The Kelpies are 30-metre-high horse-head sculptures depicting kelpies, standing next to a new extension to the Forth and Clyde Canal, near River Carron, in The Helix, a new parkland project built to connect 16 communities in the Falkirk Council Area, Scotland. The sculptures were designed by sculptor Andy Scott and were completed in October 2013; the sculptures form a gateway at the eastern entrance to the Forth and Clyde canal, the new canal extension built as part of The Helix land transformation project. The Kelpies are a monument to horse powered heritage across Scotland; the sculptures were opened to the public in October 2013. As part of the project, they will have their own visitor centre, sit beside a newly developed canal turning pool and extension; this canal extension reconnects the Forth and Clyde Canal with the River Forth, improves navigation between the East and West of Scotland. The name was chosen by Scottish Canals at the inception of The Helix project, in 2005; the Kelpies name reflected the mythological transforming beasts possessing the strength and endurance of 10 horses.
The Kelpies represent the lineage of the heavy horse of Scottish industry and economy, pulling the wagons, ploughs and coalships that shaped the geographical layout of the Falkirk area. According to sculptor Andy Scott, "The original concept of mythical water horses was a valid starting point for the artistic development of the structures." He said that he “took that concept and moved with it towards a more equine and contemporary response, shifting from any mythological references towards a socio-historical monument intended to celebrate the horse’s role in industry and agriculture as well as the obvious association with the canals as tow horses”. In 2008 Scott created three-metre-high miniature versions in his Glasgow studio; these were scanned by lasers to help the steel fabricators create accurate full-scale components. According to Scott the end result would be "Water-borne, towering gateways into The Helix, the Forth and Clyde Canal and Scotland, translating the legacy of the area into proud equine guardians".
During the first year following the opening, nearly one million people visited the sculptures. The first routine maintenance and cleaning was carried out by a high-wire team in the summer of 2017. Built of structural steel with a stainless steel cladding, The Kelpies are 30 metres high and weigh 300 tonnes each. Construction began in June 2013, was complete by October 2013; however the process of fabricating the steel was several years in the making. SH Structures, of Yorkshire, carried out this fabrication and managed the erection of the sculptures on site; the Kelpies are positioned either side of a specially constructed lock and basin, part of the redeveloped Kelpies Hub. There are two sets of 1:10 scale maquettes; these have been displayed locally and internationally at events and locations including Edinburgh Airport, the Field Museum in Grant Park, The Falkirk Wheel, Expo 2011, Expo 2012 and Expo 2013, BBC Scotland, Kirkcudbright Arts & Crafts Trail 2017, University of Glasgow, Sheffield International Steel Celebration and more Bryant Park in New York.
Sculpted from steel galvanized using a hot dip process, the Kelpie maquettes were welded by hand from small plates of steel. The judges of the Structural Steel Design Awards 2014 said the structures required "considerable engineering finesse"; the Courier wrote that "Scots are being offered a tantalising glimpse of two staggering sculptures that will help transform the landscape of central Scotland." The Guardian reported that "They will create one of the most dramatic gateways through which to enter Britain". The New Civil Engineer website defined the Kelpies as "one of Scotland’s most complex sculptures" The Ordnance Survey described them as "amazing and dramatic". Tiffany Jenkins on The Scotsman wrote that "They are impressive, stunning and I think people will become attached to them and proud of them. Of course, they will not please everyone, but that it is not possible as no such art work exists". Jonathan Jones, writing in The Guardian, described them as "the latest misbegotten "masterpiece" of public art.
It is big. It is bold, and it is rotten. The Kelpies is just a kitsch exercise in art "for the people" stripped of difficulty and meaning." Official Helix website Images of The Kelpies from the BBC
Cadder is a district of the town of Bishopbriggs, East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It is located 7 km north of Glasgow city centre, 0.5 km south of the River Kelvin, 1.5 km north-east of Bishopbriggs town centre, sited on the route of the Forth and Clyde Canal. There is a Glasgow council housing scheme of a similar name pronounced Cawder, in the district of Lambhill some 3 miles to the south-west along the Canal, built in the early 1950s. Within Cadder, there is Cawder Golf Club, which uses that original pronunciation. In antiquity, Cadder was the site of a Roman fort on the route of the Antonine Wall, its neighbouring forts are Balmuildy to the west and Kirkintilloch to the east although there are intermediate fortlets at Wilderness Plantation to the west and Glasgow Bridge to the east. The Second Legion may have been responsible for building the fort. John Clarke of the Glasgow Archaeological Society excavated the remains in the 1930s. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site.
