A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Mid Michigan called Central Michigan, is a region in the Lower Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As its name implies, it is the middle area of the Lower Peninsula. Lower Michigan is said to resemble a mitten, Mid Michigan corresponds to the Thumb and palm, stretching from Michigan's eastern shoreline along Lake Huron into the fertile rolling plains of the Michigan Basin; the region contains cities of moderate size including Flint and the state capital of Lansing. For the most part, Central Michigan and Mid Michigan are synonymous with each other, representing the same geographic area of Michigan. However, some definitions of Central Michigan and Mid Michigan can vary depending on one's point of reference; the Greater Lansing area, sometimes called the Capitol Region, includes the area surrounding the state capitol of Lansing and nearby East Lansing. The Greater Tri-Cities area called the Great Lakes Bay Region, is the area surrounding the Saginaw Bay including the cities of Saginaw, Bay City and can be expanded to include Mt. Pleasant as well.
The Flint area is included in Mid Michigan, can be considered a part of Metro Detroit. The Thumb is a peninsula; this area is sometimes dubbed the Blue Water Area. Central or Mid Michigan can include areas that are referred to as Southern Michigan; this is loosely defined and can refer to a region in the south-central portion of the state characterized by the Irish Hills. The region includes the Adrian and Hillsdale areas which are considered a part of Southeast Michigan. Portions of Central or Mid Michigan can overlap with portions of Western Michigan. For example, areas of Montcalm County could fall into both regions, with the west side of the county such as Greenville aligning with West Michigan, eastern portions identifying more with Central Michigan; some areas may overlap with what is known as Northern Michigan. These areas, such as Clare and Arenac County are along the border of the two regions and can be considered parts of both, depending on your frame of reference. Portions of Metro Detroit can overlap with Central Michigan the counties of Genesee, Livingston and St. Clair are statistically included in Metro Detroit however geographically lie in Mid Michigan.
See also: Protected areas of Michigan and Geography of Michigan. The region includes many rivers including the Grand River, Red Cedar River, Saginaw River, Tittabawassee River, Shiawassee River and Flint River. A drainage divide occurs in Central Michigan, causing the Grand River to flow west into Lake Michigan and the Saginaw River to empty into the Saginaw Bay; the terrain has rolling plains with fertile soil. Agriculture dominates in the rural areas, where corn, sugar beets, hay are grown; the region has small towns with a few cities of notable size. Most of the area is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lansing or Roman Catholic Diocese of Saginaw. See also: Michigan Municipalities by Population Central Michigan has several cities of regional and geographic importance: Lansing, is the capital of Michigan and centrally located in the Lower Peninsula, it is the fifth largest city in the state. The Lansing-East Lansing metropolitan area is the third largest metro area in Michigan. Flint is the sixth largest city in the state and an important center for Michigan's automotive industry.
The Tri-Cities area includes Midland, Bay City, Saginaw. The Saginaw and Bay City metropolitan area is the fifth largest metro area in Michigan. Central Michigan has a rich and varied culture, including European farmers who settled in rural areas to work the land and ethnic minorities populating the area's urban centers to make a living in the automobile industry; the Mid-Michigan area was predominately Ojibwe territory prior to colonization. One of the first European settlements in the region was the French Fort St. Joseph in present-day Port Huron in 1686; the area that became Michigan opened up to European settlement following the Indian war. In the 1800s Lewis Cass would negotiate the Treaty of Saginaw, in which Ojibwe land was handed over to form much of present-day Mid-Michigan; the opening of the Erie Canal brought vast numbers of settlers to the region, as population started growing northward from Ohio. The first settlers to the area cleared the land for the lumber industry. Forests of the Thumb and Saginaw Valley provided much of the lumber to feed the growing United States.
The convenient access to transportation provided by the Saginaw River and its numerous tributaries fueled a massive expansion in population and economic activity. As the trees were being cut down in the region, logs were floated down the rivers to sawmills located in Saginaw, destined to be loaded onto ships and railroad cars. Flint was a lumber boom town, with the city turning lumber into carriages and wagons, which would give way to the automobile industry. Michigan became a state in 1837, with the State Capitol in Detroit until the winter of 1847 when the state constitution required that the capital be moved from Detroit to a more central and safer location in the interior of the state. Many were concerned about Detroit's proximity to British-controlled Canada, which had captured Detroit in the War of 1812; the United States had recaptured the city in 1813, but these events led to the dire need to have the center of government relocated away from hostile British territory. There was concern with Detroit's strong influence over Michigan politics, being the largest city in the state as well as the capital city.
