SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Glasgow

Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands, it is the fifth most visited city in the UK. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or, informally, as "Weegies". Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.

With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s resulted in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns, such as Cumbernauld, East Kilbride and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes; this process reduced the population of the City of Glasgow council area to an estimated 615,070, with 1,209,143 people living in the Greater Glasgow urban area. The wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population; the city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2.

Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018. Today, Glasgow has a diverse architectural scene, one of the key factors leading visitors to the city. From the city centre sprawling with grand Victorian buildings, to the many glass and metal edifices in the International Financial Services District to the serpentine terraces of blonde and red sandstone in the fashionable west end and the imposing mansions which make up Pollokshields, on the south side; the banks of the River Clyde are dotted with a plethora of futuristic-looking buildings which include Riverside Museum, Glasgow Science Centre, the SSE Hydro and the SEC Armadillo. The origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed; the name is most Cumbric, with a first element being glas, meaning "grey-green, grey-blue", the second *cöü, "hollow", giving a meaning of "green-hollow" or " green place". The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures, it is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540.

For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall, such as altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy, can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre. Glasgow grew over the following centuries; the Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190. The first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross.

The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th

Jay Smith (basketball)

Jay Steven Smith is an American college basketball coach. He serves in an administrative role for the men's basketball team at the University of Michigan, he was a former head coach at Central Michigan University. He has been an assistant coach at the University of Michigan and the University of Detroit; as of 2020, Smith still reigns as the all-time scorer in Michigan high school basketball history, after a head-spinning 2,841-point career at Mio-Au Sable High School in Mio, Michigan. Of note, this was before the three-point shot. There is a road named after him in Mio, "Jay Smith Drive". In April 2019, Smith was named Michigan's "Retro Mr. Basketball 1979" by the Basketball Coaches Association of Michigan. Michigan's Mr. Basketball was not formally given out until 1981, so the BCAM went back and named a "Retro Mr. Basketball" for every year from 1920 through 1980. Smith set the Michigan single-season scoring record with 952 points in the 1978-79 season, his record was surpassed in the 1984-1985 season by Mark Brown of Hastings High School, who scored 969 points.

Smith's 952 points are still the third most all-time in a single-season in state history. Smith played one year of college basketball at Bowling Green State University, before transferring and playing the final three years of his career at Saginaw Valley State University. Smith began his coaching career at Kent State University in 1984, earning a master's degree in Sport's Administration in 1986. In 1989, Smith left for the University of Michigan, the reigning Division 1 National Champions, to join Steve Fisher's staff in Fisher's first full-season as head coach at Michigan, he returned to Ann Arbor in July 2019, accepting a role as director of player personnel and development, joining first-year head coach Juwan Howard's staff. Smith helped recruit Howard and the rest of the Fab Five, a group of five freshmen that led Michigan to appearances in the 1992 and 1993 NCAA Championship games. Smith returned to the assistant coaching ranks in 2008, joining Ray McCallum's staff at the University of Detroit Mercy, where he spent eight seasons.

Smith's took his first head coaching job in 1996, leading Grand Valley State University to 23-6 record, winning the Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference regular season and tournament championships and a berth into the NCAA Men's Division II Basketball Tournament. Smith left GVSU after one season. Smith took over a CMU team that had not had a winning record since 1988 and had not made the NCAA Tournament since 1987. By his fourth season in Mount Pleasant, Smith led the Chippewas to the Mid-American Conference Western Division title, their first since 1987 and Smith won MAC coach of the year honors. In March 2003, the Chippewas would win their first MAC Tournament Championship since 1987, defeating Kent State 77-67; the win gave the Chippewas an automatic bid to the NCAA tournament, their first since 1987. The Chippewas defeated sixth-seeded Creighton in the first round, 79-73, earning their first NCAA Tournament win since 1975. Center Chris Kaman was awarded conference player of the year as well as defensive player of the year for his efforts.

Kaman was selected with the 6th overall pick in the 2003 NBA draft by the Los Angeles Clippers. Following the 2003 season, Smith was never able to find success again at CMU, compiling 20-66 record over the next three seasons. Smith shocked the CMU community in May 2006, when he abruptly resigned as head coach, citing a desire to spend more time with his family. In June 2016, Smith returned to the head coaching ranks, taking over the program at Kalamazoo College. Smith is married with two children, his son, played for him at Kalamazoo College during the 2018-19 season. He was diagnosed with prostate cancer in June 2018 and underwent successful surgery in September 2018 and managed to coach the full season. Kalamazoo profile U of M Profile All-time greats: Mio's Jay Smith still reigns as state's all-time scoring king