The site was destroyed by sand quarrying in the 1940s. A sketch of the medieval motte made by Skinner still survives. One find at Cadder was an oil lamp, associated with the bath house of the fort. Before the Reformation the lands of Cadder and the kirk belonged to the Bishops of Glasgow. In the 18th century James Dunlop of Garnkirk being a wealthy landowner opposed Thomas Muir and the congregation at Cadder over who appointed their minister. Cadder Parish Church was described in the 19th century as a neat modern Gothic church. Cadder House was a property held by the Stirling family for generations. Cadder has a large cemetery, is the site of Strathkelvin Retail Park and Low Moss
Bearsden is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the northwestern fringe of Greater Glasgow. 6 miles from Glasgow City Centre, the town is a suburb, its housing development coincided with the 1863 introduction of a railway line. The town was named after Bearsden railway station, named after a nearby cottage. Bearsden was ranked the seventh-wealthiest area in Britain in a 2005 survey and has the least social housing of any town in Scotland; the Roman Antonine Wall runs through the town, the remains of a military bath house can be seen near the town centre. In 1649, the first New Kilpatrick parish church was built, which became the centre of administration for the area; the town's official Gaelic name Cille. By the early 20th century, a town had grown up with large townhouses occupied by wealthy commuter business workers. Further development of more affordable housing has increased the population of the town to 28,000. A burgh, the town now has local government being the responsibility of East Dunbartonshire Council, but until 2011, the council had some departmental offices at Boclair House in Bearsden.
The first known settlement on the site of present-day Bearsden was a 2.5 acres Roman fort in the second century AD. Between 142 and 144 AD, under Emperor Antoninus Pius, the Romans built a stone and turf fortification, called the Antonine Wall, between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth, they built the Military Way, a road that ran parallel, to the south of the wall. The fort was positioned at the intersection of the Military Way, the north-south road between Glasgow and Loch Lomond. A video reconstruction of the site has been produced. In 164 AD, after only 20 years, the Romans withdrew to Hadrian's Wall. Little of the fort remains today. However, close to the fort was a Roman bath-house, built in 142–143 AD; the bath-house's remains were discovered by builders digging foundations for a housing development in 1973. The site was donated to the government, today the remains lie, well-preserved, 150 metres from the town centre. Two further stretches of the Antonine Wall's stone base can be seen in the New Kilpatrick Cemetery on Boclair Road.
Prior to 1649, the area formed. One part was called West, or Old Kilpatrick, covered Dumbarton and areas of west Dunbartonshire, such as Clydebank; the remaining part was named East or New Kilpatrick, covering a much greater area than Bearsden, from the River Clyde at Whiteinch and Yoker to Duntocher and Baldernock. Modern Bearsden began in an agricultural area as a small hamlet called New Kirk close to New Kilpatrick Parish Church, first built in 1649. Close landmarks included Canniesburn Toll, a water mill at Garscube; the present-day church was built in 1807. The size and style of the community prior to urbanisation is recorded in Rambles Round Glasgow, first published in 1854; the author describes a route from Maryhill, crossing the River Kelvin at Garscube Mill to Canniesburn. At that point, the route takes the road to Drymen, rather than the alternative to Milngavie. Of particular note are the woods and gardens surrounding the fine houses of Killermont and Garscube, which are contrasted with a small shop at Canniesburn with nothing left for sale.
The kirk-toun is described as consisting of about a dozen cottages of idyllic rural beauty, isolated from the noise and dirt of Glasgow. The account includes one of the earliest references to "Bear's Den", although the location is not clear, a traditional belief is recorded that it was a Roman burial site; the New Kirk settlement grew from the middle of the nineteenth century when Glaswegian businessmen built houses at a commutable distance from the city. In 1863, the Glasgow and Milngavie Junction Railway opened, with a station near New Kirk called Bearsden; this was soon adopted as the name of the community. The opening of the railway led to considerable development of Bearsden, with many large Victorian houses built in what is now known as Old Bearsden Conservation Area; the Glasgow Reformatory for Girls at East Chapelton moved from Rottenrow to Bearsden in the late 1860s. Managed by Glasgow Corporation, the countryside location moved the girls away from any malign influences to be found in the city and allowed the institution to be self-supporting with livestock and a vegetable garden.