Unable to publicly reach a consensus because of constant political wrangling, the Michigan House of Representat
Pontiac's War was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War. Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers and settlers out of the region; the war is named after the Odawa leader Pontiac, the most prominent of many native leaders in the conflict. The war began in May 1763 when Native Americans, offended by the policies of British General Jeffrey Amherst, attacked a number of British forts and settlements. Eight forts were destroyed, hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next two years. Native Americans were unable to drive away the British, but the uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict.
Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, other atrocities were widespread. The ruthlessness and treachery of the conflict was a reflection of a growing divide between the separate populations of the British colonists and Native Americans. Contrary to popular belief, the British government did not issue the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in reaction to Pontiac's War, though the conflict did provide an impetus for the application of the Proclamation's Indian clauses; this proved unpopular with British colonists, may have been one of the early contributing factors to the American Revolution. The conflict is named after the Ottawa leader Pontiac. An early name for the war was the "Kiyasuta and Pontiac War", "Kiyasuta" being an alternate spelling for Guyasuta, an influential Seneca/Mingo leader; the war became known as "Pontiac's Conspiracy" after the publication in 1851 of Francis Parkman's The Conspiracy of Pontiac. Parkman's influential book, the definitive account of the war for nearly a century, is still in print.
In the 20th century, some historians argued that Parkman exaggerated the extent of Pontiac's influence in the conflict and that it was misleading to name the war after Pontiac. For example, in 1988 Francis Jennings wrote: "In Francis Parkman's murky mind the backwoods plots emanated from one savage genius, the Ottawa chief Pontiac, thus they became'The Conspiracy of Pontiac,' but Pontiac was only a local Ottawa war chief in a'resistance' involving many tribes." Alternate titles for the war have been proposed, but historians continue to refer to the war by the familiar names, with "Pontiac's War" the most used. "Pontiac's Conspiracy" is now infrequently used by scholars. In the decades before Pontiac's Rebellion and Great Britain participated in a series of wars in Europe that involved the French and Indian Wars in North America; the largest of these wars was the worldwide Seven Years' War, in which France lost New France in North America to Great Britain. Peace with the Shawnee and Lenape, combatants came in 1758 with the Treaty of Easton, where the British promised not to settle further beyond the ridge of the Alleghenies – a demarcation to be confirmed by the Royal Proclamation of 1763, though it was little respected.
Most fighting in the North American theater of the war referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States, came to an end after British General Jeffrey Amherst captured Montreal, the last important French settlement, in 1760. British troops proceeded to occupy the various forts in the Ohio Country and Great Lakes region garrisoned by the French. Before the war ended with the Treaty of Paris, the British Crown began to implement changes in order to administer its vastly expanded North American territory. While the French had long cultivated alliances among certain of the Native Americans, the British post-war approach was to treat the Native Americans as a conquered people. Before long, Native Americans, allies of the defeated French found themselves dissatisfied with the British occupation and the new policies imposed by the victors. Native Americans involved in Pontiac's Rebellion lived in a vaguely defined region of New France known as the pays d'en haut, claimed by France until the Paris peace treaty of 1763.
Native Americans of the pays d'en haut were from many different tribes. At this time and place, a "tribe" was a familial group rather than a political unit. No chief spoke for an entire tribe, no tribe acted in unison. For example, Ottawas did not go to war as a tribe: some Ottawa leaders chose to do so, while other Ottawa leaders denounced the war and stayed clear of the conflict; the tribes of the pays d'en haut consisted of three basic groups. The first group was composed of tribes of the Great Lakes region: Ojibwe and Potawatomi, who spoke Algonquian languages, they had long been allied with French habitants, with whom they lived and intermarried. Great Lakes Native Americans were alarmed to learn that they were under British sovereignty after the French loss of North America; when a British garrison took possession of Fort Detroit from the French in 1760, local Native Americans cautioned them that "this country was given by God to the Indians." The second group was made up of the tribes from eastern Illinois Country, which included the Miami, Kicka
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Michigan's 4th congressional district
Michigan's 4th congressional district is a United States Congressional district that from 2003 to 2013 included portions of Northern and Central Michigan, consisting of all of Clare, Grand Traverse, Isabella, Leelanau, Midland, Montcalm and Roscommon counties and the northern portion of Shiawassee and most of the western portion of Saginaw counties. The district was altered in the 2012 redistricting; the 4th is represented by John Moolenaar. This district has had Republican representation since the 1970s. Midland Saginaw Township Mount Pleasant Owosso Thomas Township Bridgeport Township Big Rapids Alma Ithaca United States House of Representatives elections in Michigan, 2010 | United States House of Representatives elections in Michigan, 2012 | United States House of Representatives elections in Michigan, 2014 Michigan's 4th Congressional District was first formed in 1852. At this time It covered everywhere from Macomb County to the western end of the Upper Peninsula. Ingham County was not in the district, the boundary turned northward after Eaton County only going west again Midland County was reached.
