Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, activist for the unification of Italy, spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century, he helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state. Mazzini's thoughts had a considerable influence on the Italian and European republican movements, in the Constitution of Italy, about Europeanism, more nuanced, on many politicians of a period: among them, men like U. S. President Woodrow Wilson and British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, but post-colonial leaders such as Gandhi, Golda Meir, David Ben-Gurion, Kwame Nkrumah, Jawaharlal Nehru and Sun Yat-sen. Mazzini was born in Genoa part of the Ligurian Republic, under the rule of the French Empire, his father, Giacomo Mazzini from Chiavari, was a university professor who had adhered to Jacobin ideology.
From a early age, Mazzini showed good learning qualities. He was admitted to university at 14, graduating in law in 1826, practiced as a "poor man's lawyer". Mazzini hoped to become a historical novelist or a dramatist, in the same year wrote his first essay, Dell'amor patrio di Dante, published in 1827. In 1828–29 he collaborated with a Genoese newspaper, L'Indicatore Genovese, however soon closed by the Piedmontese authorities, he became one of the leading authors of L'Indicatore Livornese, published at Livorno by F. D. Guerrazzi, until this paper was closed down by the authorities, too. In 1827 Mazzini travelled to Tuscany, where he became a member of the Carbonari, a secret association with political purposes. On 31 October of that year he was interned at Savona. In early 1831, he was confined to a small hamlet, he chose exile instead. In 1831 Mazzini went to Marseille, he was a frequent visitor to the apartment of Giuditta Bellerio Sidoli, a beautiful Modenese widow who became his lover. In August 1832 Giuditta Sidoli gave birth to a boy certainly Mazzini's son, whom she named Joseph Démosthène Adolpe Aristide after members of the family of Démosthène Ollivier, with whom Mazzini was staying.
The Olliviers took care of the child in June 1833 when Mazzini left for Switzerland. The child died in February 1835. Mazzini organized. Young Italy was a secret society formed to promote Italian unification: "One, independent, republican nation." Mazzini believed that a popular uprising would create a unified Italy, would touch off a European-wide revolutionary movement. The group's motto was God and the People, its basic principle was the unification of the several states and kingdoms of the peninsula into a single republic as the only true foundation of Italian liberty; the new nation had to be: "One, Free Republic". Mazzini's political activism met some success in Tuscany, Sicily and his native Liguria among several military officers. Young Italy counted about 60,000 adherents with branches in Genoa and other cities. In that year Mazzini first attempted insurrection, which would spread from Chambéry, Alessandria and Genoa. However, the Savoy government discovered the plot before it could begin and many revolutionaries were arrested.
The repression was ruthless: 12 participants were executed, while Mazzini's best friend and director of the Genoese section of the Giovine Italia, Jacopo Ruffini, killed himself. Mazzini was sentenced to death. Despite this setback, he organized another uprising for the following year. A group of Italian exiles were to enter Piedmont from Switzerland and spread the revolution there, while Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had joined Young Italy, was to do the same from Genoa. However, the Piedmontese troops crushed the new attempt. In the spring of 1834, while at Bern, Mazzini and a dozen refugees from Italy and Germany founded a new association with the grandiose name of Young Europe, its basic, grandiose idea, was that, as the French Revolution of 1789 had enlarged the concept of individual liberty, another revolution would now be needed for national liberty. His intention was nothing less than to overturn the European settlement agreed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, which had reestablished an oppressive hegemony of a few great powers and blocked the emergence of smaller nations.
Mazzini hoped, but without much confidence, that his vision of a league or society of independent nations would be realized in his own lifetime. In practice Young Europe lacked the money and popular support for more than a short-term existence, he always remained faithful to the ideal of a united continent for which the creation of individual nations would be an indispensable preliminary. On 28 May 1834 Mazzini was arrested at Solothurn, exiled from Switzerland, he moved to Paris. He was r
Usha Ganguly is an Indian theatre director-actor and activist, most known for her work in Hindi theatre in Kolkata in the 1970s and 1980s. She founded Rangakarmee theatre group in 1976, known for its productions like Mahabhoj, Court Martial, Antaryatra. Apart from thespian Shyamanand Jalan of Padatik, she is only other theatre director to practice Hindi theatre in Kolkata, Bengali speaking, she was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for Direction, given by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama in 1998. She has been honoured by the West Bengal Government as the best actress for the play Gudia Ghar. Born in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, in a family from village Nerva in Uttar Pradesh, Usha Ganguly learnt Bharatanatyam dance and moved to Kolkata, where she studied at Shri Shikshayatan College and did her master's degree in Hindi literature, she started her career as a teacher at Bhowanipur Education Society College, Calcutta, an undergraduate college affiliated with University of Calcutta, in 1970.