The girls washed those of local residents in the Reformatory's large laundry. In addition to girls who had fallen foul of the courts, others with problems such as malnourishment and learning difficulties were housed at Chapelton. In 1949, around 360 girls passed through the school annually and were taken to New Kilpatrick Parish church on Sundays; the school closed in the early 1970s and after a brief period as a hall of residence for the Nautical College, the building was demolished to make way for a shopping centre with an Asda supermarket. Buchanan Retreat was built in 1890 by the Buchanan sisters of Bellfield, near Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire, it was taken over by Bearsden Burgh in 1962 and, known as Boclair House, used as council offices. Latterly used by East Dunbartonshire council, it was placed on the market in 2012 following council cost-cutting measures and staff redistribution. In 2016 the building opened as Boclair House Hotel, a hotel, wedding venue, restaurant, which has since won several awards.
The Schaw Home was built in 1895 by Miss Marjory Shanks Schaw in memory of her brother and gifted to Glasgow
Old Kilpatrick, is a village in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It has an estimated population of 4,820, it belonged to the parish of Old Kilpatrick. The Forth and Clyde Canal separates Old Kilpatrick from the north bank of the River Clyde, just a few metres beyond it to the south; the village is about 3 miles west of Clydebank, on the road west to Dumbarton where some say the river becomes the Firth of Clyde. The Great Western Road runs through the village whose immediate western neighbour, on the road and the canal, is Bowling, where the Forth and Clyde Canal meets the river; the modern A82 road runs between the village and the foot of the Kilpatrick Hills. In the 19th century it was described as being a single street. It's possible; the western end of the Antonine Wall is at Old Kilpatrick. The route was surveyed during the 18th century, traced to the Chapel Hill, where various Roman artefacts were found. Lottery funding has been assigned to producing replica distance markers. In 1790, when the Forth and Clyde Canal was being constructed, the remains of a bathhouse were discovered.
In 1913 the foundations of the fort, conjectured as being in the vicinity, were confirmed. In 1923, during redevelopment of the area, significant archaeology was undertaken which established the size and nature of the Roman Fort; the fort, built around 81 AD, occupied an area of about four acres and was enclosed by an outer defensive wall. If the date is correct, it shows. Internally, buildings discovered included barracks and a granary. A video reconstruction of the site has been produced. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavations. Major development precluded further significant excavation, nothing is visible of the remains today. Finds from Old Kilpatrick include several distance slabs. One distance slab by the Twentieth Legion is known to have been completed before 1684, it depicts Victory with a garland in the other. It records the completion of 4411 feet; the slabs along with many other finds from Old Kilpatrick are now kept at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow. For example, 19 coins have been found as well as a beaker.
On 3 December 1969 a Roman votive altar was found at Old Kilpatrick. It has been scanned and a video produced; the inscription mentions the First Cohort of Baetasians known to have been at Bar Hill, a centurion from The First Legion. The parish system was introduced to Scotland in the 13th century. In about 1227, the church and lands of Kilpatrick were given to Paisley Abbey by Maldowen, Earl of Lennox; the parish remained under the supervision of the Abbey until the Reformation in 1560. At the Dissolution, the Church property fell into the possession of Lord Sempill; the lands were conferred on Claude Hamilton, founder of the Abercorn family. His son James Hamilton was created Lord Abercorn on 5 April 1603 on 10 July 1606 he was made Earl of Abercorn and Lord of Paisley, Hamilton and Kilpatrick. Kilpatrick was split into two parishes - Old and New Kilpatrick by an Act of Parliament on 16 February 1649; this division is unusual because this was a split of both the ecclesiastical and civil parishes and the wealth and stipend of the original parish was shared between the two new parishes.
