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Gjirokastër

Gjirokastër is a city in southern Albania, on a valley between the Gjerë mountains and the Drino, at 300 metres above sea level. Its old town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, described as "a rare example of a well-preserved Ottoman town, built by farmers of large estate"; the city is overlooked by Gjirokastër Fortress, where the Gjirokastër National Folklore Festival is held every five years. It is the birthplace of former Albanian communist leader Enver Hoxha, author Ismail Kadare; the city appears in the historical record dating back in 1336 by its Greek name, Αργυρόκαστρο - Argyrokastro, as part of the Byzantine Empire. It became part of the Orthodox Christian diocese of Dryinoupolis and Argyrokastro after the destruction of nearby Adrianoupolis. Gjirokastër was contested between the Despotate of Epirus and the Albanian clan of John Zenevisi before falling under Ottoman rule for the next five centuries. Throughout the Ottoman era Gjirokastër was known in Ottoman Turkish as Ergiri and Ergiri Kasrı.

During the Ottoman period conversions to Islam and an influx of Muslim converts from the surrounding countryside made Gjirokastër go from being an overwhelmingly Christian city in the 16th century into one with a large Muslim population by the early 19th century. Gjirokastër became a major religious centre for Bektashi Sufism. Taken by the Hellenic Army during the Balkan Wars of 1912–3 on account of its large Greek population, it was incorporated into the newly independent state of Albania in 1913; this proved unpopular with the local Greek population, who rebelled. It was definitively awarded to Albania in 1921. In more recent years, the city witnessed anti-government protests that led to the Albanian civil war of 1997. Along with Muslim and Orthodox Albanians, the city is home to a substantial Greek minority. Together with Sarandë, the city is considered one of the centers of the Greek community in Albania, there is a consulate of Greece; the city appeared for the first time in historical records under its medieval Greek name of Argyrocastron, as mentioned by John VI Kantakouzenos in 1336.

The name comes from the Medieval Greek ἀργυρόν, meaning "silver", κάστρον, derived from the Latin castrum, meaning "castle" or "fortress". Byzantine chronicles used the similar name Argyropolyhni, meaning silvertown; the theory that the city took the name of the Princess Argjiro, a legendary figure about whom 19th-century author Kostas Krystallis wrote a short novel and Ismail Kadare wrote a poem in the 1960s, is considered folk etymology, since the princess is said to have lived in the 15th century. The definite Albanian form of the name of city is Gjirokastra, while in the Gheg Albanian dialect it is known as Gjinokastër, both of which derive from the Greek name. Alternative spellings found in Western sources include Girokastra. In Aromanian the city is known as Ljurocastru, while in modern Greek it is known Αργυρόκαστρο. During the Ottoman era, the town was known in Turkish as Ergiri. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that during the Bronze Age, the region was inhabited by populations who spoke a northwestern Greek dialect.

Archaeologists have found pottery artifacts dating to the early Iron Age, crafted in a style that first appeared in the late Bronze Age in Pazhok, Elbasan County, is found throughout Albania. The earliest recorded inhabitants of the area around Gjirokastër were the Greek-speaking tribe of the Chaonians, which belonged to the Epirote group; the city's walls date from the third century. The high stone walls of the Citadel were built from the sixth to the twelfth century. During this period, Gjirokastër developed into a major commercial center known as Argyropolis or Argyrokastron; the city was part of the Despotate of Epirus and was first mentioned by the name Argyrokastro by John VI Kantakouzenos in 1336. That year Argyrokastro was among the cities that remained loyal to the Byzantine Emperor during a local Epirote rebellion in favour to Nikephoros Orsini-Doukas; the first mention of Albanian nomadic groups occurred in the early 14th century, where they were searching for new pasture lands and ravaging settlements in the region.

