 Innisfail gained worldwide attention when severe Tropical Cyclone Larry passed over causing extensive damage. In the 2011 census, the town of Innisfail had a population of 7,176 people. Prior to European settlement the Innisfail area was occupied by five separate societies of the Mamu people; these Aboriginal people followed migratory lifestyles in the rainforest and traversed rivers in string-bark canoes. The first arrival of European people came in 1872 when survivors of the shipwreck, the "Maria" arrived on the coastal areas surrounding what is now the Johnstone River. Sub-Inspector Robert Arthur Johnstone of the Native Police came with the intention of rescuing remaining survivors and collectively punishing Aboriginals thought to have killed a number of the shipwrecked crew.
In mid 1873, Johnstone returned to the area as part of another punitive mission and ventured further upriver between what is today Flying Fish Point and Coquette Point. Johnstone wrote highly of the area, stating:A most glorious view appeared - a noble reach of fresh water, studded with blacks with their canoes and catamarans, others on the sandy beaches. In October 1873, Johnstone again returned as part of the Northeast Coast Expedition led by the explorer George Elphinstone Dalrymple. British settlement was first established at the junction of the north and south branches of the Johnstone River by this expedition on the 5th October 1873, it was named Nind's Camp after Philip Henry Nind. In 1879, Irishman Thomas Henry FitzGerald arrived in the area to establish a sugar industry, he was accompanied by large numbers of Kanaka South Sea Islanders workers accompanied by smaller numbers of Irish labourers. The house built by FitzGerald and thus the first establishment in the area was called Innisfallen, after the largest island in the Lakes of Killarney, Ireland.
Inis Fáil is an ancient Irish name for Ireland itself. The name is used in the rarely-sung third verse of the Irish national anthem; the stone mentioned may be the stone at Co Meath, at which high kings of Ireland were crowned. From 1879, the settlement was named Geraldton after FitzGerald, but in 1910 was renamed "Innisfail" to avoid confusion with the town of the same name in Western Australia. Johnstone River Post Office opened on 1 November 1882, was renamed Geraldton two months and Innisfail in 1910. In May 1885, the Queensland Government called for tenders to build the Geraldton Hospital to replace the existing tent hospital. In 1906 Patrick Leahy established the Johnstone River Advocate newspaper, it was renamed the Johnstone River Advocate and Innisfail News, the Evening Advocate, the Innisfail Chronicle. The newspaper continues to be published as the Innisfail Advocate; the 1920s and 1930s saw the beginning of a major period of settlement by Italian immigrants and noteworthy populations from Greece and Malta.
In this period populations from Yugoslavia and the Philippines would settle in the area. Local rugby league footballer Kerry Boustead was the only player from outside the Sydney and Brisbane Leagues selected to represent Australia on the 1978 Kangaroo tour; the Innisfail War Memorial in Jack Fossey Park on Fitzgerald Esplanade was dedicated on 16 April 2005. In the 2006 census, Innisfail had a population of 8,262 people. Today the town still boasts many good examples of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne styles of architecture. Innisfail State School opened on 18 July 1887 and Innisfail East State School opened on 3 February 1936. Innisfail State High School was open from 24 January 1955 until 2009 when it was amalgamated with the Innisfail Inclusive Education Centre - A State Special School and Tropical North Queensland TAFE to form Innisfail State College Innisfail has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 10 Edith Street: Innisfail Courthouse 134 Edith Street: See Poy House Fitzgerald Esplanade: Canecutters Memorial 70 Rankin Street: Johnstone Shire Hall 90 Rankin Street: Mother of Good Counsel Catholic Church 114 Rankin Street: St Andrew's Presbyterian Memorial Church Innisfail is diverse.
There are populations of indigenous Australians, South Asians and East Asians. Popular annual events to celebrate Innisfail's diversity include: Kulture Karnival Festival Innisfail Feast of the Senses Feast of the Three SaintsIn 2001 Los Angeles band Sugar Ray filmed part of their music DVD "Music in High Places" at the Johnstone Crocodile Farm in Innisfail; the township has only 2 secondary schools: Good Counsel College and Innisfail State College and a single business district. There are many events that act predominantly as community events, the main ones include: The Innisfail Rodeo Harvest Festival Annual ShowWhile Innisfail was always reputed to have a positive sense of community spirit, the aftermath of Tropical Cyclone Larry and the unified cleanup effort acted to promote this spirit through shared suffering; the Cassowary Coast Regional Council operates a public library at 49 Rankin Street. The current library opened in 2015; the Innisfail branch of the Queensland C
Kowanyama is a town on the Gulf of Carpentaria side of Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Kowanyama had a population of 1,017; the town resides within the Kowanyama Local Government Area which covers a land area of 2,516.1km². The aboriginal people who live in this community include Kokominjena and Kunjen groups, amongst others. In their overarching Yir-Yoront language, Kowanyama means "The place of many waters." The community is situated on the banks of the Magnificent Creek, a tributary of the Mitchell River, 20 kilometres inland from the coastline of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Kowanyama is accessed by an all-weather airstrip, as well as unsealed roads in the dry season from Pormpuraaw to the north, Normanton to the south and Cairns to the east. In 1905, Trubanamen Mission was established inland on Topsy Creek, now known as the old mission. Aboriginal peoples of the region were drawn from their ancestral lands into the mission settlement. In 1916, Mitchell River Mission was founded on the present site of Kowanyama and the Trubanamen site abandoned.
