Red Bull Ring
The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport circuit in Spielberg, Austria. The race circuit was founded as Österreichring and hosted the Formula One Austrian Grand Prix for 18 consecutive years and it was shortened and renamed the A1-Ring, and it hosted the Austrian Grand Prix again from 1997 to 2003. When Formula One outgrew the circuit, a plan was drawn up to extend the layout, renamed the Red Bull Ring the track was reopened on 15 May 2011 and subsequently hosted a round of the 2011 DTM season and a round of the 2011 F2 championship. Formula One returned to the circuit in the 2014 season, originally built in 1969 to replace the bland and bumpy Zeltweg Airfield circuit, the Österreichring track was situated in the Styrian mountains and it was a spectacular and unique circuit. Like most fast circuits it was a circuit on engines but more difficult on tires. At the time it was only in F1 average speed to Keke Rosbergs 160.9 mph pole lap of the Silverstone Circuit set during the 1985 British Grand Prix.
Interestingly, both times were set using a turbocharged Williams-Honda, american driver Mark Donohue died after crashing at the Vost-Hugel Kurve in 1975. Triple World Champion and long time hero of the home crowd Niki Lauda is the only Austrian driver to win his home Grand Prix and he won the 1984 Austrian Grand Prix at the Österreichring driving a McLaren-TAG Porsche. Lauda went on to win his third and final championship in 1984, beating his team mate Alain Prost by the smallest margin in F1 history and he announced his permanent retirement from driving at the circuit before the 1985 race. The Österreichrings safety concerns had reached a head in the mid 1990s and its length was shortened from 5.942 km to 4.326 km, and the fast sweeping corners were replaced by three tight right-handers, in order to create overtaking opportunities. Its three long straights, as well as a twisty infield section, asked for a setup compromise, as much of the construction work was paid for by the mobile phone provider A1, the track was renamed the A1-Ring.
It proceeded to host seven Formula One Austrian Grands Prix between 1997 and 2003, as well as several DTM races and Austrian motorcycle races in 1996 and 1997, the grandstands and pit buildings were demolished in 2004, rendering the track unusable for any motorsport category. In late 2004 and early 2005, there were discussions concerning whether the owner of the circuit, Red Bull, would find another use for the site. There was a circuit extension proposal using part of the old Österreichring, in January 2005, return of motor sports seemed more unlikely than ever, as Dietrich Mateschitz publicly announced that he had no intention of wasting money on a deficient circuit. Throughout 2005 however, there was speculation of the newly founded Red Bull Racing renovating the track to use it as a test venue, in 2006, Austrian racing driver Alexander Wurz claimed he would buy the circuit and have it renovated, but the idea never came to fruition. By 2007, talks involving Red Bull, KTM, Volkswagen and Magna International for a neuer Österreichring failed, the championship has visited the circuit every year since then.
In November 2010, F2 announced that Round 6 of the 2011 F2 championship would take place at the Red Bull Ring. The circuit was reopened at an event over the weekend of 15–16 May 2011
Trident Racing is a motor racing team that competes in single-seater formula racing. It was founded in 2006 in order to compete in the GP2 championship, GP2 functions as an official support championship to Formula One and thus shares the latter championships European dates and venues. Trident is headquartered at San Pietro Mosezzo in the Piedmont region of Italy, after a rapid formation, Trident secured a place on the 2006 GP2 entry list, represented by former Formula One driver Gianmaria Bruni and rookie Andreas Zuber. It was one of three teams that had lodged requests for the entry that was made available for that season onwards. GP2s organiser Bruno Michel commented, Trident Racing put forward a proposal which promised strong sporting and engineering excellence, Tridents first year of competition was competitive against more experienced opposition. Bruni provided two race wins, together with three positions and two fastest race laps, whilst Zuber secured a single race win. In the teams standings, Trident ended the year in sixth place overall.