It went west again along Midland and subsequent counties southern lines and headed north again on the east side of Muskegon County, with Manistee being its southern county that bordered Lake Michigan. In 1863 it gained the areas around Grand Rapids and Muskegon but lost everything east of Ionia County and most of the Upper Peninsula. In 1872 it was redrawn to cover Berrien, Kalamazoo, Van Buren and St. Joseph Counties. In 1892 these boundaries were altered by the addition of Allegan and Barry Counties but the subtraction of Kalamazoo County; this remained the district boundaries for the next 72 years. In 1964 the 4th district was redrawn. Barry County was subtracted from the district while Hillsdale Counties were added. In 1972 the district boundaries were altered by adding small sections of Calhoun County and subtracting small portions of Hillsdale and St. Joseph Counties; the 1982 redistricting removed from the district all of Hillsdale County and the portion of Calhoun County, in the district.
Quincy and Butler Townships in Branch County were removed. In Kalamazoo County Schoolcraft Township and most of Portage were added to the district; the southern and western portions of Allegan County and most of western Ottawa County including Holland, Michigan were in the district. In the renumbering of 1992 this district became the 6th, while the old 10th became the new 6th; the old 10th included most of Grand Traverse and all of Kalkaska County which were lost to the new 1st in the 1992 redistricting. It included Wexford County, moved to the new 2nd in the 1992 redistricting; the only other areas lost were small parts of Antrim and Iosco Counties and a portion of Shiawasee County consisting of Durand and Vernon Township. The new 4th gained Montcalm county from the old 9th district, it gained the Clinton and most of the Shiawasee portions of the old 6th district and the northern half of Oscoda County. It gained a portion of south-west Saginaw County and the portion of Midland County that had not been in the old 10th.
In 2002 Leelaunau County and a small section of north-west Grand Traverse County were the only areas gerrymandered from the 1st and other districts into the 4th that had not been in the old 10th. Michigan's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Govtrack.us for the 4th District - Lists current Senators and representative, map showing district outline The Political graveyard: U. S. Representatives from Michigan, 1807-2003 U. S. Representatives 1837-2003, Michigan Manual 2003-2004 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Cedar River (Gladwin County, Michigan)
The Cedar River is a 29.0-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Michigan, flowing through Gladwin County. The main branch of the river is formed by the confluence of Cranberry Creek and the West Branch Cedar River at 44°02′20″N 84°39′56″W in Hamilton Township, Clare County, it flows into the Tobacco River at 43°53′17″N 84°29′14″W in Beaverton. The North Branch Cedar River rises at 44°08′54″N 84°30′58″W in northwest Gladwin County in Sherman Township east of Meredith near the border with Roscommon County, joins the main branch at 44°01′38″N 84°34′35″W a few miles northwest of Wiggins Lake; the Middle Branch Cedar River rises at 44°06′47″N 84°37′23″W in northeast Clare County in Franklin Township just west of Meredith. It flows south and joins with the West Branch at 44°02′40″N 84°37′54″W in Hamilton Township, near the Gladwin County border; the West Branch Cedar River rises at 44°06′49″N 84°39′08″W in Franklin Township, a few miles southwest of Meredith. Another tributary, Cranberry Creek rises in Arnold and Cranberry lakes a few miles northeast of Harrison.
The Little Cedar River is not a tributary of the Cedar River, but flows into the Tobacco River 5 miles downstream from Beaverton. From the mouth: Doone Creek Farm Drain Canham Drain Lucas Drain Swan Lake City of Gladwin Bendle Drain Silver Creek Chappel Dam Wiggins Lake Howland CreekHowland Lake Frost Lake Smith Creek Lake Contos Puro Lake Mud LakePratt Lake North Branch Cedar River Peach Lake McGilvery Lake Schoolhouse Lake Greasy Jim Lake Blue LakeIsland Lake Streaked LakeTrout Lake House Lake Hoister Lake Middle Branch Cedar River Lindy Lake Lake Little George Trout Lake Decker Lake West Branch Cedar River Popple Creek Cranberry CreekCranberry Lake Arnold Lake The Cedar River drains portions of the following: Clare County Arthur Township Franklin Township Frost Township Hamilton Township Hayes Township Gladwin County, Michigan City of Beaverton Beaverton Township Buckeye Township City of Gladwin Gladwin Township Grout Township Sage Township Sherman Township Tobacco Township
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti