20th Century Press Archives
The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, wares and topics. It originates from the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut founded in 1908. Within the Hamburg Institute of International Economics it turned into a unique public press archives. In 2007 it was absorbed by the German National Library of Economics and merged with the Wirtschaftsarchiv of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, founded in 1914. Article collection was discontinued by end of 2005. After a few years, the "Zentralstelle" of the Kolonialinstitut was transformed from a free information center for colonial issues into a comprehensive archive of global political and economic topics, which supported Hamburg's merchants. After the breakdown of the German colonial empire in World War I, the renaming to "Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv" in 1919 sealed this reorientation; the staff of HWWA reflected its importance and grew from 54 in 1919 to 183 permanent or temporary employees in 1958 - a state that seems to have remained stable until the late 1990s.
Founded shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the Kiel Economic Archive and its library were linked to the scientific work of the IfW, which focused on global economic contexts and their practical use. In 1966, the library of the IfW was given the function of a central library for economics by the German Research Foundation in the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1993, the department was renamed accordingly. During the First and the Second World War both archives were intensively involved in the foreign and wartime planning of the empire and the Nazi state. Starting in 1936, "Confidential Reports from the Foreign Press" provided selected economic leaders and Nazi departments with "largely unfiltered information and comments on economic issues from foreign media and represented a unique feature in Nazi media policy". By acting with the informal means of a foreign cultural and information policy supplementing the military expansion policy, HWWA and IfW dedicated their services to the Nazi regime.
In 1996, a closer cooperation between HWWA and ZBW / Wirtschaftsarchiv began with the aim of merging the two archives. Since the beginning of 2001, the articles were indexed according to a new common classification system and made retrievable via a reference database, "EconPress". Following a recommendation from the evaluation within the Leibniz Association in 2003, the current press documentation was finished at the end of 2005 and the materials were frozen at the level reached; the existence of the HWWA ended in 2007 with the integration of its press documentation and library into the ZBW as a newly formed foundation under public law. Today, the press archive belongs to the infrastructures of the Leibniz Association. By 1919 at the latest, the Hamburg archive collected "press clippings on a global scale"; the archive was subdivided in four sections: The Sacharchiv with subject matter "from all countries and the whole world". For the individual countries and regions, which constituted the primary order criterion, up to 1200 individual topics were recorded.
Further special folders were created for individual events or questions "such as the Boer War, the issue of slavery or the Suez Canal". Since the late 1990s, collecting had focused on "domestic and international economic issues"; the Warenarchiv with national and international raw materials, semi-finished and finished products. The product names are subdivided into 980 upper and 3400 sub-terms. Here and regions represent the secondary order criterion; the Firmenarchiv with business reports, anniversary publications and press clippings of c. 36,000 domestic and foreign companies. In addition, material on several hundred institutions and international organizations and research institutes has been collected; the Personenarchiv with dossiers of about 16,000 people from business, science and society. More than 1400 sources have been evaluated for the press archives, their broad international distribution provides access to the history of political thought and receptive history of the covered topics.
The collected publications go back as far as 1826. While the persons archive was only available in paper form until its partial digitization, the holdings of the topics and companies archives have been saved every ten years on roll film or microfiche since the 1960s and the paper clippings were pulped; the holdings of the Kiel Wirtschaftsarchiv are less comprehensively documented. They are subdivided into a topics archive, which served the research and teaching of the IfW and, microfilmed up to 1945, a personal archive, only in paper form, which contains publications of these persons, a home archive with publications about the IfW itself in paper; the archive on corporate bodies, which in 1958 comprised 4800 companies and more than 5600 German and international scientific and cultural societies and institutions, political parties and trade associations. And represented "one of the most complete collections for twentieth-century business history" is not mentioned any more in the archive's profile.