In the same year, she started acting with Sangit Kala Mandir and started work for her first play Mitti Ki Gadi, where she played the role of Vasantsena. She continued teaching as a Hindi Lecturer at Bhowanipur Education Society College, till her retirement in 2008 and practised theatre alongside, she formed a theatre group, Rangakarmee, in January 1976. Since was trained as a dancer, the group invited outside directors, like M. K. Anvase, who directed Mother, Tripti Mitra directed Gudi Ghar, an adaptation of Ibsen's A Doll's House, besides Rudra Prasad Sengupta and Vibhash Chakravorty, before she started directing herself, having trained under Tripti Mitra and Mrinal Sen, she started directing in the 1980s and soon her energetic style and disciplined ensemble work with young, large casts brought a resurgence of Hindi theatre in the city. Her important productions include Mahabhoj in 1984, based on Mannu Bhandari novel, Ratnakar Matkari's Lokkatha in 1987, Holi by playwright Mahesh Elkunchwar in 1989, Rudali, her own dramatised version of a story by Mahashweta Devi, Himmat Mai, an adaptation of Brecht's Mother Courage and notably Court Marital written by playwright Swadesh Deepak.
She has written a play Kashinama, based on a story, Kaane Kaun Kumati Lagi from the Kashinath Singh's classic work, Kashi Ka Assi and an original play Khoj. She worked on the script of Raincoat a Hindi film based on O Henry's The Gift of the Magi, directed by Rituparno Ghosh. In the coming years, she translated and adapts plays into Hindi. Rangakarmee started its education wing in the 1990s, today it takes its repertoire on tours across India and undertakes education extension activities in theatre with underprivileged people. In 2005, Rangkarmee was the only Indian theatre group to perform at the Theatre der Welt Festival in Stuttgart, Germany, it staged the play Rudali at "Punj Pani festival" at Lahore in 2006. The group staged its first multilingual production, Bhor about the minds of inmates of a drug rehab centre in August 2010. Mahabhoj Lok Katha Holi Court Martial Rudali Himmat Mai Mukti Shobhayatra Kashinama Chandalika Sarhad Par Manto Manasi Rudali, Radhakrishna Prakashan, 2004. ISBN 81-7119-767-1.
Rudali: from fiction to performance, by Mahashweta Devi, Usha Ganguli, Anjum Katyal. Seagull Books, 1997. ISBN 81-7046-138-3. Aparna Bhargava Dharwadker. Theatres of independence: drama and urban performance in India since 1947. University of Iowa Press. ISBN 0-87745-961-4. Rangkarmee, website Usha Ganguly on IMDb
Harold Stanley Marcus was president and chairman of the board of the luxury retailer Neiman Marcus in Dallas, which his father and aunt had founded in 1907. During his tenure at the company, he became a published author, writing his memoir Minding the Store and a regular column in The Dallas Morning News. After Neiman Marcus was sold to Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Marcus remained in an advisory capacity to that company, but began his own consulting business, which continued until his death, he served his local community as a civic leader. In a chapter titled "Mr. Stanley" — the name by which Marcus was known locally for decades — in his 1953 work Neiman-Marcus, Frank X. Tolbert called him "Dallas's most internationally famous citizen" and worthy of being called "the Southwest's No. 1 businessman-intellectual."Marcus introduced many of the innovations for which Neiman-Marcus became known, creating a national award for service in fashion and hosting art exhibitions in the store itself, as well as weekly fashion shows and an annual Fortnight event highlighting a different foreign country for two weeks each year.
He established the Neiman-Marcus Christmas Catalogue, which became famous for extravagant "His and Hers" gifts such as airplanes and camels. Marcus prided himself on his staff's ability to provide service and value for each client citing his father's dictum, "There is never a good sale for Neiman Marcus unless it's a good buy for the customer." He received the Chevalier Award from the French Legion of Honor, was listed in the Houston Chronicle's list of the 100 most important Texans, was named by Harvard Business School among the greatest American Business Leaders of the 20th century. The Advertising Hall of Fame notes: "Stanley Marcus was among the most important figures in the history of American retail merchandising and marketing. Through his many innovations, he transformed a local Dallas clothing store into an international brand synonymous with high style and gracious service." Marcus was born in The Cedars, Texas, the son of Herbert Marcus Sr. who became a co-founder of the original Neiman-Marcus store with his sister Carrie and her husband, Al Neiman.
