Celerina/Schlarigna is a municipality in the Maloja Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Celerina/Schlarigna is first mentioned in 1313 as Schellarin, in 1320 it was mentioned as Celarina. Celerina/Schlarigna has an area, as of 2006, of 24 km2, of this area, 34% is used for agricultural purposes, while 30. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,4. 1% is settled and it consists of the haufendorf village of Celerina/Schlarigna and the hamlet of Crasta. in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja district, after 2017 it was part of the Maloja Region. The municipalitys official name used to be Celerina, until 1943, in 1950, it was renamed again to Celerina/Schlarigna. It is located in the upper Engadin valley in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja district and is across from the entrance of the Bernina Pass into the Engadin, the village is located between St. Moritz and Pontresina. The famous Cresta Run for tobogganing leads from St. Moritz to the Cresta neighborhood of Celerina, Celerina/Schlarigna has a population of 1,534.
As of 2008,31. 8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 13. 7%. As of 2000, the distribution of the population was 48. 4% male and 51. 6% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Celerina/Schlarigna is,152 children or 11. 2% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old,78 teenagers or 5. 8% are 10 to 14, and 68 teenagers or 5. 0% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population,215 people or 15. 9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 279 people or 20. 6% are 30 to 39,222 people or 16. 4% are 40 to 49, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 30. 3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP, the FDP and the CVP, the entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Celerina/Schlarigna about 69. 9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, Celerina/Schlarigna has an unemployment rate of 1. 47%.
As of 2005, there were 20 people employed in the economic sector. 153 people are employed in the sector and there are 22 businesses in this sector. 564 people are employed in the sector, with 85 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census,641 or 47. 4% are Roman Catholic, of the rest of the population, there are 17 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, and there are 10 individuals who belong to another Christian church
Andermatt is a mountain village and municipality in the canton of Uri in Switzerland at 1437 m a. s. l. Andermatt is located at the center of the Saint-Gotthard Massif and the center cross of north-south. With Hospental and Realp, it is located in the valley called Urseren,28 km south of Altdorf, Andermatt has an area, as of 2006, of 62.2 km2. Of this area,40. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,1. 7% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1993/97 land survey,0. 4% of the land area was heavily forested, while 5. 1% is covered in small trees. Of the agricultural land,4. 3% is used for orchards or vine crops and 36. 5% is used for alpine pastures, of the settled areas,0. 5% is covered with buildings, and 1. 1% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas,0. 5% is unproductive standing water,1. 0% is unproductive flowing water, there is 30. 9% that is too rocky for vegetation, Andermatt is located in a high Alpine valley—the Ursern Valley—in the Adula Alps.
Since the opening of the Schöllenen route, around 1200, Andermatt has been on the Gotthard route. The town is connected by four Alpine passes, the Oberalp Pass to the East, the St Gotthard Pass to the South. The Schöllenen Gorge in the Reuss Valley between Andermatt and Göschenen is the location of the infamous Devils Bridge, the town is served by a Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn owned and operated railway station. The station is connected with Brig and Visp and with the terminus of the Rhaetian Railway at Disentis/Mustér. There is a short branch line, the Schöllenenbahn. Archaeological finds dating back to 4000 BC indicate that the Ursern Valley was populated already in the Neolithic period, during Roman times this Alpine valley was probably inhabited by some Helvetic Celtic tribes. However, the origins of Andermatt can only be traced back to Alemannic tribes, the Walsers, who established settlements in the area, the parish of Andermatt was not mentioned until the year of 1203 AD, serving as a tenure to the Benedictine Disentis Abbey.
This first mention refers to it as de Prato, in 1290 it was mentioned as A der Matte. In 1649, with the emergence of an independent Swiss Confederation, in the Flight of the Earls, Irish earls lost a fortune of gold down at the Devils Bridge crossing ravine on St Patricks Day in 1608. It has never recovered and is known as the Lost Treasure of the St Gotthard Pass. Nearby Schöllenen Gorge is the site of a memorial commemorating the 1799 campaign of the Russian general Alexander Suvorov, between 1818-1831 the nearby St Gotthard Pass was made accessible to stagecoaches
Fiesch is a municipality in the district of Goms in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Nearby Fiescheralp is administered by Fiesch and is accessible by the Eggishorn lift and it has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site for its view of the Jungfrau-Aletsch Protected Area. Fiesch is first mentioned in 1203 as Vios, in 1438 it was mentioned as Viesch, seit 1905 Fiesch. The Fiesch derailment occurred in 2010, Fiesch has an area, as of 2011, of 11.3 square kilometers. Of this area,32. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,6. 4% is settled and 20. 4% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in a valley and on the slopes above both sides of the Weisswasser. The blazon of the coat of arms is Azure, a fess wavy Argent in base Coupeaux of the same. Fiesch has a population of 927, as of 2008,17. 9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -4. 5% and it has changed at a rate of -2% due to migration and at a rate of -2% due to births and deaths.
Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common, There are 7 people who speak French,1 person who speaks Italian. As of 2008, the distribution of the population was 50. 9% male and 49. 1% female. The population was made up of 403 Swiss men and 92 non-Swiss men, There were 382 Swiss women and 95 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 433 or about 43. 5% were born in Fiesch and lived there in 2000. There were 272 or 27. 3% who were born in the canton, while 103 or 10. 3% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 24. 1% of the population, while adults make up 60%, as of 2000, there were 401 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 514 married individuals,57 widows or widowers and 24 individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 372 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.5 persons per household. There were 97 households that consist of one person and 35 households with five or more people.
Out of a total of 379 households that answered this question,25. 6% were households made up of just one person and there were 2 adults who lived with their parents
Piz Bernina is the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps, the highest point of the Bernina Range, and the highest peak in the Rhaetian Alps. It is the most easterly mountain higher than 4,000 m in the Alps, the highest point of the Swiss canton of Graubünden, Piz Bernina is located south of Pontresina and near the major Alpine resort of St. Moritz, in the Engadin valley. The mountain was named after the Bernina Pass in 1850 by Johann Coaz, the prefix Piz comes from the Romansch language in Graubünden, any mountain with that name can be readily identified as being located in southeastern Switzerland. Piz Bernina is one of the few isolated Alpine four-thousanders and the most topographically isolated mountain of Switzerland and it is the culminating point of a group of summits slightly lower than 4,000 meters mostly lying on the main watershed between Switzerland and Italy. The only other summit higher than 4,000 m is La Spedla, a minor prominence south of the mountain, which is the highest point on the Italian side of the massif.
The summit itself is located on a chain starting at La Spedla on the border and finishing at Piz Chalchagn, composed of Piz Morteratsch. Piz Bernina separates two glacial valleys, the Tschierva Glacier on the west and the Morteratsch Glacier on the east, the waters flowing on both side of the mountain end up in the Inn River running northeast through Engadin. South of Piz Bernina the watershed separates the basins of the Danube. The summit of Piz Bernina is the point of the Danube drainage basin. Politically, it is split between the municipalities of Samedan and Pontresina, the rocks composing Piz Bernina are mostly diorites and gabbros. The massif in general is composed of granites, notable on Piz Corvatsch. Most of the range belongs to the Austroalpine nappes, a unit whose rocks come from the Apulian plate. The Austroalpine nappes are common throughout all of the Eastern Alps, the first ascent was made via the east ridge in 1850 by the 28-year-old topographer Johann Wilhelm Coaz and his assistants, the brothers Jon and Lorenz Ragut Tscharner.
On 13 September 1850, shortly after 6 a. m. they left the Bernina Inn with their measuring instruments and they traversed the Labyrinth and headed to the Fuorcla CrastAgüzza, a col between the Crast Agüzza and Piz Bernina. They reached the summit at around 6 p. m. Johan Coaz wrote in his diary, on soil that no human had trodden upon before. On the highest point of the canton at 4052 meters above sea level, serious thoughts took hold of us. Greedy eyes surveyed the land up to the distant horizon, and thousands and thousands of mountain peaks surrounded us and we stared amazed and awe-struck across this magnificent mountain world. In 1866, the ridge running from La Spedla was climbed by Francis Fox Tuckett and F. A. Y. Brown with guides Christian Almer
The Landwasser Viaduct is a single track six-arched curved limestone railway viaduct. It spans the Landwasser between Schmitten and Filisur, in the canton of Graubünden, designed by Alexander Acatos, it was built between 1901 and 1902 by Müller & Zeerleder for the Rhaetian Railway, which still owns and uses it today. A signature structure of the World Heritage-listed Albula Railway, it is 65 metres high,136 metres long, the Landwasser Viaduct has six arch spans 20 metres in width, resting on five high pillars. The railway line near the viaduct has a slope of 2 percent, the southeastern abutment of the viaduct is located on a high cliff, and at that point, the tracks lead directly into the 216 metres long Landwasser Tunnel. The viaducts masonry is approximately 9,200 cubic metres in volume and is jointed with dolomitic limestone, the dark limestone-built viaduct forms part of the Albula Railway section between Tiefencastel and Filisur, and is at the 63.070 kilometres mark from Thusis. To passengers on trains approaching the viaduct from Tiefencastel and Alvaneu on the Albula Railway, the first major feature to be reached on that approach is the Schmittentobel Viaduct, which itself is of considerable size.