It was more common for new parishes to have "daughter" status, with wealth retained by the central, or cathedral church. Old Kilpatrick was created a Burgh of barony in 1697, its population tripled between 1821 as the spinning and weaving industries developed. By 1831 the population was 5,800. Today, the north end of the Erskine Bridge, which replaced the Erskine Ferry, lands just above the village, the village is served by Kilpatrick railway station on the North Clyde Line. There are three public houses within Old Kilpatrick; the Twisted Thistle was known as the Telstar. After the closure of The Telstar, the building was renovated and reopened in 2014 as The Twisted Thistle. There are two annual fêtes. At the north end of Old Kilpatrick is the local school. Gavinburn Primary School where they have many fêtes annually; the minerals edingtonite and thomsonite were first found at Old Kilpatrick. In the early 1990s a large housing estate was constructed at the edge of Old Kilpatrick, the one estate was said to double the size of Old Kilpatrick.
The ancient graveyard surrounding the old parish church still has surviving gravestones from the 17th century. The current building dates from 1812 and is still in use as the local Church of Scotland parish church, now linked with neighbouring Bowling Parish Church; the local Roman Catholic church is St. Patrick's RC Church. Sadly a fire in August 2015 saw the RC congregation temporarily without a place to worship, taking up the kind offer of the nearby Church of Scotland congregation to use their building, a friendly act of
Forth and Clyde Canal
The Forth and Clyde Canal is a canal opened in 1790, crossing central Scotland. It is 35 miles long and it runs from the River Carron at Grangemouth to the River Clyde at Bowling, had an important basin at Port Dundas in Glasgow. Successful in its day, it suffered as the seagoing vessels were built larger and could no longer pass through; the railway age further impaired the success of the canal, in the 1930s decline had ended in dormancy. The final decision to close the canal in the early 1960s was made due to maintenance costs of bridges crossing the canal exceeding the revenues it brought in. However, subsidies to the rail network were a cause for its decline and the closure ended the movement of the east-coast Forth River fishing fleets across the country to fish the Irish Sea; the lack of political and financial foresight removed a historical recreational waterway and potential future revenue generator to the town of Grangemouth. Unlike the majority of major canals the route through Grangemouth was drained and back filled before 1967 to create a new carriageway for port traffic.
The M8 motorway in the eastern approaches to Glasgow took over some of the alignment of the canal, but more recent ideas have regenerated the utility of the canal for leisure use. The eastern end of the canal is connected to the River Forth by a stretch of the River Carron near Grangemouth; the canal follows the course of the Roman Antonine Wall and was the biggest infrastructure project in Scotland since then. The highest section of the canal passes close to Kilsyth and it is fed there by an aqueduct which gathers water from Birkenburn Reservoir in the Kilsyth Hills, stored in another purpose-built reservoir called Townhead near Banton, from where it feeds the canal via a feeder from the Shawend Burn near Craigmarloch; the canal continues past Twechar, through Kirkintilloch and Bishopbriggs to the Maryhill area north of Glasgow city centre. A branch to Port Dundas was built to secure the agreement and financial support of Glasgow merchants who feared losing business if the canal bypassed them completely.
This branch flows past Murano Street Student Village, halls of residence for the University of Glasgow. A bridge crossing the canal to the halls has been colourfully nicknamed "Stabby Bridge" by students; the western end of the canal connects to the River Clyde at Bowling. In 1840, a 0.5 mile canal, the Forth and Cart Canal was built to link the Forth and Clyde canal, at Whitecrook, to the River Clyde, opposite the mouth of the River Cart. Priestley, writing in 1831, said: The first act of parliament relating to this canal, received the royal assent on the 8th of March, 1768, it is entitled,'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; the subscribers were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Navigation," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £150,000, in fifteen hundred shares of £100 each, an additional sum of £50,000, if necessary.
At first there were difficulties with securing the capital for the work, but soon, thanks in the main to investment by Sir Lawrence Dundas, 1st Baronet, "the execution of this canal proceeded with such rapidity, under the direction of Mr. Smeaton, that in two years and three quarters from the date of the first act, one half of the work was finished; the work was completed on the 28 July 1790. Priestley wrote in 1831, Besides the fine rivers above-mentioned, is joined by the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal, near Falkirk; this magnificent canal commences in the River Forth, in Grangemouth Harbour, near to where the Carron empties itself into that river. Its course is parallel with the Carron, in nearly a westwardly direction, passing to the north of the town of Falkirk, thence to Red Bridge, where it quits the county of Stirling, enters a detached portion of the shire of Dumbarton. Hence it passes to the south of Kilsyth, runs along the south bank of the River Kelvin, over the Luggie Water, by a fine stone aqueduct, at Kirkintilloch.