Stanley was the first of four sons born to his wife, the former Minnie Lichtenstein. The pregnancy indirectly led to the eventual founding of Neiman-Marcus, as Herbert Sr. decided to leave Sanger's, where he was a buyer of boys' clothing, when he deemed his raise insufficient to support a family. Returning from two years spent in Atlanta, establishing a successful sales-promotion business, the Marcuses and Neimans used the $25,000 made in the sale of that business to establish their store at the corner of Elm and Murphy. Given that the family's other option for the money was to invest in the then-unknown Coca-Cola Company, Marcus loved to say that Neiman-Marcus was established "as a result of the bad judgment of its founders." In his memoir, Marcus recalled his father as "affectionate" and his mother as even-handed in her attention to each of their children, making sure into their adulthood to give them equivalent gifts and make sure they were praised equally. One of Stanley Marcus's first jobs was as a 10-year-old salesman of Saturday Evening Post, bringing him into the family's business tradition from a young age.
He attended Forest Avenue High School, where he studied debate as well as English with teacher Myra Brown, whom he credited with much of his early interest in books. He began his university studies at Amherst College, but when traditions preventing Jews from joining clubs or fraternities drastically curtailed his social life, he transferred to Harvard University after the first year. At his new school, he became a member of the Jewish fraternity Zeta Beta Tau rising to become the group's president. While living in Boston and pursuing his chosen major, English literature, Marcus began a lifelong hobby of collecting rare and antique books. To finance his pursuits, he began The Book Collector's Service Bureau, a mail-order book service, beginning with a letter of introduction sent to 100 homes; the venture proved so successful that for a time Marcus considered entering that line of work full time, concerned that entering the retail business might curtail his freedom of expression in politics and other areas of interest.
After receiving a B. A. degree from Harvard in 1925, he began his career at the retailer that same year as a simple stockboy organizing inventory, but upon beginning in sales outstripped other sales staff. He went back to study at Harvard Business School in 1926, leaving after one year to participate in a massive expansion of the retail operation in Dallas, he married the former Mary "Billie" Cantrell in 1932. In 1935 the Marcuses commissioned Frank Lloyd Wright to design a home for them on Nonesuch Road, but rejected the eventual design, which included cantilevered steel beams and terraces swathed in mosquito netting. Instead, the couple chose a design by local firm DeWitt & Washburn, whose creation became a Texas Historic Landmark; as of 1937, Marcus was one of only 22 Texans to earn
All of the Above is the first album by The John Hall Band released in 1981. The album peaked at #158 on the Billboard 200. "Crazy" narrowly missed the Top 40, peaking at #42 on the Billboard Hot 100 All tracks are written by John and Johanna Hall. Noted in some of the songs are co-writers with the two mentioned; the John Hall BandJohn Hall - lead vocals, guitar John Troy - bass, backing vocals Eric Parker - drums, percussion Bob Leinbach - keyboards, backing vocalsProductionProducer: John Hall, Richard Sanford Orshoff Engineers: Bill Bottrell, Clifford Bunnell, David Marquette, Guy Charbonneau, Mitch Gibson Photography: Brian Hagiwara AlbumSingles
This is a list of former and current non-federal courthouses in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Each of the 67 counties in the Commonwealth has a city designated as the county seat where the county government resides, including a county courthouse for the court of general jurisdiction, the Court of Common Pleas. Other courthouses are used by the three state-wide appellate courts, or minor courts such as the municipal courts of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, or magisterial district courts; as noted below, some courthouses are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. After William Penn landed in the new Province of Pennsylvania in 1682, he set up a general-purpose Provincial Court; the state supreme court traces its origin to that institution. The oldest existing building in the Commonwealth, used for the judiciary is the Chester County Courthouse of 1724, used for trials until 1967; the Franklin County courthouse was destroyed by Confederate troops in 1864 during the American Civil War.
List of United States federal courthouses in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Constitution "The County Seats & Courthouses of Pennsylvania". "American Courthouses, Pennsylvania". "Blair County Courthouse Restoration". The Courthouses of Southwestern Pennsylvania on YouTube Cumberland County Courthouse Tour on YouTube Historic Bedford Courthouse on YouTube Hidden Pennsylvania History - York Colonial Courthouse on YouTube An Aerial View of the Mercer County Courthouse on YouTube Luzerne County Courthouse Rededication Ceremony on YouTube Huntingdon County Courthouse, Huntingdon, PA on YouTube
Muses for Richard Davis is the debut album by bassist Richard Davis recorded in 1969 and released on the German MPS label. Allmusic awarded the album 3½ stars with a review stating, "It's a meeting of post-bop titans who not only know how to play, but how to play together". "Milktrain" - 6:03 "A Child is Born" - 5:00 "Softly, as in a Morning Sunrise" - 9:25 "What Is It?" - 7:00 "Muses for Richard Davis" - 5:00 "Toe Tail Moon" - 4:55 Richard Davis - bass Freddie Hubbard - trumpet Jimmy Knepper - trombone Jerry Dodgion - alto saxophone Eddie Daniels - tenor saxophone Pepper Adams - baritone saxophone Roland Hanna - piano Louis Hayes - drums