His team-mates struggled, dropping Trident to tenth in the teams championship, Tridents 2008 drivers were Mike Conway and Ho-Pin Tung. The teams best result came at Monaco, with Conway leading Tung home for a Trident one-two in the sprint race. Both drivers were unable to replicate this elsewhere, but Trident improved to ninth in the teams championship. For 2009, the changed its driver line-up to Ricardo Teixeira and Davide Rigon. The trio scored a three points between them, resulting in Trident finishing twelfth and last in the teams championship. In the other car, the returning González failed to score, for the 2015 season, Raffaele Marciello, of the Ferrari Driver Academy, and René Binder joined the team from Racing Engineering and Arden International respectively. The team entered 2016 with Philo Paz Armand and Luca Ghiotto being promoted from GP3, after a winless season the previous year, Ghiotto scored a victory at the sprint race in Malaysia bringing them to eighth in the standings. Trident competed in the GP2 Asia Series from its inception in 2008 to its cancellation in 2011, in the series inaugural championship, the team fielded Harald Schlegelmilch and Ho-Pin Tung for a total of four points, finishing thirteenth and last in the teams championship.
This campaign was successful, as the team slipped back to eleventh in the standings. In the other car, Rodolfo González failed to score, Trident joined the GP3 Series for its third year of competition in 2012, replacing the departing Barwa Addax team. It became the first GP3 team to field two drivers instead of the usual three, beginning the season with Vicky Piria and Antonio Spavone
The Hungaroring is a motorsport race track in Mogyoród, Hungary where the Formula One Hungarian Grand Prix is held. In 1986, it became the location of the first Formula One Grand Prix behind the Iron Curtain, bernie Ecclestone wanted a race in the USSR, but a Hungarian friend recommended Budapest. Construction works started on 1 October 1985 and it was built in eight months, less time than any other Formula One circuit. The first race was held on 24 March 1986, in memory of János Drapál, the circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. The Grand Prix is held in the middle of summer, which is very hot. Its first wet Grand Prix race was in 2006, the circuit is normally dusty due to underuse throughout the rest of the year and its sandy soil. As the circuit is in a valley about 80 percent of it can be seen from any point, the track frequently becomes faster during a qualifying session, which leads competitors to try for their best lap as late as possible. The twisty and bumpy nature of the circuit makes overtaking very difficult in dry conditions, Hungaroring has crowned two drivers in its 20-year history, both Nigel Mansell in 1992 and Michael Schumacher in 2001 were able to win the World Championship title.
Moreover, the WilliamsF1 Team and Scuderia Ferrari secured the Constructors Championship at the Hungaroring, both Hungarys Zsolt Baumgartner and Polands Robert Kubica made their debut on this track as the first F1 drivers of their countries. The 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix was the first wet grand prix at the Hungaroring and this saw the retirement of many drivers including championship rivals Fernando Alonso and Michael Schumacher and gave Jenson Button and the reborn Honda F1 team their first win. Fernando Alonso earned his first Grand Prix victory at this in 2003, according to statements and interviews, drivers have different opinions on the track. While many, like Ayrton Senna, Nigel Mansell, Michael Schumacher, Lewis Hamilton, the technical driving center of the Hungaroring held former racer Gerhard Bergers name from 1998 until 2005 but it was changed to Allianz. The track has named curves, Turn 4 is named after Nigel Mansell, Turn 11 is named after Jean Alesi following his massive crash there during qualifying for the 1995 Hungarian Grand Prix.
He was knocked unconscious, and subsequently crashed head-on into a tyre barrier, Massa was thereafter airlifted to the ÁEK hospital in Budapest, where he underwent surgery in the area surrounding his left eye. His condition was described as life-threatening but stable, but improved rapidly. Massa was discharged from hospital the week and returned to Brazil. After further tests it was decided that Massa needed a titanium plate inserted into his skull to strengthen it for racing in Formula One again, while most of the foreign fans are from Germany and Austria, the Hungaroring has traditionally seen a large influx of Finnish fans as well. With the loss of the Austrian Grand Prix in 2003, this became the closest Formula One event for fans from other Central European countries, the Austrian Grand Prix returned again in 2014
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Jenzer Motorsport is an auto racing team based in Switzerland. In 1993, Jenzer Motorsport was founded by Andreas Jenzer, who was a racing driver, while Hans Pfeuti brought the first title for the team in the Swiss Formula Ford 1800 Championship in the same year. The team repeated success in the Swiss championship in 1995,1996,1997,1998 and 2000 with Tazio Pessi, Iradj Alexander, Martin Bünzli, Philipp Mathis, the team competed in French, EuroCup and German Formula Ford. Marc Benz won the German Formula Ford Championship title in 2000, in 2000, Jenzer Motorsport decided to switch to the Formula Renault 2.0 machinery débuting in the French Formula Renault Championship and competed in the other Formula Renault series. Marc Benz, Neel Jani and Michael Ammermüller finished as runner-up in 2001,2002 and 2005 Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 seasons, but in the regional series the team was more successful. They clinched title with Ryan Sharp in 2003 in German Formula Renault, in the Italian Formula Renault Championship they won driver titles with Dani Clos in 2006 and Pål Varhaug in 2008.
While in the Swiss Formula Renault Championship their titles was achieved by Christopher Zanella in 2008, Nico Müller in 2009, Jenzer Motorsport raced in the 3.5 Class of Formula Renault since 2003, when Neel Jani finished as runner-up. The team repeated the result in the next year with Ryan Sharp. But when the V6 Eurocup became Formula Renault 3.5 Series, the team moved to International Formula Master in 2007. And in 2009 they won the championship with Fabio Leimer, after 2009, Jenzer Motorsport left both Formula Renault and International Formula Masters category to join new-for-2010 Formula Abarth and GP3 Series. In the Formula Abarth Italian Series the team collected both drivers and teams title with Patric Niederhauser in 2011, while in the GP3 Series, the third place of Nico Müller in 2010 Drivers Championship still remains the biggest success for the team in the series. The team returned to the Formula Renault 2.0 category in 2013,1 Italian F4 Trophy Official website
Autodromo Nazionale Monza
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza is a race track located near the city of Monza, north of Milan, in Italy. Built in 1922, it is the worlds third purpose-built motor racing circuit after those of Brooklands, the circuits biggest event is the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. With the exception of 1980, the race has been hosted there since the seriess inception, the circuit is generally flat, but has a gradual gradient from the second Lesmos to the Variante Ascari. Since both maximum power and minimal drag are keys for speed on the straights, only competitors with enough power or aerodynamic efficiency at their disposal are able to challenge for the top places. In addition to Formula One, the hosts a endurance event, the 1000 km Monza, which has been run as part of the World Sportscar Championship. Current major events are races of the World Touring Car Championship, the Monza circuit has been the site of many fatal accidents, especially in the early years of the Formula One world championship, and has claimed the lives of 52 drivers and 35 spectators.
The first track was built from May to July 1922 by 3,500 workers, the initial form was a 3.4 square kilometres site with 10 kilometres of macadamised road – comprising a 4.5 kilometres loop track, and a 5.5 kilometres road track. The track was opened on 3 September 1922, with the maiden race the second Italian Grand Prix held on 10 September 1922. In 1928, the most serious Italian racing accident to date ended in the death of driver Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators at that years Grand Prix, the accident led to further Grand Prix races confinement to the high-speed loop until 1932. The 1933 race was marked by the deaths of three drivers and the Grand Prix layout was changed, with two chicanes added and the longer straights removed. There was major rebuilding in 1938–39, constructing new stands and entrances, resurfacing the track, moving portions of the track, the resulting layout gave a Grand Prix lap of 6.300 kilometres, in use until 1954. The outbreak of World War II meant racing at the track was suspended until 1948, Monza was renovated over a period of two months at the beginning of 1948 and a Grand Prix was held on 17 October 1948.
