Pyramid of Khafre
The Pyramid of Khafre or of Chephren is the second-tallest and second-largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the Fourth-Dynasty pharaoh Khafre, who ruled from c. 2558 to 2532 BC. The pyramid has a base length of 215.5 m and rises up to a height of 136.4 metres The pyramid is made of limestone blocks weighing more than 2 tons each. The slope of the pyramid rises at a 53° 13' angle, steeper than its neighbor, the Pyramid of Khufu, which has an angle of 51°50'24"; the pyramid sits on bedrock 10 m higher than Khufu's pyramid. The pyramid was opened and robbed during the First Intermediate Period. During the Eighteenth Dynasty, the overseer of temple construction took casing stone from it to build a temple in Heliopolis on Ramesses II’s orders. Arab historian Ibn Abd al-Salam recorded that the pyramid was opened in 1372 AD. On the wall of the burial chamber, there is an Arabic graffito that dates from the same time, it is not known. It was first explored in modern times by Giovanni Belzoni on March 2, 1818, when the original entrance was found on the north side of the pyramid and the burial chamber was visited.
Belzoni had hopes of finding an intact burial. However, the chamber was empty except for its broken lid on the floor; the first complete exploration was conducted by John Perring in 1837. In 1853, Auguste Mariette excavated Khafre's valley temple, and, in 1858, while completing its clearance, he managed to discover a diorite statue. Like the Great Pyramid, a rock outcropping was used in the core. Due to the slope of the plateau, the northwest corner was cut 10 m out of the rock subsoil and the southeast corner is built up; the pyramid is built of horizontal courses. The stones used at the bottom are large, but as the pyramid rises, the stones become smaller, becoming only 50 cm thick at the apex; the courses are rough and irregular for the first half of its height but a narrow band of regular masonry is clear in the midsection of the pyramid. At the northwest corner of the pyramid, the bedrock was fashioned into steps. Casing stones cover the top third of the pyramid, but the pyramidion and part of the apex are missing.
The bottom course of casing stones was made out of pink granite but the remainder of the pyramid was cased in Tura Limestone. Close examination reveals that the corner edges of remaining casing stones are not straight, but are staggered by a few millimeters. One theory is. An alternative theory postulates that the slope on the blocks was cut to shape before being placed due to the limited working space towards the top of the pyramid. Two entrances lead to the burial chamber, one that opens 11.54 m up the face of the pyramid and one that opens at the base of the pyramid. These passageways do not align with the centerline of the pyramid, but are offset to the east by 12 m; the lower descending passageway is carved out of the bedrock, running horizontal ascending to join the horizontal passage leading to the burial chamber. One theory as to why there are two entrances is that the pyramid was intended to be much larger with the northern base shifted 30 m further to the north which would make Khafre's pyramid much larger than his father's.
This would place the entrance to the lower descending passage within the masonry of the pyramid. While the bedrock is cut away farther from the pyramid on the north side than on the west side, it is not clear that there is enough room on the plateau for the enclosure wall and pyramid terrace. An alternative theory is that, as with many earlier pyramids, plans were changed and the entrance was moved midway through construction. There is a subsidiary chamber, equal in length to the c.412"-long King's Chamber of the Khufu pyramid, that opens to the west of the lower passage, the purpose of, uncertain. It may be used to store offerings, store burial equipment; the upper descending passage is clad in granite and descends to join with the horizontal passage to the burial chamber. The burial chamber was carved out of a pit in the bedrock; the roof is constructed of gabled limestone beams. The chamber is rectangular, 14.15 m by 5 m, is oriented east-west. Khafre's sarcophagus was carved out of a solid block of granite and sunk in the floor, in it, Belzoni found bones of an animal a bull.