The "war archive" of 1914-1918, which comprehended one million clippings, was destroyed by a bomb strike in 1942. For 1958, when six scientific experts and more than 30 employees in total were collecting and organizing the material, the total extent of the archive was estimated a
Deputy Prime Minister of Italy
The Deputy Prime Minister of Italy Vice-President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic, is a senior member of the Italian Cabinet. Moreover, it is colloquially known as Vicepremier; the office of the Deputy Prime Minister is not a permanent position, existing only at the discretion of the Prime Minister, who may appoint to other offices to give seniority to a particular Cabinet minister. The office is held by Luigi Di Maio and Matteo Salvini, under Giuseppe Conte's premiership. Unlike analogous offices in some other nations, such as a vice-presidency, the Italian deputy prime minister possesses no special constitutional powers as such, though they will always have particular responsibilities in government, they do not assume the duties and powers of the Prime Minister in the latter's absence, illness, or death, such as the powers to seek a dissolution of parliament, appoint peers or brief the President of the Republic. They do not automatically succeed the Prime Minister, should the latter be incapacitated or resign from the leadership of his or her political party.
In practice, the designation of someone to the role of Deputy Prime Minister may provide additional practical status within cabinet, enabling the exercise of de facto, if not de jure, power. In a coalition government, as Enrico Letta Grand coalition government between the Democrats and The People of Freedom, the appointment of the secretary of the smaller party as Deputy Prime Minister is done to give that person more authority within the cabinet to enforce the coalition's agreed-upon agenda. Parties 1946–1994: Liberal Party Republican Party Democratic Socialist Party Christian Democracy Socialist Party Since 1994: Lega Nord National Alliance Democratic Party of the Left People's Party Union of Christian and Centre Democrats Forza Italia Democratic Party New Centre-Right Five Star Movement There are thirteen living former Italian Deputy Prime Ministers: Living former Deputy Prime Ministers Prime Minister of Italy List of Prime Ministers of Italy Politics of Italy Lists of incumbents
Giovanni Leone was an Italian politician. He was the 37th Prime Minister of Italy from 21 June 1963 to 4 December 1963 and again from 24 June 1968 to 12 December 1968, he served as the sixth President of the Republic from 1971 to 1978. Leone was born in Naples from Mauro and Maria Gioffredi, both in Pomigliano d'Arco, his father, Mauro Leone was a prominent lawyer of the Naples Bar, had participated in the founding of the People's Party in Campania, he graduated in law in 1929 from the prestigious University of Naples Federico II. His father was one of the founders of Democrazia Cristiana in his native city, he was elected to the Italian Constituent Assembly in 1946. A member of the right wing faction of his party, he was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1948, being confirmed until 1963. In 1955-1963 he was President of the Chamber, from which he resigned for a brief stint as Premier. After having been unofficially several times candidate to the Presidency of the Republic, he was named Life Senator in 1967.
In 1968 he was again Premier for some months. As prime minister, a law was passed in November 1968 that introduced a special benefit for full unemployment for workers in the industrial sector, in cases of total or partial closing down of enterprises or large-scale dismissals, equalling two-thirds of previous monthly earnings for 180 days; the law extended earnings replacement benefits to cases of sectoral crises or industrial restructuring with a new compensation formula equaling 80% of previous earnings for 3 months, allowed for family allowances to be paid to those in receipt of unemployment benefits. In 1971 he succeeded Giuseppe Saragat as President of Italy, being elected with votes of a right-centre majority of the Parliament, his political career came to an end in 1978 with his resignation as President of the Italian Republic. This was due to allegations made in the USA over Lockheed bribing a number of high-profile politicians in Italy to purchase Hercules Aircraft for the military.
Leone and his family were implicated in the bribery. The accusations were never proved and the most prominent of his accusers was three times convicted for libel. On 15 July 1946, Leone married Vittoria Micchitto and had four sons, Paolo and Giulio. Just a few weeks before his 93rd birthday, following a Decree by the President of the Council of Ministers of 25 September 2001, Giovanni Leone was awarded the title of Emeritus President of the Republic, the dignity of honorary Order of Protocol and since ex lege to all former heads of State in life, he died on 9 November 2001, at his villa in "The Wrinkles" on the Via Cassia. On 25 November 2006 the President of the Italian Republic Giorgio Napolitano said that, eight years earlier, the Senate had granted full recognition of the correctness of his actions
Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi was an Italian statesman who founded the Christian Democracy party. From 1945 to 1953, De Gasperi was the Prime Minister of Italy, leading eight successive coalition governments, he was the last Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy, serving under both Victor Emmanuel III and Umberto II. He was the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, briefly served as provisional head of state after the Italian people voted to end the monarchy and establish a republic, his eight-year term in office remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics. De Gasperi is the fifth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification. A Catholic, he was one of the founding fathers of the European Union along with fellow Italian Altiero Spinelli. De Gasperi was born in Pieve Tesino in Tyrol, which at that time belonged to Austria-Hungary, now part of the region of Trentino-Alto Adige in Italy, his father was a local police officer of limited financial means.
