The gittern was a small gut strung round-backed instrument that first appears in literature and pictorial representation during the 13th century in Western Europe. It is depicted played with a quill plectrum, as we can see beginning in manuscript illuminations from the thirteenth century, it was called the guiterna in Spain, guiterne or guiterre in France, the chitarra in Italy and quintern in Germany. A popular instrument with court musicians and amateurs, the gittern is considered an ancestor of the modern guitar and other instruments like the mandore and gallichon. From the early 16th century, a vihuela shaped guitarra began to appear in Spain, in France, existing alongside the gittern. Although the round-backed instrument appears to have lost ground to the new form which developed into the guitar familiar today, the influence of the earlier style continued. Examples of lutes converted into guitars exist in several museums, while purpose-built instruments like the gallichon utilised the tuning and single string configuration of the modern guitar.

A tradition of building round-backed guitars in Germany continued to the 20th century with names like gittar-laute and Wandervogellaute. Up until 2002, there were only two known surviving medieval gitterns, one in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the other in the Wartburg Castle Museum. A third was discovered in a medieval outhouse in Elbląg, Poland; the back and pegbox were usually carved from one piece of timber. Occurring less later in the 15th century, the back was built up from a number of thin tapered ribs joined at the edges, as was characteristic of the lute. Unlike the sharp corner joining the body to the neck seen in the lute, the gittern's body and neck either joined in a smooth curve or straight line; the sickle, or occasional gentle arc pegbox, made an angle with the neck of between 30-90 degrees. Unlike the lute, most pegboxes on gitterns ended in a carving of a human or animal head. Most gitterns were depicted as having three or four courses of double strings. There are references to some five course gitterns in the 16th century.

Although there is not much direct information concerning gittern tuning, the versions were quite tuned in fourths and fifths like the mandore a few decades later. Frets were represented in a few depictions, although absent in most French and English depictions; the gittern's sound hole was covered with a rosette, similar to the lute. The construction resembles other bowed and plucked instruments, including the rebec and Byzantine lyra, gǎdulka, klasic kemençe, gudok and cobza; these have similar shapes, a short neck, like the gittern are carved out of a single block of wood. Some have pointed out that there have been errors in scholarship which led to the gittern being called mandore and vice versa. and similar confusion with the citole. As a result of this uncertainty, many modern sources refer to gitterns as mandoras, to citoles as gitterns. A number of modern sources have claimed the instrument was introduced to Europe from the Arabic regions in a manner similar to the lute, but actual historical data supporting this theory is rare and may suggest the opposite.

The various regional names used appear derived over time from a Greco-Roman origin, although when and how this occurred is presently unknown. It is possible the instrument existed in Europe during a period earlier than the Arabic conquests in the Iberian peninsula with the names diverging alongside the regional evolution of European languages from Latin following the collapse of the Roman Empire. While the name of the lute, the instrument itself has been interpreted as being of Arabic/Persian origin, the gittern does not appear in historical Arabic source material to support what can only be speculation; the gittern had faded so from memory in England that identifying the instrument proved problematic for 20th century early music scholarship. It was assumed the ancestry of the modern guitar was only to be discovered through the study of flat-backed instruments; as a consequence, what is now believed to be the only known surviving medieval citole was until labelled a gittern. In 1977, Lawrence Wright published his article The Medieval Gittern and Citole: A Case of Mistaken Identity. in issue 30 of the Galpin Society Journal.

Wright's research corresponded with observations about the origins of the flat-backed guitarra made by 16th century Spanish musicologist Juan Bermudo. With this theoretical approach it became possible for scholars to untangle confusing and contradictory nomenclature; because of the complex nature of the subject, the list and links below should assist in further reading. Names in English: gittern, giterninge, giterne. John Playford's A Booke of New Lessons for the Cithern & Gittern may represent a response to the continued popularity of both instruments; the guitar that re-surfaces during the mid-1750s, enjoying a wave of popularity that faded away in the 19th century.


Naogaon is a city and district headquarter of Naogaon District in northern Bangladesh. It is located in the bank of Mini Jamuna river, it is the centre of commerce within the Naogaon District. The area of the town is about 38.36 km2 and the population is about 150,025. The municipality consists of 56 mahallas. Naogaon subdivision, under Rajshahi zilla, was established in 1877 and was turned into a zilla in 1984; the zila consists of 11 upazilas, 99 unions, 2565 mauzas, 2854 villages, 3 municipalities, 27 wards and 76 mahallas. The upazilas are NAOGAON SADAR, ATRAI, BADALGACHHI, DHAMOIRHAT, MANDA, MAHADEBPUR, NIAMATPUR, Patnitala Upazila, PORSHA, RANINAGAR and SAPAHAR. Background, Geographic Area and Location: Naogaon was one of the sub-divisions of former Rajshahi zilla, it was upgraded to zila on 1 March 1984. It is believed that the present zilla headquarters developed in a mauza comprising nine villages; the zilla might have derived its name as Naogaon from the words ‘Nao’ and ‘Gaon’. The zilla is bounded on the north by India, on the east by Joypurhat and Bogra zilas, on the south by Natore and Rajshahi zilas and on the west by Nawabganj and India.

The total area of the zila is 3435.65 km2. of which 9.09 km2. is riverine and 19.45 km2 is under forest. The zila lies between 24° 32′ and 25° 13′ north latitudes and between 28° 23′ and 89° 10′ east longitudes. Maximum 37.8 °C and minimum 11.2 °C. Guta and Dighali beels are notable. Somapura Mahavihara, Jagaddal Vihara, Halud Vihara, Agrapuri Vihara. Indigo rebellion. Mass grave 9. Santal and Mahali. Paddy, watermelon,maize,bolsam apple,cucumber,oil seeds, pulses. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Opium, indigo and aus paddy, vetch, cannabis. Mango, banana, palm, papaya, wood apple, coconut. Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock buffalo cart; these means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct


Gilchrist's was a Boston department store. Its flagship store was at the intersection of Washington and Winter Streets, across from both Filene's and Jordan Marsh in Downtown Crossing. Gilchrist's was considered one of the big three stores that dominated Boston's shopping district for so long. Gilchrist's opened in one year after Jordan Marsh in downtown Boston. Gilchrist's did just as well. In the 1940s Gilchrist's started to branch out into older suburban communities. By 1964 Gilchrist's had eight locations across the state of Massachusetts: Quincy, Framingham, Waltham, Stoneham and Dorchester; the company's store in Cambridge was located in the basement of the Star Market grocery store at the Porter Square shopping center. The emergence of shopping malls led to the decline of the downtown stores. Gilchrist's took a back seat to the anchor stores until closing in 1977, its flagship Downtown Crossing store was replaced with a shopping mall called The Corner in Gilchrist's original building