Another pit in the floor contained the canopic chest, its lid would have been one of the pavement slabs. Along the centerline of the pyramid on the south side was a satellite pyramid, but nothing remains other than some core blocks and the outline of the foundation, it contains two descending passages, one of them ending in a dead end with a niche which contained pieces of ritualistic furniture. The temples of Khafre's complex survive in much better condition than Khufu's, this being specially true to the Valley Temple, preserved. To the east of the Pyramid sits the mortuary temple. Though it is now in ruins, enough of it survives to understand the plan, it is larger than previous temples and is the first to include all five standard elements of mortuary temples: an entrance hall, a columned court, five niches for statues of the p
Pyramid of Menkaure
The Pyramid of Menkaure is the smallest of the three main Pyramids of Giza, located on the Giza Plateau in the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. It is thought to have been built to serve as the tomb of the fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure. Menkaure's pyramid had an original height of 65.5 meters and was the smallest of the three major pyramids at the Giza Necropolis. It now stands at 61 m tall with a base of 108.5 m. Its angle of incline is 51°20′25″, it was constructed of granite. The first sixteen courses of the exterior were made of red granite; the upper portion was cased in the normal manner with Tura limestone. Part of the granite was left in the rough. Incomplete projects such as this pyramid help archaeologists understand the methods used to build pyramids and temples. South of the pyramid of Menkaure are three satellite pyramids, with each accompanied by a temple and substructure; the southernmost is a true pyramid. Its casing is of granite, like the main pyramid, is believed to have been completed due to the limestone pyramidion found close by.
Neither of the other two progressed beyond the construction of the inner core. In the mortuary temple the foundations and the inner core were made of limestone; the floors were begun with granite and granite facings were added to some of the walls. The foundations of the valley temple were made of stone; however both temples were finished with crude bricks. Reisner estimated that some of the blocks of local stone in the walls of the mortuary temple weighed as much as 220 tons, while the heaviest granite ashlars imported from Aswan weighed more than 30 tons, it was not unusual for a son or successor to complete a temple when a Pharaoh died, so it is not unreasonable to assume that Shepseskaf finished the temples with crude brick. There was an inscription in the mortuary temple that said he "made it as his monument for his father, the king of upper and lower Egypt." During excavations of the temples Reisner found a large number of statues of Menkaure alone and as a member of a group. These were all carved in the naturalistic style of the old kingdom with a high degree of detail evident.
The pyramid's date of construction is unknown, because Menkaure's reign has not been defined, but it was completed in the 26th century BC. It lies a few hundred yards southwest of its larger neighbours, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu in the Giza necropolis. Richard Vyse, who first visited Egypt in 1835, discovered on 28 July 1837 in the upper antechamber the remains of a wooden anthropoid coffin inscribed with Menkaure's name and containing human bones; this is now considered to be a substitute coffin from the Saite period. Radiocarbon dating on the bones determined them to be less than 2,000 years old, suggesting either an all-too-common bungled handling of remains from another site, or access to the pyramid during Roman times. Deeper into the pyramid, Vyse came upon a basalt sarcophagus, described as beautiful and rich in detail with a bold projecting corniche, which contained the bones of a young woman; this sarcophagus now lies at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea, having sunk on October 13, 1838, with the ship Beatrice, as she made her way between Malta and Cartagena, on the way to Great Britain.
It was one of only a handful of Old Kingdom sarcophagi to survive into the modern period. The lid from the anthropoid coffin mentioned above was transported to England and may be seen today at the British Museum. At the end of the twelfth century al-Malek al-Aziz Othman ben Yusuf, Saladin's son and heir, attempted to demolish the pyramids, starting with Menkaure's; the workmen whom Al-Aziz had recruited to demolish the pyramid stayed at their job for eight months, but found it as expensive to destroy as to build. They could only remove two stones each day; some used levers to move the stones, while others used ropes to pull them down. When a stone fell, it would bury itself in the sand. Wedges were used to split the stones into several pieces, a cart was used to carry it to the foot of the escarpment, where it was left. Due to such conditions, they could only damage the pyramid by leaving a large vertical gash in its north face. List of Egyptian pyramids List of megalithic sites Pyramid G3-c Verner, The Pyramids – Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8 NOVA Online – Pyramids: Menkaure's Inside Story
Pyramid of Unas
The Pyramid of Unas is a smooth-sided pyramid built in the 24th century BC for the Egyptian pharaoh Unas, the ninth and final king of the Fifth Dynasty. It is the smallest Old Kingdom pyramid, but significant due to the discovery of Pyramid Texts, spells for the king's afterlife incised into the walls of its subterranean chambers. Inscribed for the first time in Unas's pyramid, the tradition of funerary texts carried on in the pyramids of subsequent rulers, through to the end of the Old Kingdom, into the Middle Kingdom through the Coffin Texts which form the basis of the Book of the Dead. Unas built his pyramid in North Saqqara. Anchored to the valley temple via a nearby lake, a long causeway was constructed to provide access to the pyramid site; the causeway had elaborately decorated walls covered with a roof which had a slit in one section allowing light to enter illuminating the images. A long wadi was used as a pathway; the terrain contained old buildings and tomb superstructures. These were repurposed as underlay for the causeway.