These Albanians had entered the region and took advantage of the situation after the Black death had decimated the local Epirote population. During 1386–1417 it was contested between the Despotate of Epirus and the Albanian clan of John Zenevisi. In 1399 the Greek inhabitants of the city joined the Despot of Epirus, Esau, in his campaign against various Albanian and Aromanian tribesmen. In 1417 it became part of the Ottoman Empire and in 1419 it became the county town of the Sanjak of Albania. During the Albanian Revolt of 1432–36 it was besieged by forces under Thopia Zenevisi, but the rebels were defeated by Ottoman troops led by Turahan Bey. In 1570s local nobles Manthos Papagiannis and Panos Kestolikos, discussed as Greek representative of enslaved Greece and Albania with the head of the Holy League, John of Austria and various other European rulers, the possibility of an anti-Ottoman armed struggle, but this initiative was fruitless. According to Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi, who visited the city in 1670, at that time there were 200 houses within the castle, 200 in the Christian eastern neighborhood of Kyçyk Varosh, 150 houses in the Byjyk Varosh, and

Worksop Rural District

Worksop was a Rural District in Nottinghamshire, England. It originated as Worksop Rural Sanitary District in 1872. In 1894, under the Local Government Act 1894, the Worksop RSD was split to match county borders, with the West Riding of Yorkshire part becoming the Kiveton Park Rural District, the Derbyshire part becoming Clowne Rural District; the remainder, in Nottinghamshire, became the Blyth and Cuckney Rural District, taking its name from two of the parishes and Cuckney. In 1925 it was renamed Worksop Rural District; the district consisted of two detached parts and south of the town of Worksop. The northern part contained Blyth, it was abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 and now forms part of the Bassetlaw district, with the exception of small areas that are now part of the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. Http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/unit_page.jsp?u_id=10108998&c_id=10001043

George Herbert Strutt

George Herbert Strutt, was a cotton mill owner and philanthropist from Belper in Derbyshire. Strutt became a High Sheriff, he was a descendant of Jedediah Strutt. The Strutt family made themselves, Britain, rich with their cotton business. Strutt bought the Scottish Glensanda estate where his son was lost and was found as a clothed skeleton five years later. George Herbert Strutt was born on 21 April 1854 in Belper, he was from the well known Strutt family whose fortune came from cotton mills and the inventions of the Strutt ancestors back to Jedediah Strutt. His father was George Henry Strutt and his mother was Agnes, he was the youngest child and only son. His two elder sisters were Lucy Frances Strutt. A third sister, was born in 1861 but died in 1863. Strutt was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, he married firstly Edith Adele Balguy on 2 April 1876 at Dartford in Kent. The marriage produced two sons. In 1898 he married daughter of Robert Hind of the Royal Navy; this marriage produced one son.

In 1902, his second wife Emily, bought the Glensanda and Kingairloch estates on the Morvern Peninsula in Scotland. At these 24,000-acre estates he built cottages and pony paths, enlarged the existing house and a dam in Glen Galmadale to hold water that could be used to keep the River Galma in flow when there was a drought; the Strutt family were able to take cruises to Oban and nearby islands on the 150 ton steam ship, Strutt kept there. Given the inaccessibility of the estate, a boat of some form was essential, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Derbyshire in 1901, was High Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1903. In 1907 he completed a long debate with the education authorities and was able to fund an elementary school for the children of Belper and its surrounding Derbyshire villages; the school was opened on 7 May 1909 by the Duke of Devonshire. Herbert Strutt School cost Strutt £20,000 and included large playing fields and stained glass in the library showing the Strutt coat of arms. In 1910 he funded a public swimming pool in Belper and within four years he gave an additional £5,000 to expand the school's facilities.

The school went on to become a Grammar school before it merged with two secondary modern schools to create the Belper School. The school's name and Strutt's gift are remembered in the name of an infant school in Belper; the school building is now being used by the community. In 1921, Strutt again contributed to Derbyshire's Belper community; this time he gave land, used to create the Memorial Gardens to remember those who had died in the First World War. He died of pneumonia, aged 74, at Ballater in Scotland on 17 May 1928. After Strutt's death, the estate at Glensanda was inherited by his son Arthur and shared, in 1930, with Arthur's New Zealand wife, Patricia. Arthur died in odd circumstances, he went out one morning in 1977 and never returned. On the Monday following his memorial service his body was found, his clothed skeleton was discovered half a mile from his home by forestry workers, but it was too late to ascertain his cause of death. Portraits of Strutt and "Mrs George Strutt", both by Frank Ernest Beresford, are owned by Belper Town Council and Derby Art Gallery respectively