Sericin is a protein created by Bombyx mori in the production of silk. Silk is a fibre produced by the silkworm in production of its cocoon, it consists of two proteins and sericin. Silk consists of 70–80% fibroin and 20–30% sericin. Sericin is composed of 18 different amino acids; the secondary structure is a random coil, but it can be converted into a β-sheet conformation, via repeated moisture absorption and mechanical stretching. The serine hydrogen bonds give its glue-like quality; the genes encoding sericin proteins have been sequenced. Its C-terminal part contains many serine-rich repeats. Using gamma ray examination, it was determined that sericin fibers are composed of three layers, all with fibers running in different patterns of directionality; the innermost layer is composed of longitudinally running fibers, the middle layer is composed of cross fiber directional patterned fibers, the outer layer consists of fiber directional fibers. The overall structure can vary based on temperature, whereas the lower the temperature, there were more β-sheet conformations than random amorphous coils.

There are three different types of sericin, which make up the layers found on top of the fibroin. Sericin A, insoluble in water, is the outermost layer, contains 17% nitrogen, along with amino acids such as serine, aspartic acid, glycine. Sericin B, composed the middle layer and is nearly the same as sericin A, but contains tryptophan. Sericin C is the layer that comes closest to and is adjacent to fibroin. Insoluble in water, sericin C can be separated from the fibroin via the addition of a hot, weak acid. Sericin C contains the amino acids present in B, along with the addition of proline. Sericin has been used in medicine and cosmetics. Due to its elasticity and tensile strength, along with a natural affinity for keratin, sericin is used in medicine for wound suturing, it has a natural infection resistance, is used variably due to excellent biocompatibility, thus is used as a wound coagulant as well. When used in cosmetics, sericin has been found to improve skin elasticity and several anti-aging factors, including an anti-wrinkle property.

This is done by minimizing water loss from the skin. To determine this, scientists ran several experimental procedures, including a hydroxyproline assay, impedance measurements, water loss from the epidermis and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the rigidity and dryness of the skin; the presence of sericin increases hydroxyproline in the stratum corneum, which in turn, decreases skin impedance, thus increasing skin moisture. Adding in pluronic and carbopol, two other factors that can be included in sericin gels, perform the action of repairing natural moisture factors, along with minimizing water loss, in turn, improving skin moisture

Richard Symes Warry

Richard Symes Warry was an alderman and mayor of Brisbane, Australia. Richard Symes Warry was born about 1829 in England, son of Maria Symes, he was the brother of a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. On 25 January 1851 in Brisbane, Richard Symes Warry married Mary Lydia Pratten, daughter of Job Pratten and Ann Love, they had a large family of children, but as was common at that time, a number of the children died young: Maria Ann, born Brisbane 1852 Thomas Symes, born Brisbane 1854, played for the Maryborough cricket team Richard Symes, born Brisbane 1857, played for the Queensland cricket team Sarah Love, born Brisbane 1860 Lydia, born Brisbane 1862 Susan Elizabeth, born Brisbane 1863, died Brisbane 1864 George Love, born Brisbane 1865, died Brisbane 1913 Ada Frances, born Brisbane 1867, died Brisbane 1918 Alice Maude, born Queensland 1868 Mary, born Queensland 1871, died Brisbane 1876 Minnie Gertrude, born Queensland 1873 Edith May/Mary and died Brisbane 1874 Frank Symes and died Brisbane 1876 Clara Rose, born Brisbane 1877Richard Symes Warry died 12 March 1891 at his residence Timsbury, Bamford Road, Queensland aged 62 years.

His wife Mary died in Brisbane in 1929. They are buried in Toowong Cemetery, together with other family members Richard Symes Warry was a grocer, he was one of the earliest of the Queen Street storekeepers, having had a shop for many years on the eastern side near the corner with Albert Street. He had a shop opposite the General Post Office. Richard Symes Warry was an alderman of the Brisbane Municipal Council in 1862–1863 and 1865–1866, he was mayor in 1866. He took a break from public life for a number of years and returned as alderman of the West Ward from 1883–1888 before retiring, he served on the following committees: Finance Committee 1862, 1863, 1885, 1887 Water Committee 1862–1863 Lighting Committee 1863, 1866 Legislative Committee List of mayors and lord mayors of Brisbane