Then, while crossing the curved Landwasser Viaduct, passengers can observe the front of the train heading into the Landwasser Tunnel, on the other side of the tunnel, the separate line from Davos Platz forms a junction with the Albula Railway just as both lines arrive in Filisur. Shortly before reaching that point, passengers on the Davos–Filisur line can experience a view of the viaduct from the northeast. The viaduct briefly appears as a bridge which was destroyed by Rasputins minions in the 1997 animated film Anastasia, the portrayal was of a taller, 4-storey viaduct very similar to a Roman aqueduct but set in Poland. Glacier Express Bernina Express Arch bridge Viaduct Schmitten, Graubünden Schmittentobel Viaduct Filisur Albula Railway Rhaetian Railway See the references in Landwasserviadukt Landwasserviadukt
Chur railway station
Chur railway station serves the city of Chur, capital of the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. Opened in 1858, it is the most important railway junction in Graubünden, the station is the terminus of the Swiss Federal Railways standard gauge main line from Zürich to Chur, and is one of the most important stations on the Rhaetian Railway metre gauge network. SBB Intercity, Regio Express and Regional services stop at the station, alongside Rhaetian Railway Regio Express, there are SBB trains to Landquart, and stations to Zürich and Rhaetian Railway services to many destinations in Graubünden. The Glacier Express calls and reverses at Chur, planning for a station at Chur began in 1850. After heated debate, the station was built at its present site, just outside the city limits and it was opened on 30 June 1858. The first operator of the station was the United Swiss Railways, only a temporary wooden goods shed was constructed as a station building. But in 1860 work was completed on a building still visible today in modified form.
In 1876, that building was moved to a new location on the Gürtelstrasse, with continuing increases in tourism in the area, a new station building was completed on 1 November 1878. It still exists today, but over the years has several modifications. In 1896, the Rhaetian Railway opened a narrow line between Landquart and Thusis. The first 13.68 kilometres of that line ran parallel with the well established standard gauge line between Landquart and Chur. In 1903, the Albula Railway was opened, making necessary another expansion of Chur station, in 1914, traffic at the station increased even further, with the opening of the Chur–Arosa railway. Between 1926 and 1928, following yet another increase in traffic. As part of the late 1920s renovation, the number of tracks was increased, new bridges were built, buildings from earlier times were refurbished, and new buildings were erected. Today, the station is located in the centre of the town of Chur, the most striking of the stations buildings is now the roof over the Postauto bus station, which is located above the station platforms.
In 1986, the architects Richard Brosi and Robert Obrist won first prize in a competition for the design of the bus station and their idea was to create an airy concourse, and the structure built to their design was completed in 1993. Comprehensive redevelopment of the began in 2000. The complete redesign of the station was a joint project of the SBB-CFF-FFS, the Rhaetian Railway, as part of the redevelopment, a new pedestrian underpass was opened in 2003
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electrification has many advantages but requires significant capital expenditure, selection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic. Different systems are used for urban and intercity areas, some electric locomotives can switch to different supply voltages to allow flexibility in operation, Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is typically generated in large and relatively efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network, some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway usually provides its own lines and transformers.
Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track usually takes one of two forms. The first is a line or catenary wire suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Locomotives or multiple units pick up power from the wire with pantographs on their roofs that press a conductive strip against it with a spring or air pressure. Examples are described in this article, the second is a third rail mounted at track level and contacted by a sliding pickup shoe. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems usually use the rails as the return conductor. In comparison to the alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer substantially better energy efficiency, lower emissions. Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, and more responsive and they have no local emissions, an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service, the limited clearances available under catenaries may preclude efficient double-stack container service.