In 1954, work began to revamp the circuit, resulting in a 5.750 kilometres course. The two circuits could be combined to re-create the former 10 kilometres long circuit, with cars running parallel on the main straight, the track infrastructure was updated and improved to better accommodate the teams and spectators. The Automobile Club of Italy held 500-mile Race of Two Worlds exhibition competitions, intended to pit United States Auto Club IndyCars against European Formula One and sports cars. The races were held on the oval at the end of June in 1957 and 1958, ecurie Ecosses three Jaguar D-type sports cars used their Le Mans-specification tyres with no ill-effects, but were completely out paced. Two heats in 1957 were won by Jimmy Bryan in his Kuzma-Offenhauser Dean Van Lines Special, Formula One used the 10 kilometres high speed track in the 1955,1956,1960 and 1961 Grands Prix. Stirling Moss and Phil Hill both won twice in this period, with Hills win at Monza making him the first American to win a Formula One race
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps
The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps motor-racing circuit is the venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix, and of the Spa 24 Hours and 1000 km Spa endurance races. It is home to the all Volkswagen club event,25 Hours of Spa and it is one of the most challenging race tracks in the world, mainly due to its fast and twisty nature. Spa is a circuit of many racing drivers and fans. Despite its name, the circuit is not in Spa but lies in the vicinity of the town of Francorchamps within the boundaries of the municipality of Stavelot, with a part in the boundaries of Malmedy. Designed in 1920 by Jules de Thier and Henri Langlois Van Ophem, the track was intended to have hosted its inaugural race in August 1921, however this event had to be cancelled as there was only one entrant. The first car race was held at the circuit in 1922, the circuit was first used for Grand Prix racing in 1925. The old Spa circuit was essentially a speed course with drivers managing higher average speeds than on other race tracks, until 2000, it was possible to travel over the race track when it was still a public road.
Near Malmedy, the Masta straight began, which was interrupted by the fast Masta Kink between farm houses before arriving at the town of Stavelot. Before 1970, there were no safety modifications of any kind done to the circuit, former Formula One racing driver and team owner Jackie Oliver was quoted as saying if you went off the road, you didnt know what you were going to hit. The old Spa circuit was unique in that speeds were high with hardly any let-up at all for 3–4 minutes. This made it a difficult mental challenge, because most of the corners were taken at 180+ mph and were not quite flat- every corner was as important as the one before it. If a driver lifted just that bit more, whole seconds. Even the slightest error of any kind was punished very harshly in more ways than one, but this reality worked inversely- huge advantages could be gained if a driver came out of a corner slightly faster. When Armco crash barriers were added to the track in 1970, deaths became less frequent there but the track was still notorious for other factors.
The Ardennes Forest had very unpredictable weather and there were parts where it was raining and the track was wet, and other parts where the sun was shining, in 1969, the Belgian Grand Prix was boycotted by F1 because of the extreme danger of Spa. There had been 10 racing fatalities in total at the track in the 1960s, the drivers demanded changes made to Spa which were not possible on short notice, so the Belgian Grand Prix was dropped that year. Armco was added to the track and sections of it were improved, for the 1971 race, the track owners and authorities had not brought the track up to date with mandatory safety measures, and the race was cancelled. Formula One would not return to Spa until 1983 on the modern track, the Masta Kink was one of the most fearsome sections on any race track in the world, requiring skill and bravery in equal measure to get it right
Jean Alesi is a French racing driver of Italian origin. His father, was a mechanic from Alcamo, during his time in Formula One, Alesi was particularly good in the wet, and was a mercurial and passionate racer, whose emotions sometimes got the better of him. After leaving Formula One, from 2002 to 2006 Alesi raced in the DTM championship, winning some races and he raced in the Speedcar Series in 2008 and 2009, and raced at Le Mans in 2010. He raced in the Indianapolis 500 in 2012 and became the oldest professional driver to perform the rookie test for admission to the competition, for several years he was a commentator for the Italian TV show Pole Position. In 2006 Alesi was awarded Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur, giovanni Alesi was born Avignon, Vaucluse, to expatriate Sicilian parents. His father ran an automotive bodywork repair garage in the town, to avert this, they decided to change their names to Jean and José, respectively. In addition to spending time in the garage, Alesis father provided his first taste of motorsport, being a keen amateur competitor in rallying.
