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A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope as part of a medieval castle or in early modern fortresses. They may be constructed of earth of stone in more permanent structure. A glacis plate is the sloped front-most section of the hull of a tank or other armoured fighting vehicle. More a glacis is any slope, natural or artificial, which fulfils the above requirements; the etymology of this French word suggests a slope made dangerous with ice, hence the relationship with glacier. A glacis could appear in ancient fortresses, such as the one the ancient Egyptians built at Semna in Nubia. Here it was used by them to prevent enemy siege engines from weakening defensive walls. Hillforts in Britain started to incorporate glacis around 350 BC; those at Maiden Castle, Dorset were 25 metres high. Glacis called talus, were incorporated into medieval fortifications to strengthen the walls against undermining, to hamper escalades and so that missiles dropped from the battlements would ricochet off the glacis into attacking forces.

Towards the end of the medieval period some castles were modified to make them defensible against cannons. Glacis consisting of earthen slopes faced with stones were placed in front of the curtain walls and bastions to absorb the impact of cannon shots or to deflect them. Towers were converted into gun platforms. Early modern European fortresses were so constructed as to keep any potential assailant under the fire of the defenders until the last possible moment. On natural, level ground, troops attacking any high work have a degree of shelter from its fire when close up to it; this gave defenders a direct line of sight into the assaulting force, allowing them to efficiently sweep the field with fire from the parapet. Additionally, but secondarily, the bank of earth would shield the walls from being hit directly by cannon fire. Though defenders on a high ground have a direct line of sight, a glacis allows the field of fire to be swept more efficiently by minimizing changes to the angle of their guns while firing.

Furthermore, the glacis prevents attacking cannon from having a clear shot at the walls of a fortress, as these cannot be seen until the glacis is crossed and the ditch, bounded on either side by the smooth, masoned scarp and counterscarp, is reached. The term glacis plate describes the sloped front-most section of the hull of a tank or other armored fighting vehicle composed of upper and lower halves. In a head-on-head armored engagement, the glacis plate is the largest and most obvious target available to an enemy gunner. Sloped armour has two advantages: many projectiles will deflect rather than penetrate. Anti-tank mines that employ a tilt-rod fuze are designed to detonate directly underneath the glacis plate; as a result, it is the thickest, most robust armored section of a tank, followed by the turret face and gun mantlet. Fortification Siege Jackson, Louis. "Fortification and Siegecraft". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 679–725. Decaëns, Joseph.

Caen Castle: A Ten Centuries Old Fortress. Publications du Crahm. P. 17. ISBN 9782902685752. Dyer, James. Hillforts of England and Wales. Shire Series. 16. Osprey Publishing. P. 19. ISBN 9780747801801. Stokstad, Marilyn. Medieval Castles. Greenwood guides to historic events of the medieval world. Greenwood Publishing Group. P. 84. ISBN 9780313325250

Bayard, Kansas

Bayard is an unincorporated community in the northeastern part of Allen County, located in southeast Kansas, in the central United States of America. Although official populations are not compiled for unincorporated places, the population of the surrounding Osage Township was 316 in the 2000 census. In 1910, Bayard was a station on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad with a money order postoffice with one rural route, an express office, some mercantile interests, it was a shipping point for the surrounding agricultural district. The population that year was reported as 50. A post office was opened in Front in June 1886, but it was moved to Bayard in August 1887 and remained in operation until it was discontinued in April 1943. Bayard is located at 37°59′37″N 95°9′47″W, in Section 36, Township 23 south, Range 20 east and Section 1, Township 24 south, Range 20 east, it is situated along the northern bank of a minor creek which empties into the South Fork Little Osage River. Contained within Osage Township in Allen County, it is about 15 miles northeast of Iola.

Bayard lies less than a mile east of U. S. Route 59; the tiny incorporated city of Mildred is just 2 miles to the north along US-59, the larger city of Moran is more than 5 miles to the south

Hans Nielsen Jeppesen

Hans Nielsen Jeppesen was a Danish merchant and ship-owner. He bought his first ship in 1850 and his fleet of merchant ships grew to 10 ships, he was the maternal grandfather of Mærsk- founder Arnold Peter Møller. Jeppesen was born on 15 February 1815 in Dragør, the son of Niels Taarnby Jeppesen and Marchen Hansdatter Møller; the family lived at Von Ostensgade 8. He went to sea in an early age and passed his exams as helmsman at the Navigation School in 1835 but did not have enough practical experience to work as a helmsman until 1838, he began to work for Chr. Broberg & Søn in 1841 and was on 28 May 1842 granted citizenship in Copenhagen, he was captain on Chr. Broberg's schooner Thomas Lawrence in 1842-1751. Jeppesen's first ship, commissioned from a shipyard in Kalmar in 1852, was lost in 1855.. His second ship, was commissioned directly from a shipyard; the rest of his ships were all used ships bought from other ship-owners. Only two of his ships and Ellerslie, were owned in partnerships with others.