A significant stretch of Djoser's causeway was reused for embankments. Tombs that were on the path had their superstructures demolished and were paved over, preserving their decorations. Two Second Dynasty tombs, presumed to belong to Hotepsekhemwy and Ninetjer, from seals found inside, are among those that lie under the causeway; the site was used for numerous burials of Fifth Dynasty officials, private individuals from the Eighteenth through Twentieth Dynasties, a collection of Late Period monuments known as the "Persian tombs". The causeway joined the temple in the harbour with the mortuary temple on the east face of the pyramid; the mortuary temple was entered on its east side through a large granite doorway constructed by Unas's successor, connected to the end of the causeway. Just south of the upper causeway are two long boat pits; these may have contained two wooden boats. The temple was laid out in a similar manner to Djedkare Isesi's. A transverse corridor separates the outer from the inner temple.
The entry chapel of the inner temple has been destroyed, though it once contained five statues in niches. A feature of the inner temple was a single quartzite column, contained in the antichambre carrée; the room is otherwise ruined. Quartzite is an atypical material to use in architectural projects, though examples of it being used sparingly in the Old Kingdom exist; the material is associated with the sun cult due to its sun-like coloration. The underground chambers remained unexplored until 1881, when Gaston Maspero, who had discovered inscribed texts in the pyramids of Pepi I and Merenre I, gained entry. Maspero found the same texts inscribed on their first known appearance; the 283 spells in Unas's pyramid constitute the oldest and best preserved corpus of religious writing from the Old Kingdom. Their function was to guide the ruler through to eternal life and ensure his continued survival if the funerary cult ceased to function. In Unas's case, the funerary cult may have survived the turbulent First Intermediate Period and up until the Twelfth or Thirteenth Dynasty, during the Middle Kingdom.
This is a matter of dispute amongst Egyptologists, where a competing idea is that the cult was revived during the Middle Kingdom, rather than having survived until then. The pyramid is situated in the Saqqara plateau, lies on a line running from the pyramid of Sekhemkhet to the pyramid of Menkauhor; the site required the construction of an exceptionally long causeway to reach a nearby lake, indicating that the site must have held some significance to Unas. The pyramid was examined by John Shae Perring and soon after by Karl Richard Lepsius. Entry was first gained by Gaston Maspero, who examined its substructure in 1881, he had discovered a set of texts in the pyramids of Pepi I and Merenre I. Those same texts were discovered in Unas's tomb. From 1899 to 1901, the architect and Egyptologist Alessandro Barsanti conducted the first systematic investigation of the pyramid site, succeeding in excavating part of the mortuary temple, as well as a series of tombs from the Second Dynasty and the Late Period.
Excavations by Cecil Mallaby Firth, from 1929 until his death in 1931, followed by those of the architect Jean-Philippe Lauer from 1936 to 1939, were conducted with little success. The archaeologists Selim Hassan, Muhammed Zakaria Goneim and A. H. Hussein focused on the causeway leading to the pyramid while conducting their investigations from 1937 to 1949. Hussein discovered a pair of limestone-lined boat pits at the upper end of the causeway. In the 1970s, Ahmad Moussa excavated the lower half of the valley temple. Moussa and another archaeologist, Audran Labrousse, conducted an architectural survey of the valley temple from 1971 to 1981; the pyramids of Unas, Pepi I and Merenre were the subjects of a major architectural and epigraphic project in Saqqara, led by Jean Leclant. From 1999 until 2001, the Supreme Council of Antiquities conducted a major restoration and reconstruction project on the valley temple; the three entrances and ramps were restored, a low limestone wall built to demarcate the temple's plan.
Unas's complex is situated between the pyramid of Sekhemkhet and the south-west corner of the pyramid complex of Djoser. It is in symmetry with the pyramid of Userkaf situated in Saqqara. Old Kingdom mortuary complexes consist of five esse
Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km south of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Egyptian history, it occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile Delta, was home to feverish activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops and warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce and religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the patron of craftsmen, its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The name of this temple, rendered in Greek as Aἴγυπτoς by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern English name Egypt; the history of Memphis is linked to that of the country itself.
Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica; the ruins of the former capital today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the pyramid complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979; the site is open to the public as an open-air museum. Memphis has had several names during its history of four millennia, its Ancient Egyptian name was Inbu-Hedj. Because of its size, the city came to be known by various other names that were the names of neighbourhoods or districts that enjoyed considerable prominence at one time or another. For example, according to a text of the First Intermediate Period, it was known as Djed-Sut, the name of the pyramid of Teti; the city was at one point referred to as Ankh-Tawy, stressing the strategic position of the city between Upper and Lower Egypt.
This name appears to date from the Middle Kingdom, is found in ancient Egyptian texts. Some scholars maintain that this name was that of the western district of the city that lay between the great Temple of Ptah and the necropolis at Saqqara, an area that contained a sacred tree. At the beginning of the New Kingdom, the city became known as Men-nefer, which became "Memfi" in Coptic; the name "Memphis" is the Greek adaptation of this name, the name of the pyramid of Pepi I, located west of the city. However, Greek poet Hesiod in his Theogony says that Memphis was a daughter of river god Nilus and the wife of Epaphus, who founded the city and named it after his wife. In the Bible, Memphis is called Noph; the city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Abusir, Abu Gorab, Zawyet el'Aryan, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis; the city was the place that marked the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt..
The island of the city is today uninhabited. The closest settlement is the town of Mit Rahina. Estimates of historical population size differ between sources. According to Tertius Chandler, Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide from the time of its foundation until around 2250 BCE and from 1557 to 1400 BCE. K. A. Bard is more cautious and estimates the city's population to have amounted to about 6,000 inhabitants during the Old Kingdom. Memphis became the capital of Ancient Egypt for over eight consecutive dynasties during the Old Kingdom; the city reached a peak of prestige under the 6th dynasty as a centre for the worship of Ptah, the god of creation and artworks. The alabaster sphinx that guards the Temple of Ptah serves as a memorial of the city's former power and prestige; the Memphis triad, consisting of the creator god Ptah, his consort Sekhmet, their son Nefertem, formed the main focus of worship in the city. Memphis declined after the 18th dynasty with the rise of Thebes and the New Kingdom, was revived under the Persians before falling into second place following the foundation of Alexandria.
Under the Roman Empire, Alexandria remained the most important Egyptian city. Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Fustat in 641 CE, it was largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding settlements. It was still an imposing set of ruins in the 12th century but soon became a little more than an expanse of low ruins and scattered stone; the legend recorded by Manetho was that Menes, the first pharaoh to unite the Two Lands, established his capital on the banks of the Nile by diverting the river with dikes. The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that point the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams so that the city was saved from the annual flooding, it has been theorised that Menes was a mythical king, similar to Romulus of Rome. Some scholars suggest that Egypt most became unified through mutual need, developing cultural ties and trading partnerships, although it is u
Egyptian pyramid construction techniques
Egyptian pyramid construction techniques are the controversial subject of many hypotheses. These techniques seem to have developed over time. Most of the construction hypotheses are based on the belief that huge stones were carved from quarries with copper chisels, these blocks were dragged and lifted into position. Disagreements chiefly concern the methods used to place the stones. In addition to the many unresolved arguments about the construction techniques, there have been disagreements as to the kind of workforce used; the Greeks, many years after the event, believed that the pyramids must have been built by slave labor. Archaeologists now believe that the Great Pyramid of Giza was built by tens of thousands of skilled workers who camped near the pyramids and worked for a salary or as a form of tax payment until the construction was completed, pointing to workers' cemeteries discovered in 1990 by archaeologists Zahi Hawass and Mark Lehner. For the Middle Kingdom Pyramid of Amenemhat II, there is evidence from the annal stone of the king that foreigners from Canaan were used.
Pseudoscientific theories have proliferated in the vacuum of official construction explanations. During the earliest period, pyramids were constructed wholly of stone. Locally quarried limestone was the material of choice for the main body of these pyramids, while a higher quality of limestone quarried at Tura was used for the outer casing. Granite, quarried near Aswan, was used to construct some architectural elements, including the portcullis and the roofs and walls of the burial chamber. Granite was used in the outer casing as well, such as in the Pyramid of Menkaure. In the early pyramids, the layers of stone forming the pyramid body were laid sloping inwards; the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur seems to indicate acceptance of a new technique at a transition between these two building techniques. Its lower section is built of sloping courses while in its upper section the stones are laid horizontally. During the Middle Kingdom, pyramid construction techniques changed again. Most pyramids built were little more than mountains of mud brick encased in a veneer of polished limestone.
