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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, Gioachino Rossini, whose works influenced him. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy, he participated as an elected politician. The chorus "Va, pensiero" from his early opera Nabucco, similar choruses in operas, were much in the spirit of the unification movement, the composer himself became esteemed as a representative of these ideals. An intensely private person, however, did not seek to ingratiate himself with popular movements and as he became professionally successful was able to reduce his operatic workload and sought to establish himself as a landowner in his native region, he surprised the musical world by returning, after his success with the opera Aida, with three late masterpieces: his Requiem, the operas Otello and Falstaff.

His operas remain popular the three peaks of his'middle period': Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La traviata, the 2013 bicentenary of his birth was celebrated in broadcasts and performances. Verdi, the first child of Carlo Giuseppe Verdi and Luigia Uttini, was born at their home in Le Roncole, a village near Busseto in the Département Taro and within the borders of the First French Empire following the annexation of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza in 1808; the baptismal register, prepared on 11 October 1813, lists his parents Carlo and Luigia as "innkeeper" and "spinner" respectively. Additionally, it lists Verdi as being "born yesterday", but since days were considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10 October. Following his mother, Verdi always celebrated his birthday on 9 October, the day he himself believed he was born. Verdi had a younger sister, who died aged 17 in 1833. From the age of four, Verdi was given private lessons in Latin and Italian by the village schoolmaster, at six he attended the local school.

After learning to play the organ, he showed so much interest in music that his parents provided him with a spinet. Verdi's gift for music was apparent by 1820–21 when he began his association with the local church, serving in the choir, acting as an altar boy for a while, taking organ lessons. After Baistrocchi's death, Verdi, at the age of eight, became; the music historian Roger Parker points out that both of Verdi's parents "belonged to families of small landowners and traders not the illiterate peasants from which Verdi liked to present himself as having emerged... Carlo Verdi was energetic in furthering his son's education...something which Verdi tended to hide in life... he picture emerges of youthful precocity eagerly nurtured by an ambitious father and of a sustained and elaborate formal education."In 1823, when he was 10, Verdi's parents arranged for the boy to attend school in Busseto, enrolling him in a Ginnasio—an upper school for boys—run by Don Pietro Seletti, while they continued to run their inn at Le Roncole.

Verdi returned to Busseto to play the organ on Sundays, covering the distance of several kilometres on foot. At age 11, Verdi received schooling in Italian, the humanities, rhetoric. By the time he was 12, he began lessons with Ferdinando Provesi, maestro di cappella at San Bartolomeo, director of the municipal music school and co-director of the local Società Filarmonica. Verdi stated: "From the ages of 13 to 18 I wrote a motley assortment of pieces: marches for band by the hundred as many little sinfonie that were used in church, in the theatre and at concerts, five or six concertos and sets of variations for pianoforte, which I played myself at concerts, many serenades and various pieces of church music, of which I remember only a Stabat Mater." This information comes from the Autobiographical Sketch which Verdi dictated to the publisher Giulio Ricordi late in life, in 1879, remains the leading source for his early life and career. Written, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not always reliable when dealing with issues more contentious than those of his childhood.

The other director of the Philharmonic Society was Antonio Barezzi, a wholesale grocer and distiller, described by a contemporary as a "manic dilettante" of music. The young Verdi did not become involved with the Philharmonic. By June 1827, he had graduated with honours from the Ginnasio and was able to focus on music under Provesi. By chance, when he was 13, Verdi was asked to step in as a replacement to play in what became his first public event in his home town. By 1829–30, Verdi had established himself as a leader of the Philharmonic: "none of us could rival him" reported the secretary of the organisation, Giuseppe Demaldè. An eight-movement cantata, I deliri di Saul, based on a drama by Vittorio Alfieri, was written by Verdi when he was 15 and performed in Bergamo, it was acclaimed by both Demaldè and Barezzi, who commented: "He shows a vivid imagination, a philosophical outlook, sound judgment in the arrangement of instrumental parts." In late 1829, Verdi had completed his studies with Provesi, who declared that he had no more to teach him.

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Nagato-Futami Station

Nagato-Futami Station is a JR West railway station located in the Hohoku area of Shimonoseki-city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The station consists of an island platform enabling passengers to change trains. Though managed by the Nagato Railroad Bureau, there are no station staff members nor an automated ticket facility; the platform is halfway up a mountainside cliff, accessible via a stairway in a tunnel from the station building. There was a waiting room on the platform, though it was destroyed in a fire in 2000; the construction of the San'in Main Line was the final link in connecting the trainlines in the area during the Taishō period. At the time, the plan was to have the entire line along the Sea of Japan's coastline, but in line with the wishes of the region's residents as well as to keep the project in budget, Takibe Station and Kottoi Station were located inland. Owing to this layout, the tracks leading to Nagato-Futami Station include curves of nearly 90 degrees. 16 August 1925 - The extension of the Japanese National Rail Kogushi Line, as it was known, from Kogushi Station to Takibe Station is completed.