By the 1870s, his fleet had grown to 10 shups. This list may be incomplete Jeppesen was married to Leisebeth Jens Hansen Snedkers and the couple had seven daughters, his eldest daughter, married Peter Mærsk Møller. Guis youngest daughter, married Jacob Cornelius Isbrandtsen, was the mother of Hans Isbrandtsen,New York; the family lived at a large property on the western outskirts of Dragør. Jeppesen died when a dinghy captized off Dragør in 1883, he was at the time of his death the owner of eight ships. His widow closed the company fown over the next one and a half years. Hjorth, Birte: Skibsreder H. N. Jeppesen fra Dragør, Dragør Lokalhistoriske Arkiv. Hans Nielsen Jeppesen Source

Yeslam bin Ladin

Yeslam bin Muhammad bin'Awad bin Ladin better known as Yeslam bin Laden written Yeslam Binladin, as he prefers to spell it, is a Swiss businessman and the half-brother of the deceased al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden. Yeslam bin Ladin is a Saudi national of Yemeni heritage, he has 54 half-brothers and half-sisters, including 2 younger brothers, a younger sister, by the same mother as him, Rabab Haguigui. They live in Saudi Arabia, his father, Mohammed bin Laden, died. He has lived in Switzerland since the mid-1980s, became a Swiss citizen in April 2001, he speaks Arabic, English and Persian. He is a Sunni Muslim and is said to live a Western lifestyle. An ex-girlfriend of his from 1993 to 2001, Catherine Berclaz, is a Swiss interior decorator who wrote a book on their relationship, Yeslam, My Love: In the Heart of the Bin Laden Family, he divorced Carmen bin Ladin, in January 2006, after 15 years of separation. Carmen bin Laden wrote an autobiography, Inside the Kingdom, a New York Times Bestseller, recounting her life in the Bin Laden family and how she managed to keep her daughters in her custody.

He has three daughters, Wafah Dufour and Noor, has not spoken to them for more than 15 years because of their western customs. Wafah bin Ladin earned a law degree from Geneva University, a master's degree from Columbia Law School in New-York. In 2006, she appeared in a men's magazine, GQ, she now resides in London. After attending high school in Beirut, bin Ladin studied economics at Göteborg University and business administration at USC. On February 25, 2005, he was granted permission by the Swiss government to use the name bin Ladin to brand products for his business including a perfume for men and women dubbed "Yeslam," and a second one for women "Passion," and other goods such as handbags and watches under the name "Yeslam." Shops opened in Jeddah, in Riyadh, in Mecca, in Damman and in Kuala Lumpur. He hires creators and chooses the creations, he has a pilot's license, like his father, owns a Learjet. Since 1980, Yeslam has been chairman of the Geneva, Switzerland-based Saudi Investment Company, which represents his family's Saudi Binladin Group's international financial interests.

His fortune was estimated to have peaked at 300 million Swiss Francs, but is now thought to be below 100 million. He has been a partner of Pakistani businessman Akberali Moawalla. Bin Ladin, Carmen. Inside the Kingdom: My Life in Saudi Arabia, Warner Books: New York; the World of Yeslam, with photo in Magazine Yeslam Interview with photo

Matthew 5:3

Matthew 5:3 is the third verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. It is the opening verse of the Sermon on the Mount, the section of the sermon known as the Beatitudes. Blessed are the poor in spirit. Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν beati pauperes spiritu quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum For a collection of other versions see BibleHub Matthew 5:3. This verse opens the first of nine statements of, blessed. Each, except for the last, follows the same pattern of naming a group of people and the reward they will receive. Betz notes that in Jesus' time blessed was a common way of describing someone, wealthy. In Andrew's discussion of Croesus in Herodots, for instance, the link between being blessed and being wealthy is assumed. Albright and Mann prefer the word "fortunate" to "blessed" for makarios, they argue that the term has none of the religious implications that the word blessed today has in the English language. Kodjak believes that this opening of the sermon was meant to shock the audience, it was a deliberate inversion of standard values.

Today the text is so common. While not a mainstream view, Betz feels, he traces it back to Socrates' notion of enkrateia, which explained that the philosopher was one who had no interest in wealth. This idea was adopted by the Cynics, who rejected wealth and saw poverty as the only route to freedom; this group, while small, had a wide influence and some of their ideas were embraced by some Jewish communities at the time of Christ. Luke 6:20 has "blessed are the poor"; the phrase does not appear in the Old Testament. The phrase "poor in spirit" occurs in the Dead Sea Scrolls, seems to have been an important notion to the Qumran community. Scholars agree that "poor in spirit" does not mean lacking in spirit, be it courage, the Holy Spirit, or religious awareness. Rather it is that poverty is not only a physical condition, but a spiritual one. In fact, the more self aware a person is of his or her spiritual poverty caused by the innate human condition of the sinful nature, the more one is humbly aware that they are "poor in spirit" left to his or her own ways without Jesus Christ as Savior.

Without Jesus the Christ alive and active in one's soul, it remains in a impoverished spiritual state. Whoever comes to me will never go hungry, whoever believes in me will never be thirsty.'". The important phrase Kingdom of Heaven is understood as referring to the Messianic age after the Second Coming. For a full discussion of Matthew's use of this phrase see Matthew 3:2. Related Bible parts: Psalm 34, Matthew 11, Luke 6

Bolesław Napierała

Bolesław Napierała was a Polish cycling champion, twice winner of the Tour de Pologne. He was born in Marten, Germany to a family of Polish immigrants, in 1918, when Poland regained independence, the family moved back to their homeland. However, after a few years, the Napieralas left Poland again, to Lens in France, it was there. Fascinated by them, he decided to take up cycling himself, helped by his famous neighbor, Luxemburg cyclist Nicolas Frantz. Napierala, nicknamed Road Tiger, cycled for the teams Fort Bema Warszawa, Sarmata Warszawa, he twice won Tour de Pologne, for 15 days was in leader's jersey, in the 1937 tour, he was a leader from start to finish. In 1939, a month after winning Tour de Pologne, World War II broke out. After the war, Napierala never returned to his late 1930s form. Boleslaw Napierala at A photo of Napierala during the first International Cycling Race Warsaw-Prague-Warsaw Bolesław Napierała at Cycling Archives