In several cases pyramids were built on top of natural hills to further reduce the volume of material needed in their construction. The materials and methods of construction used in the earliest pyramids have ensured their survival in a much better state of preservation than for the pyramid monuments of the pharaohs. One of the major problems faced by the early pyramid builders was the need to move huge quantities of stone; the Twelfth Dynasty tomb of Djehutihotep has an illustration of 172 men pulling an alabaster statue of him on a sledge. The statue is estimated to weigh 60 tons and Denys Stocks estimated that 45 workers would be required to start moving a 16,300 kg lubricated block, or eight workers to move a 2,750 kg block. Dr R H G Parry has suggested a method for rolling the stones, using a cradle-like machine, excavated in various new kingdom temples. Four of those objects could be fitted around a block. Experiments done by the Obayashi Corporation, with concrete blocks 0.8 metres square by 1.6 metres long and weighing 2.5 tonnes, showed how 18 men could drag the block over a 1-in-4 incline ramp, at a rate of 18 metres per minute.
This idea was described by John Bush in 1977, is mentioned in the Closing Remarks section of Parry's book. Vitruvius in De architectura described a similar method for moving irregular weights, it is still not known whether the Egyptians used this method but the experiments indicate it could have worked using stones of this size. Egyptologists accept this for the 2.5 ton blocks used but do not agree over the methods used for the 15+ ton and several 70 to 80 ton blocks. As the stones forming the core of the pyramids were cut in the Great Pyramid, the material used to fill the gaps was another problem. Huge quantities of gypsum and rubble were needed; the filling has no binding properties, but it was necessary to stabilize the construction. To make the gypsum mortar, it had to be dehydrated by heating which requires large quantities of wood. According to Egyptologists, the findings of both the 1984 and 1995 David H. Koch Pyramids Radiocarbon Projects may suggest that Egypt had to strip its forest and scrap every bit of wood it had to build the pyramids of Giza and other earlier 4th Dynasty pyramids.
Carbon dating samples from core blocks and other materials revealed that dates from the 1984 study averaged 374 years earlier than accepted and the 1995 dating averaging 100–200 years. As suggested by team members, "We thought that it was unlikely that the pyramid builders used centuries-old wood as fuel in preparing mortar; the 1984 results left us with too little data to conclude that the historical chronology of the Old Kingdom was wrong by nearly 400 years, but we considered this at least a possibility". To explain this discrepancy, Egyptologists proposed the "old wood" theory claiming the earlier dates were derived from recycling large amounts of centuries old wood and other earlier materials. There is good information concerning the location of the quarries, some of the tools used to cut stone in the quarries, transportation of the stone to the monument, leveling the foundation, leveling the subsequent tiers of the developing superstructure. Workmen probably
Zawyet El Aryan
Zawyet El Aryan is a town in the Giza Governorate, located between Giza and Abusir. To the west of the town, just in the desert area, is a necropolis, referred to by the same name. Directly east across the Nile is Memphis. In Zawyet El Aryan, there are five mastaba cemeteries; the layer pyramid was built in the third dynasty during the reign of Khaba. The pyramid was meant to be a step pyramid of five to seven steps. No casing stones have been found; the layout of the underground chambers resembles that of the pyramid of Sekhemkhet. A corridor leading into the interior has thirty-two side chambers meant for storage of the burial equipment; this unfinished pyramid belongs to a king with an illegible name and comprise little more than a massive descendry. All that stands now is a square base. A pink granite sarcophagus was found in a trench which cuts through the structure, although it may date to a time period; the existence of underground chambers has been suspected, but excavations have not been possible as the structure is now part of a military restricted zone.
Called the Northern Pyramid, this structure dates to the fourth dynasty. The area of Zawyet El Aryan is surrounded by a total of five cemeteries dating to the 1st Dynasty, 2nd Dynasty, late 3rd Dynasty, 18th Dynasty and Roman Period. Of these cemeteries, only the one dating to the late 3rd Dynasty contains large tombs, of which are four mud brick mastabas. Reisner and Fisher observed that this is to be expected of the necropolis surrounding the pyramid of a pharaoh, the large tombs being those of the royal family and court officials. In particular, around 200 metres north of the layer pyramid is a huge mastaba, today known as Mastaba Z500, which yielded eight marble bowls inscribed with the serekh of king Khaba. Reisner and Fisher therefore conclude that "if the mastabas belong to people connected with the king who built the pyramid, it is probable that the king’s name was Khaba"; this opinion is shared by most egyptologists. Since 1960, much of the area near Zawyet El Aryan has been restricted for use as a military base.
Access to the pyramids has been restricted since 1964. No excavations are allowed, the original necropolis is overbuilt with military bungalows, the shaft of the Unfinished pyramid has been misused as a trash dump; the condition of both burial shafts is uncertain and most disastrous
Giza is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate. It is located on the west bank of the Nile, 4.9 km southwest of central Cairo. Along with Cairo Governorate, Shubra El Kheima, Helwan, 6th October City and Obour, the five form Greater Cairo metropolis. Giza lies less than 20 km north of "Mn Nefer", which means "the beautiful wall" in the ancient Roman language, and, the capital city of the first unified Egyptian state since the days of Pharaoh Narmer. Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau: the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramid of Giza, a number of other large pyramids and temples. Giza has always been a focal point in Egypt's history due to its location close to Memphis, the ancient Pharaonic capital of the Old Kingdom, its St. George cathedral is the episcopal; the "city" of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate, is located near the northeast border of this governorate.
The city's population was reported as 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census, while the governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census, without specifying what the city is. The former figure corresponds to the sum of 9 kisms. Technically, Giza may not be an incorporated municipal unit at all. In a typical Egyptian fashion, there are two districts within the Governorate with the same name: a kism/qasm and associated markiz; some 9 urban kisms of Giza Governorate form collectively a contiguous area of 98.4km2 directly opposite side of the Nile from Cairo, recorded a preliminary count of 4,146,340 in 2017 census count, not including the Al-Ḥawāmidiyah kism separated by Giza markiz. It's unclear. Notes:2018 CAPMAS projection based on 2017 revised census figures, may differ from 2017 census preliminary tabulations; the 9 kisms were reported as Giza city by CAPMAS in 2006 but given explosive growth definitions informal, may have change or may be set to change. Giza's most famous land form and archaeological site, the Giza Plateau, holds some major monuments of Egyptian history, is home to the Great Sphinx.
Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau, the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, across the river from modern day Cairo. The Giza Plateau is home to Egyptian monuments such as the tomb of Pharaoh Djet of the First Dynasty, as well as that of Pharaoh Ninetjer of the Second Dynasty; the Great Pyramid of Giza at one time was advocated as the location for the Prime Meridian, a reference point used for determining a base longitude. Giza experiences a hot desert climate like arid climate, its climate is similar to Cairo, owing to its proximity. Wind storms can be frequent across Egypt in spring, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from 16 to 20 °C, while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C. In summer, the highs are 40 °C, the lows can drop to about 20 °C. Rain is infrequent in Giza. Up to August 2013, the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C on 13 June 1965, while the lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C on 8 January 1966.
Dokki District: 93,660 93,025 Agouza District: 174,460 162,851 Giza District: 180,568 246,325, Kism Al Jizah 238,567 248,897 Bulaq ad Dakrur: 453,884 564,791 Imbabah: 287,357 389,049, Kism Imbabah 523,265 597,160 Haram District: 200,076 295,704 Omrania Monib Kafr TuhurmusThe centre of the city is Giza Square. Faisal district The area in what is now Giza served as the necropolis of several pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt, during the 2nd millennium BC. Three of these tombs, in the form of giant pyramids, are what is now the famed Three Pyramids of Giza; as ancient Egypt passed under several conquests under the Persians, Greeks and Byzantines, so did the area in what is now Giza. A Byzantine village named Teresa, located south of Giza, existed before the Muslim conquest of the region. Native Egyptians called the area Tiperses, which may correspond to Persians, but the exact origin of this name remains unclear; as Muslims of the fledgling Islamic caliphate went on with their conquest of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire beginning in 639 AD, three years after their victory at the battle of Yarmouk in 636 AD, they conquered all of the land by the time they have captured the city of Alexandria in 641 AD.
A year in 642 AD, they founded the city of Giza. Its name, al-Jizzah in Arabic, means "the valley" or "the plateau", pertaining to the area's topography. Giza has seen many changes over time. Changes in infrastructure during the different occupations of Egypt by various rulers, including the British in the 18th and early 20th century, focused on the construction of roads and buildings in the area. Giza is a thriving centre of Egyptian culture and is quite populated, with many facilities and buildings in the current area. Giza saw much attention