Nagato-Futama Station begins servicing customer as well as freight trains. 24 February 1933 - The Kogushi Line is incorporated into the San'in Main Line. 1 August 1961 - Freight train service cancelled. 1 April 1987 - Under the privatisation of Japan's railways, Takibe Station becomes part of the West Japan Railway Company. 7 August 2010 - A fire burns down the platform waiting room. ※The platforms are not numbered at this station. The following lines pass through or terminate at Nagato-Awano Station: West Japan Railway Company San'in Main Line There are a few small shops around the station. Between Nagato-Futami Station and Kogushi Station it is possible to have a clear view of the Sea of Japan along the coastline. Futami Post Office Futami Fishing Harbour Futami Elementary School Meoto Iwa Tokiwaya Kōrin Temple Japan National Route 191 Blue Line Bus Service Below are the average number of people who alight at Nagato-Futami Station per day. 1999 - 117 2000 - 114 2001 - 78 2002 - 68 2003 - 77 2004 - 69 2005 - 72 2006 - 72 2007 - 71 2008 - 63 2009 - 56 2010 - 51 JR West station information

Battle of Krabbendam

The Battle of Krabbendam of 10 September 1799 was fought during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland between forces of the French Republic and her ally, the Batavian Republic, under the command of French general Guillaume Marie Anne Brune on one side, a British division under general Sir Ralph Abercromby on the other. The British division had established a bridgehead in the extreme north of the North-Holland peninsula after the Battle of Callantsoog. Brune tried to dislodge them before they could be reinforced by further Anglo-Russian forces, but the British prevailed; this enabled the British and their Russian allies to land their expeditionary force and to break out of the bridgehead during the Battle of Bergen. After the Battle of Callantsoog General Herman Willem Daendels with the 1st Batavian Division had fallen back all the way to the Schermer polder, as he deemed the Zijpe polder indefensible, because the British could perform another amphibious landing at the North-Sea dike near the village of Petten behind him.

This left the Zijpe polder open to the British. The Zijpe polder formed a natural redoubt, because of its high southern dike which had a deep circular drainage canal running along it, which acted as a kind of moat; the dike was high enough to afford a view a long way across all avenues of approach. In addition, it was not straight, but at intervals had circular and angular projections, somewhat like a trace italienne of old, which gave the defenders an opportunity to lay enfilade fire, if necessary. Abercromby took advantage from these natural properties of the terrain, by erecting artillery positions and earthworks at strategic points, his dispositions were anchored on the right on the subsidiary dike which runs parallel with the sea dike at Petten. They ran east along the dike of the Zijpe polder, with reinforcements at the villages of Krabbendam and Sint Maarten, at the Oude Sluys on the coast of the Zuyder Zee; the villages in front of this line, like Schagen were occupied as outposts. Meanwhile, the French and Batavians had frantically been bringing up reinforcements.

A French division under General Dominique Vandamme was brought up via Haarlem and occupied a line between Alkmaar and the sea. Brune directed Daendels to come forward to Sint Pancras. General Jean-Baptiste Dumonceau brought up two-thirds of his 2nd Batavian division in forced marches from Friesland and he arrived on September 8 to take on a position in the center of the Franco-Batavian front, around Alkmaar, he was reinforced with the 7th Demi-brigade of Daendels' division. By September 9 the forces under General Brune had therefore reached a numerical superiority of about 25,000 troops over about 23,000 for General Abercromby; as it was known that soon strong Russian and British reinforcements would be landed, Brune decided to attack on the 10th, while he still had this advantage. Brune's plan of battle was simple: he would have the Batavian divisions attack the villages of Eenigenburg and Krabbendam, as these commanded two roads that led into the Zijpe polder and hence two of the few points of ingress.

The main role would be performed by the French division of Vandamme, who would attempt to turn Abercromby's right flank by advancing along the subsidiary dike near Petten. The plan can therefore be characterised as an attempt at "single envelopment."Because of the haste to get the attack underway, the preparations were sloppy on the part of Brune's staff. The march routes of the columns of Daendels from St. Pancras and one of the columns of Dumonceau were mistakenly assigned to the same road, because a canal was mistakenly taken for a road due to inexpert map-reading by Brune's staff; this could only have happened because a proper reconnaissance had not been performed. As a consequence, Daendels was forced to take a more easterly route and concentrate on the alternate objective of the village of Sint Maarten, which he duly took. Dumonceau's right-hand column, under General Bonhomme attacked Daendels' original objective, the village of Eenigenburg; the attempt to storm the British defenses at this point was, frustrated by the circular canal in front of the dike and the well-aimed fire of the defenders.

A second attempt failed and Bonhomme remained in his position until both he and Daendels retreated that evening after the retreat of the Franco-Batavian left wing at the same time. However, Bonhomme's attack should have supported the other column under Colonel Bruce that had Krabbendam as its objective. Bruce was supposed to advance from Alkmaar, but was delayed appreciably because a large number of farmer's carts going to market blocked the city gate he was trying to use to march his column out, he therefore only arrived at his starting position at 7 AM. Meanwhile, the impatient general Dumonceau had borrowed about 100 grenadiers from Bonhomme's column and had with this small force attacked the British strongpoint of Krabbendam with unexpected success, he managed to drive the British out once he received reinforcements from Bruce's 6th Demi-brigade that had arrived, despite the murderous fire of two British field pieces that were positioned at the entrance of the village. However, these troops panicked and fled to the rear for reasons that remain unclear.

After rallying and reforming these troops, Dumonceau attempted a new attack and again succeeded in taking Krabbendam. They were attacked by two battalions of the 20th Foot under Lt. Col. Smyth and Ma