AljaferĂ­a

The Aljafería Palace is a fortified medieval Islamic palace built during the second half of the 11th century in the Taifa of Zaragoza of Al-Andalus, present day Zaragoza, Spain. It was the residence of the Banu Hud dynasty during the era of Abu Jaffar Al-Muqtadir after abolishing Banu Tujib of Kindah dynasty; the palace reflects the splendour attained by the kingdom of the taifa of Zaragoza at the height of its grandeur. The palace contains the Cortes of the autonomous community of Aragon; the structure holds unique importance in that it is the only conserved testimony of a large building of Spanish Islamic architecture of the era of the Taifas. So, a magnificent example of the Caliphate of Córdoba, its Mosque, the Alhambra of Granada in Al-Andalus must be included in the triad of the Hispano-Muslim architecture the Aljafería of Zaragoza as an example of the realizations of the taifa art, in the intermediate time of independent kingdoms previous to the arrival of the Almorávides. In 2001, the original restored structures of the Aljafería was included in the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon a World Heritage Site inscription declared by UNESCO.

The solutions adopted in the ornamentation of the Aljafería, such as the use of mixtilinear arcs and springers is in "S", the extension of arabesque in large areas or the schematisation and progressive abstraction of the yeserias of a vegetal nature, decisively influenced the Almoravid and Almohad art of the Iberian Peninsula. The transition of the decoration towards more geometric motifs is at the base of Nasrid art. After the reconquest of Zaragoza in 1118 by Alfonso I of Aragón happened to be residence of the Christian kings of the Kingdom of Aragón, with which the Aljafería became the main diffusing focus of Mudéjar Aragonese, it was used as a royal residence by Peter IV of Aragón and on the main floor, the reform was carried out that converted these rooms into the palace of Catholic Monarchs in 1492. In 1593 it underwent another reform that would turn it into a military fortress, first according to Renaissance designs and as the quartering of military regiments, it underwent continuous reforms and major damages with the Sieges of Zaragoza of the Peninsular War until it was restored in the second half of the 20th century and hosts the Cortes of Aragon.

This is a rare case, because few transformed or demolished buildings have been reconstructed in Spain. Although it must be said that much of the Aljafería was rebuilt with preserved and found remains and restored. In its origin the construction was done outside of the Roman wall, in the plain of the saría or place where the Muslims developed the military boasts known as al-Musara. With the urban expansion through the years, the building has remained inside the city, it has been possible to respect a small garden environment around it. Most Aljaferiá was completed by Abu Jaffar Al-Muqtadir during the Banu Hud reign in the taifa of Zaragoza, in the 11th century. After the reconquest of Zaragoza in 1118 by Alfonso of Aragon "the Battler", the Aljafería became the residence of the Christian kings of Aragon, becoming the main focus of the Aragonese Mudejar diffusion, it was used as a royal residence by Peter IV of Aragon "the Ceremonious" and on the main floor, was carried out the reform that turned these paradors into the palace of the Catholic Monarchs in 1492.

In 1593 it underwent another reform that would make it into a military fortress, first according to Renaissance designs and as a quarters of military regiments. It underwent continuous reforms and major damage during the Sieges of Saragossa of the Napoleonic French invasion, until it was restored in the second half of the twentieth century and houses the Parliament of Aragon; the building was outside the Roman walls, in the plain of the Saría or place where the Muslims developed the military fanfare known as La Almozara. With the urban expansion through the years, the building has remained within the city. There is a small space with landscaped garden environment; the oldest construction of the Aljafería is called Troubadour Tower. The tower received this name from Antonio Garcia Gutierrez’s 1836 romantic drama The Troubadour; the drama was converted into a libretto for Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Il trovatore in 1853. The tower is a defensive structure, with a quadrangular base and five levels which date back to the end of the 9th century AD, in the period governed by the first Banu Tujib, Muhammad Alanqur, named after Muhammad I of Córdoba, independent Emir of Cordoba.

According to Cabañero Subiza the Tower was built in the second half of the 10th century. In its lower part, the tower contains vestiges of the beginning of the heavy walls of alabaster ashlar bond masonry, continues upwards with plank lining of simple plaster and lime concrete, a thinner substance for reaching greater heights; the exterior does not reflect the division of the five internal floors and appears as an enormous prism, broken by narrow embrasures. Access to the interior was gained through a small door at such height that it was only possible to enter by means of a portable ladder, its initial function was, by all indications, military. The first level conserves the building structure of the 9th century and shelters two separated naves and six sections, which are separated by means of two cruciform pillars and divided by lowered horseshoe arcs. In spite of its simplicity, they form a balanced space and could be used as bath