From 1896 De Gasperi was active in the Social Christian movement. In 1900 he joined the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy in Vienna, where he played an important role in the inception of the Christian student movement, he was much inspired by the Rerum novarum encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891. In 1904 he took an active part in student demonstrations in favour of an Italian language university. Imprisoned with other protesters during the inauguration of the Italian faculty of law in Innsbruck, he was released after twenty days. In 1905, De Gasperi obtained a degree in philology. In 1905, he began to work as editor of the newspaper La Voce Cattolica, replaced in September 1906 by Il Trentino and after a short time, he became its editor. In his newspaper, he took positions in favor of a cultural autonomy for Trentino and in defense of Italian culture in Trentino in contrast to the Germanisation plans of the German radical nationalists in Tyrol. However, he never questioned whether Trentino should belong to Austria–Hungary and claimed that in the case of a referendum 90% of the people of Trentino would choose the popular Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria over Italy.
In 1911, he became a Member of Parliament for the Popular Political Union of Trentino in the Austrian Reichsrat, a post he held for 6 years. He was politically neutral during World War I. However, he sympathized with the unsuccessful efforts of Pope Benedict XV and Bl. Karl I of Austria to obtain an honorable peace and stop the war and mass killing; when his home region was transferred to Italy in the post-war settlement, he accepted Italian citizenship. He however never tried to hide his love for Austria and German culture and preferred speaking German to his family, many of whom spoke German as their first language. In 1919, he was with Luigi Sturzo, he served as a deputy in the Italian Parliament from 1921 to 1924, a period marked by the rise of Fascism. He supported the participation of the PPI in Benito Mussolini's first government in October 1922; as Mussolini's hold on the Italian government grew stronger, he soon diverged with the Fascists over constitutional changes to the powers of the executive and to the election system, to Fascist violence against the constitutional parties, culminating in the murder of Giacomo Matteotti.
The PPI split, De Gasperi became secretary of the remaining anti-Fascist group in May 1924. In November 1926, in a climate of overt violence and intimidation by the Fascists, the PPI was dissolved. De Gasperi was sentenced to four years in prison; the Vatican negotiated his release. A year and a half in prison nearly broke De Gasperi's health. After his release in July 1928, he was unemployed and in serious financial hardship, until in 1929 his ecclesiastical contacts secured him a job as a cataloguer in the Vatican Library, where he spent the next fourteen years until the collapse of Fascism in July 1943. During World War II, he organised the establishment of the first Christian Democracy party, drawing upon the ideology of the PPI. In January 1943, he published "Ideas for Reconstruction", which amounted to a programme for the party, he became the first general secretary of the new party in 1944. De Gasperi was the undisputed head of the Christian Democrats, the party that dominated Parliament for decades.
Although his control of the DC appeared complete, he had to balance different factions and interests with regards to relations with the Vatican, social reform, foreign policy. When Southern Italy was liberated by the Allies, he became one of the main representatives of DC in the National Liberation Committee. During the government led by Ivanoe Bonomi, De Gasperi was appointed Minister without portfolio and, in Ferruccio Parri's cabinet, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs. From 1945 to 1953, he was the prime minister of eight successive DC-led governments, his eight-year rule remains a landmark of political longevity for one leader in modern Italian politics. During his successive governments, Italy became a Republic, signed a Peace Treaty with the Allies, joined the NATO in 1949 and became an ally of the United States, which helped to revive the Italian economy through the Marshall Plan. During that time, Italy became a member of the European Coal and Steel Community, which evolved into the European Union.