Some peoples continued to occupy their traditional lands, moving into Kowanyama as late as the 1940s. More than 1000 people now live in Kowanyama, making it one of the largest communities on the Cape York Peninsula. Kowanyama's Aboriginal people continue to identify with their ancestral countries and with the languages, songs and histories associated with those countries. Language groups associated with countries in the Kowanyama region are Yir Yoront, Yirrk Thangalkl, Koko Bera, Uw Oykangand, Olkola. In 1964, a cyclone destroyed the mission; the Queensland government funded the rebuilding. Kowanyama Post Office opened by 1967. In 1967 the Anglican church were no longer able to sustain their activities in the area as a Church Mission; the Department of Aboriginal and Islander Affairs, a government department, under the Act continued running the affairs of the community. In July 1987, the State Government of Queensland implemented legislation for a DOGIT over the lands in the Mitchell River delta, an area of 250 km².
The deed covered the traditional lands of the people of Kowanyama. Like other DOGIT communities of the time, Kowanyama had a town Council elected by Aboriginal people living in the community; the newly formed Kowanyama Council assumed responsibility for implementing certain conditions of the DOGIT. Seven elected aboriginal residents hold three-year terms in office. Since the 1990s, many Kowanyama people have been returning to their ancestral lands through the Homelands Movement. Homelands within the Kowanyama DOGIT include Scrubby Bore, Red Lilly, Ten Mile, Stewart Place, Old Rodeo Ground, Duck Hole, Wonya Bore, Kokomenjen Island, Wallaby Island, Joe's Lagoon, Yangr Bore, Fish Hole, Robert Demaine great elder and Thilpi. Other homelands, including the Oriners Pastoral Lease and the Sefton Pastoral Lease, were independently purchased by the Kowanyama Council and are located outside the DOGIT boundary. A Community Justice Group operates within Kowanyama; this group is made up of respected members in the community.
They meet to make recommendations to Council. The community has a Council of Elders, who are consulted by the Kowanyama Council when making community decisions; the elders operate in conjunction with the Lands Office. The Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resources Management Office works to promote and facilitate aboriginal management of the natural and cultural resources of Kowanyama country by the people of Kowanyama. Through community consultation and direction, KALNRMO has developed a community development agenda for the Kowanyama region, including: Homelands development Land and Fisheries Management'Tourism and Visitor management Kowanyama Ranger Service Native Title Claims Cultural Resource documentationThrough the initiatives of KALNRMO, the Kowanyama community is regarded as a leader in indigenous land management issues. Since 1987, Kowanyama has effected substantial local control over fishing in the Mitchell River Delta, including the closure of some waters to non-Aboriginal fishing under state fisheries legislation.
This action, funded through the enterprise income of the Kowanyama Aboriginal Council, has provided Aboriginal people access to the River’s fish stocks for their cultural and economic needs. In this way, Aboriginal people can fish and hunt. KALNRMO employs four field rangers; the Kowanyama Rangers implement land management strategies in many areas of the DOGIT, and, in addition to tourism and visitor management, patrol closed and open waters. The Rangers observe fisheries regulations for illegal commercial or recreational fishing in closed waters. Beginning in 2007, the Rangers monitor threatened turtle populations and participate in the Carpentaria Ghost Nets Programme to remove debris discarded into the Gulf of Carpentaria by commercial fishermen from Australia and Indonesia; the Kowanyama State School has 210 students from pre-prep to year 10. Since the beginning of 2014, the school has started to enrol students in a year 11 and 12 pathways program; the Kowanyama State School opened in January 1904.
Kowanyama has a small supermarket that sells fresh foods and frozen foods, hardware items. The store is similar to a medium-sized IGA store; the store is operated by Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships, the manager is able to obtain any goods that are not kept for sale. The store prices are somewhat higher than provincial towns, which reflect the high costs of transport and storage; the "Coffee Shop" does
Georgetown is a town and locality in the Shire of Etheridge, Australia. In the 2011 census, Georgetown had a population of 243 people. Georgetown is on the Etheridge River in Australia; the Gulf Developmental Road passes through the town, linking Cairns - 380 kilometres to the east - and Normanton - 301 kilometres to the west. Georgetown is the administrative headquarters of the Shire of Etheridge, a local government area encompassing the nearby settlements of Mount Surprise and Einasleigh. Georgetown area may have been part of North America 1.7 billion years ago based on the characteristics of rocks found in Georgetown matching those of northern Canada rather than the rest of Australia. Researchers at Curtin University have postulated that 100 million years this landmass collided with what is now northern Australia, at the Mount Isa region, forming the Nuna supercontinent. Georgetown was on the northern border of Ewamin lands; the Etheridge River was the site of a gold rush in the 1870s. Known by the name Etheridge, the town's name was changed in 1871 to honour an early gold commissioner, Howard St George.
Georgetown Post Office opened on 15 January 1872. Georgetown State School opened on 14 September 1874. By 1900 grazing had replaced gold mining as the region's primary source of income; the Georgetown Public Library opened in 2003. At the 2006 census, Georgetown had a population of 254. Georgetown has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Gulf Developmental Road: Aspasia Mine and Battery South Street: Antbed House Georgetown has a racecourse, swimming pool and a tourist information centre and camping/caravan park; the Etheridge Shire Council operates a public library at Georgetown. The Georgetown branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its rooms on the Gulf Developmental Road; the Terrestrial Information Centre contains the Ted Elliot Mineral Collection, comprising over 4500 local and international mineral specimens. In 2014, Georgetown State School had an enrolment of 57 students with 3 teachers. Georgetown is one of the real locations mentioned several times in the novel A Town Like Alice by Nevil Shute.
University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Georgetown Etheridge Shire Council Town information Town map, 1983 1.7-Billion-Year-Old Chunk of North America Found Sticking to Australia