Possible lethal electric current due to risk of contact with high-voltage contact wires, overhead wires are safer than third rails, but they are often considered unsightly. These are independent of the system used, so that. The permissible range of voltages allowed for the voltages is as stated in standards BS EN50163. These take into account the number of trains drawing current and their distance from the substation, railways must operate at variable speeds. Until the mid 1980s this was only practical with the brush-type DC motor, since such conversion was not well developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century, most early electrified railways used DC and many still do, particularly rapid transit and trams
The Rhaetian Railway, abbreviated RhB, is a Swiss transport company that owns the largest network of all private railway operators in Switzerland. Inaugurated in 1888 and expanded from 1896 onwards in various sections, the Rhaetian Railway serves a number of major tourist destinations, such as St Moritz and Davos. One of the RhB lines, the Bernina Railway, crosses the Bernina Pass at 2,253 metres above sea level and connects with the Italian railway network at Tirano, Lombardy. In 2008, the RhB section from the Albula/Bernina area was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Albula-Bernina line is the first rail line in the world to be photographed and put on Google Street View. The establishment of the Rhaetian Railway traces back to Dutchman Willem Jan Holsboer, Holsboer founded the Lanquart-Davos AG to begin construction of a standard-gauge line, but the mountainous terrain lacked sufficient space. On 29 June 1888, a ceremony took place for a narrow-gauge railway instead. In 1895, Holsboer changed his companys name to the Rhaetian Railway to reflect his plans for network expansion, in 1897, a referendum was held for the Rhaetian Railway to bid on operations of the Graubünden/Grisons State Railways.
During the years 1907 to 1910, the Rhaetian Railway, in collaboration with the federal and cantonal governments, in 1896, the Chur-Thusis line opened, this was followed by the Albula line in 1903 and the series of expansion projects carried on until 1922. All RhB lines are 1,000 mm metre gauge wide,321 km is electrified at 11 kV16.7 Hz. The network contains 84 tunnels and 383 bridges, the maximum gradient is 7% on the Bernina railway, 6% on the Chur–Arosa line and 4. 5% on Landquart–Davos line. Current passenger services as operated by the RhB, In 2002 the annual traffic carried by the RhB was 300 million passenger-kilometres and 54 million tonne-kilometres of freight, 80% of the passenger income comes from tourist traffic, although 40% of passengers are local commuters. The Landquart-Davos line is the oldest in the Rhaetian Railway network, after leaving Landquart, the line to Davos crosses the river Landquart, and generally follows the river upstream as far as Klosters, crossing the river several times along the way.
Just beyond Klosters, there are two tunnels, one of these is for the Vereina line. The other, the Klosters loop tunnel, takes the Davos line at a 45 degree angle towards the west, the line to Davos loops back towards the east, inside the Cavadürli loop tunnel, and continues through dense larch and other coniferous forests to the Davos Laret. The highest point on the line is the stop, Davos Wolfgang. Then the line back down and along Lake Davos to Davos Dorf. The connecting line from Davos Platz to the Albula Railway at Filisur passes through wild gorges, the Davos–Filisur line is 19 km long, runs through 14 tunnels extending a total of 4,200 m in length, and crosses 28 bridges. Starting in the Rhine valley, the Landquart-Thusis line runs more or less parallel with the Swiss Federal Railways Sargans-Landquart-Chur standard gauge line as far as Chur, the line to Thusis simply follows the course of the Rhine to Bonaduz
Samedan is a town and municipality in the Maloja Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Samedan is first mentioned in 1139 as Samaden, in 1334 it was mentioned as Semeden, in 1367 as Semaden, in 1498 as Sumada and in 1527 as Sameden. Samedan is the location of The Smallest Whiskey Bar on Earth, Samedan has an area, of 113.83 km2. Of this area, about 15. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,1. 9% is settled and 72. 9% is unproductive land. Over the past two decades the amount of land that is settled has increased by 34 ha and the land has decreased by 120 ha. Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja district in the central Oberengadin valley along the Inn river, after 2017 it was part of the Maloja Region. Until 1943 Samedan was known as Samaden, Samedan has a population of 2,996. As of 2013,23. 6% of the population are resident foreign nationals, over the last 3 years the population has changed at a rate of 1. 31%. The birth rate in the municipality, in 2013, was 8.3 while the rate was 7.0 per thousand residents.
As of 2013, children and teenagers make up 18. 1% of the population, while adults are 64. 6%, in 2013 there were 1,423 private households in Samedan. Of the 489 inhabited buildings in the municipality, in 2000, about 22. 5% of the buildings were built before 1919, while 9. 4% were built between 1991 and 2000. In 2012 the rate of construction of new housing units per 1000 residents was 31.86, the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2014, was 2. 14%. The historical population is given in the chart, Most of the population speaks German, with Romansh being second most common. Originally, the population spoke the Upper-Engadin Romansh dialect of Putèr. Due to increasing trade with the world, Romansh usage began to decline in the 19th century. In 1880, only 47% spoke Romansh as a first language, while in 1910, it was 45% and in 1941, the Romansh-speaking percentage dropped until, in 1970, only 31% spoke it as their first language. In the 1980s, Romansh speakers increased slightly, but since then, however, in 2000, there were 42% who understood Romansh even if it was not their first language.