In December 1945, he became Prime Minister for the first time, succeeding Ferruccio Parri and leading a coalition governm
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Italian Communist Party
The Italian Communist Party was a communist political party in Italy. The PCI was founded as Communist Party of Italy on 21 January 1921 in Livorno by seceding from the Italian Socialist Party. Amadeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci led the split. Outlawed during the Fascist regime, the party played a major part in the Italian resistance movement, it changed its name in 1943 to PCI and became the second largest political party of Italy after World War II, attracting the support of about a third of the voters during the 1970s. At the time, it was the largest communist party in the West. In 1991, as it had travelled a long way from doctrinaire communism to democratic socialism by the 1970s or the 1980s, the PCI evolved into the Democratic Party of the Left, which joined the Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists; the more radical members of the party left to form the Communist Refoundation Party. The PCI participated to its first general election in 1921 as the Communist Party of Italy, obtaining 4.6% of the vote and 15 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
At the time, it was an active yet small faction within Italian political left, led by the Italian Socialist Party while on the international plane it was part of Soviet-led Comintern. In 1926, the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini outlawed the PCI. Although forced underground, the PCI maintained a clandestine presence within Italy during the years of the Fascist regime. Many of its leaders were active in exile. During its first year as a banned party, Antonio Gramsci defeated the party's left-wing, led by Amadeo Bordiga. Gramsci replaced Bordiga's leadership at a conference in Lyon and issued a manifesto expressing the programmatic basis of the party. However, Gramsci soon found himself jailed by Mussolini's regime and the leadership of the party passed to Palmiro Togliatti. Togliatti would lead the party until it emerged from suppression in 1944 and relaunched itself as the PCI; the party played a major role during the national liberation and in the April 1944 after the svolta di Salerno, Togliatti agreed to cooperate with King Victor Emmanuel III so the Communists took part in every government during the national liberation and constitutional period from June 1944 to May 1947.
The Communists' contribution to the new Italian democratic constitution was decisive. The Gullo decrees of 1944, for instance, sought to improve social and economic conditions in the countryside. In the first general elections of 1948, the party joined the PSI in the Popular Democratic Front, but it was defeated by the Christian Democracy party; the United States spent over $10 million to support anti-PCI groups in the election. Fearful of the possible FDP's electoral victory, the British and American governments undermined the quest for justice by tolerating the efforts made by Italy's top authorities to prevent any of the alleged Italian war criminals from being extradited and taken to court; the denial of Italian war crimes was backed up by the Italian state and media, re-inventing Italy as only a victim of the German Nazism and the post-war Foibe massacres. The party gained considerable electoral success during the following years and supplied external support to centre-left governments, although it never directly joined a government.
It lobbied Fiat to set up the AvtoVAZ car factory in the Soviet Union. The party did best in Emilia-Romagna and Umbria, where it won the local administrative elections. At the city government level during the course of the post-war period, the PCI demonstrated their capacity for uncorrupt and clean government. After the elections of 1975, the PCI was the strongest force in nearly all of the municipal councils of the great cities; the PCI's municipal showcase was Bologna, held continuously by the PCI from 1945 onwards. Amongst other measures, the local PCI administration tackled urban problems with successful programmes of health for the elderly, nursery education and traffic reform while undertaking initiatives in housing and school meal provisions. From 1946 to 1956, the Communist city council built 896 flats and 9 schools. Health care improved street lighting was installed, new drains and municipal launderettes were built and 8,000 children received subsidised school meals. In 1972, the then-mayor of Bologna, Renato Zangheri, introduced a new and innovative traffic plan with strict limitations for private vehicles and a renewed concentration on cheap public transport.
Bologna's social services continued to expand throughout mid-1970s. The city centre was restored, centres for the mentally sick were instituted to help those, released from closed psychiatric hospitals, handicapped persons were offered training and found suitable jobs, afternoon activities for schoolchildren were made less mindless than the traditional doposcuola and school programming for the whole day helped working parents. Communists administrations at a local level helped to aid new businesses while introducing innovative social reforms. In Naples, the PCI government under Mayor Maurizio Valenzi reduced the corruption in the affairs of local government and 333 kindergarten classrooms were opened between 1975 and 1979, compared to the 210, built in the previous 30 years; the Soviet Union's brutal suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 created a split within the PCI. The party leadership, includi