He won the 1987 French Formula 3 title before moving up to International Formula 3000 in 1988, the 1988 season was a disappointment, finishing tenth in the championship with two podium finishes, not helped by problems within the team. However, in 1989 he joined the Jordan Formula 3000 team, both crowns were after duels with his rival Érik Comas. In 1989 Alesi tied on points for the F3000 title with Comas and he raced in the Le Mans 24 hours in the same year, but a fire forced him to retire in the fourth hour of the race. Alesi debuted in the 1989 French Grand Prix at Paul Ricard in a Tyrrell-Ford, replacing Michele Alboreto and finishing fourth, Ken Tyrrell was sufficiently impressed to give him an eighteen-month contract. He drove most of the rest of the season for Tyrrell while continuing his successful Formula 3000 campaign, scoring again at the Italian. While Alesi was seen as a talent of the future, his start as a Formula One driver was somewhat fortuitous, prior to the 1989 French Grand Prix, Ken Tyrrell had signed a deal to run Camel cigarette sponsorship on his previously unsponsored cars.
However this caused problems for Michele Alboreto who was sponsored by rival cigarette brand Marlboro. The sponsorship clash forced Tyrrell to release Alboreto and find another driver, second place in the Monaco Grand Prix followed the second place gained in Phoenix, and by mid-season, top teams were clamouring for his services in 1991. A very confused situation erupted, with Tyrrell, the results dropped away during the rest of the 1990 season, and Alesi finished ninth in the championship, with 13 points. There were signs of Alesis talent such as the Italian Grand Prix at Monza where he qualified the under powered Tyrrell in 5th place less than a slower than Sennas pole time. At both the original and re-start, Alesi passed the more powerful V12 Ferrari of reigning World Champion Alain Prost for 3rd place, unfortunately however, this race showed his relative inexperience when on lap 5 he ended his race by spinning into the barriers at the Rettifilo chicane
The Hockenheimring Baden-Württemberg is a motor racing circuit situated in the Rhine valley near the town of Hockenheim in Baden-Württemberg, located on Bertha Benz Memorial Route. Amongst other motor racing events, it hosts the German Grand Prix. The circuit has very little change in elevation, the circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. The Hockenheimring was originally built in 1932 using roads in the forest as an alternative to the Wildpark-Circuit in Karlsruhe, the Hockenheimring was used for motorcycle racing and was expanded to be used as test track for Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union in 1936. In 1938 it was renamed the Kurpfalzring and that name was used until 1947, after World War II, former DKW and NSU factory rider and world record setter Wilhelm Herz promoted the track successfully. Grand Prix motorcycle racing events were held, with the German motorcycle Grand Prix alternating between Hockenheim and other tracks, the original circuit was almost eight kilometres long and consisted of two long straights with a long Eastern corner in the forest and a U-turn inside Hockenheim joining them together.
In 1965, when the new Autobahn A6 separated the village from the part of the track. After Jim Clark was killed on 7 April 1968 in a Formula 2 racing accident, a small memorial was placed near the first chicane, at the site of his accident. In 1982, another chicane was added at the Ostkurve, after Patrick Depailler was killed there in 1980, and the first chicane was made slower as well. The long track length meant that a typical Formula One race had only 45 laps, prost ran out at the end of the 1986 race, pushing his McLaren towards the line before giving up. He was placed 3rd when he ran dry and was eventually classified 6th, many problems came to light during the 2000 German Grand Prix, where Brazilian driver Rubens Barrichello won from having started 18th on the grid, in changeable weather conditions. All the overtaking moves that took place during the race were in the chicanes of the forest sector, a former Mercedes employee, who had been dismissed, breached the tracks security barriers on the first main straight, showing vulnerable security facilities in the forest.
The state government of Baden-Württemberg secured the financing for the redesign by Hermann Tilke for the 2002 German Grand Prix, the stadium section remained mostly intact, despite a new surface and a tighter Turn 1. However, the circuit was shortened, with the long. In an extremely controversial move, the old forest section was torn up and replanted with trees, several drivers and team principals, including Ron Dennis, Jarno Trulli and Juan Pablo Montoya, criticised the changes and stated their preference for the old circuit. The new track has a capacity of 120,000. The complex features a track for drag racing. The Hockenheim Circuit hosted the German Grand Prix for the first time in 1970 when the F1 drivers decided at the French Grand Prix to boycott the Nürburgring unless major changes were made