In the 2015 federal election the most popular party was the SVP with 23. 8% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the BDP and the SP
The Brig-Visp-Zermatt-Bahn – officially known between 1991 and 2002 as the BVZ Zermatt-Bahn – is a metre gauge railway in the Canton of Valais, Switzerland. Its 44 kilometre long links the communities of Brig and Visp in the Rhone Valley with Täsch. The BVZ forms part of the much travelled and admired route of the Glacier Express between St. Moritz and Zermatt, opened in 1891 as the Visp-Zermatt-Bahn, the BVZ merged on 1 January 2003 with the Furka-Oberalp-Bahn to form the Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn. The Gornergratbahn is connected with the BVZ at Zermatt, the mountain village of Zermatt first gained major recognition in Europe in light of the inaugural ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper in 1865. From onwards, the number of visitors rose steadily. Even the simple mule ride as far as St. Niklaus took a long time, nevertheless, by the 1880s there were already as many as 12,000 tourist visits to Zermatt each year. To promote tourism in the valley, and especially in Zermatt itself, on 21 September 1886, the Swiss Federal Council granted the banking house Masson, Chavannes & Co.
in Lausanne and the Basler Handelsbank an initial concession. The original request was for a 750 mm narrow gauge railway from Visp to Zermatt, using a mixture of adhesion, at the insistence of the Bundesrat, the gauge was finally altered to metre gauge. The railway was at the outset to be operated from the start of June to the end of September, additionally, it was only in summer that there were prospects of significant numbers of passengers, as in those days winter tourism was still of no great importance. Nevertheless, the Bundesrat reserved the right to extend the operating season, on 10 October 1888, the Compagnie du Chemin de Fer de Viège à Zermatt SA emerged as the operating company. The exact route and mode of operation was initially the subject of intense debate and these visits led to a decision to equip the line with the system used on the Rübelandbahn, and using a maximum gradient of 12. 5%. A total of six sections of track were to be out with a total of 7450 m of rack railway. Construction began on 27 November 1888 in Visp, the work was entrusted to the western Swiss contractors Julius Chappuis, while the SOS undertook the purchase of land and the procurement of rolling stock.
Acquisition of the land turned out to be difficult, particularly in the municipalities of Stalden and St. Niklaus. Tedious expropriation procedures therefore became necessary, land in the entire valley was divided into a myriad of tiny plots, and usually the actual owners of the plots were not recorded in official documents. The absence of a made it necessary to transport the building materials almost exclusively over the already completed parts of the railway tracks to the construction sites. On 3 July 1890, rail traffic on the first part of the line, by 26 August of the same year, the first trains reached St. Niklaus. In the following months, however, a severe winter delayed the completion of the remaining sections
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts. During the Age of Sail, brigs were seen as fast and they were especially popular in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Brigs fell out of use with the arrival of the ship because they required a relatively large crew for their small size and were difficult to sail into the wind. They are not to be confused with a brigantine, which has different rigging, in sailing, a full-rigged brig is a vessel with two square rigged masts. The main mast of a brig is the aft one, to improve maneuverability, the mainmast carries a small fore-and-aft sail. Behind the main sail there is a small fore-and-aft sail called the spanker or boom mainsail, on the foremast is a similar sail, called the trysail. Attached to the yards of square-rigged ships are smaller spars. These are called studding sails, and are used with fair, the wings are named after the sails to which they are fastened, i. e. the main studding sails, main top studding sails, and the main top gallant studding sails, etc.
The brig’s foremast is smaller than the main mast, the fore mast holds a fore sail, fore top sail, fore top gallant sail, and fore royal. Between the fore mast and the bowsprit are the fore staysail, all the yards are manipulated by a complicated arrangement of cordage named the running rigging. This is opposed to the rigging which is fixed, and keeps mast. A brig is generally built on a scale than a schooner. Brigs vary in length between 75 and 165 ft with tonnages up to 480, a notable exception being the famous designer Colin Mudies Little Brigs, which are only 10m long and weigh only 8 tonnes. Historically, most brigs were made of wood, although some brigs were built with hulls, a brig made of pine in the 19th century was designed to last for about twenty years. The word brig has been used in the past as an abbreviation of brigantine, the brig actually developed as a variant of the brigantine. Re-rigging a brigantine with two square-rigged masts instead of one gave it greater sailing power, the square-rigged brigs advantage over the fore-and-aft rigged brigantine was that the sails, being smaller and more numerous, are more easily managed, and require fewer men or hands to work them.
The variant was so popular that the term came to exclusively signify a ship with this type of rigging. By the 17th century the British Royal Navy defined brig as having two square rigged masts, Brigs were used as small warships carrying about 10 to 18 guns