Camelon is a large settlement within the Falkirk council area, Scotland. The village is in the Forth Valley, 1.3 miles west of Falkirk, 1.3 miles south of Larbert and 2.6 miles east of Bonnybridge. The main road through Camelon is the A803 road. At the time of the 2001 census, Camelon had a population of 4,508. Human activity at Camelon pre-dates the Romans as Bronze Age items have been recovered from graves in the area. Camelon is the site of a series of Roman fortifications built sometimes between 80 and 83 AD. Camelon has been suggested as the southern fort of the Roman Gask Ridge separating the Highlands from the Lowlands; the Roman fort was under a mile north of the Antonine Wall. A Roman altar was found at Bogton Farm under a kilometer west of the fort. A Samian ware platter also associated with the site was found and can now be viewed at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow. There are a lot of mythical stories about Camelon sometimes linking it with Camelot and Arthur's O'on. Hector Boece was the first historian to mention Camelon in his History of Scotland of 1522.
Stories of a legendary Roman harbour at Camelon first appeared in 1695. The legend of Camelon's twelve brass gates was widespread albeit dubious. More mundane items like leather shoes were found. Camelon developed when the canals were built in the 19th centuries. Much of the Forth and Clyde Canal opened in the 1770s over a decade after the Carron Iron Works were established; the Union Canal opened in 1822 and brought traffic from Edinburgh to Port Downie where the canals met. A couple of decades saw the coming of the railways. In 1831 the village was described as having a population of 809 with 250 men and boys employed in nail making. Historical industries included nail making, a tar processing plant and other chemical works, a shipbuilding business near Lock Sixteen and a distillery at Rosebank. In the early 20th century W. Alexander & Sons coachbuilders in Camelon. A flight of locks which joined the Union Canal with the Forth and Clyde Canal brought business to the village; this was replaced in 2002 with a rotating boat lift.
People from Camelon are known locally as Mariners. The name is best remembered by the Mariner Leisure Centre and in Mariners' Day. Mariners' Day is an annual children's fayre held on the second Saturday in June, it includes a parade and a crowning ceremony of the Queen along with fun and games for the children of Camelon. Camelon has good access for a village of its size with Camelon railway station lying on the Cumbernauld Line and the Edinburgh to Dunblane line. Next to the station there are amenities including the Mariner Leisure Centre; the main road through Camelon is the A803 road. Camelon is home to the junior football club Camelon Juniors, founded in 1920, who compete in the East of Scotland Football League. List of places in Falkirk council area Falkirk Local History Society page on Camelon Gazetteer for Scotland webpage on Camelon
Kilsyth is a town and civil parish in North Lanarkshire halfway between Glasgow and Stirling in Scotland. The estimated population is 9,860; the town is famous for the Battle of Kilsyth and the religious revivals of the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries. The town now has links with Cumbernauld at one time being part of Cumbernauld and Kilsyth District Council; the towns have the same members of parliament at Holyrood and Westminster. Part of Stirlingshire, Kilsyth is at 200 feet above sea level and occupies a narrow strip of land between the Kilsyth Hills to the north and the River Kelvin to the south. To the east and west it is bordered by marshland and bogs; the centre of the town is close to the confluence of the Ebroch burns. From earliest recorded times Kilsyth was one of the main routes between Glasgow and Edinburgh, is close to the Roman Antonine Wall, the Forth and Clyde Canal and the main Glasgow to Edinburgh railway line, with the nearest railway station at Croy. Two separate stations existed in the town on separate, although linked, railway lines.
One, the Kelvin Valley Railway went to Glasgow-Maryhill while the other, the Kilsyth and Bonnybridge railway, went via Banknock to Falkirk. The town occupies a sheltered position in the Kelvin Valley, is bisected by the A803 between Kirkintilloch and Falkirk; the old drovers' road from Stirling, the route south to Cumbernauld via Auchinstarry Bridge, intersect the A803 at Kilsyth. The M80 motorway passes through Cumbernauld to the south on its way between Stirling. There is archaeological evidence of settlement since Neolithic times The Romans recognised the strategic significance of Kilsyth. In the Middle Ages, Kilsyth held a key strategic position on one of the main routes across the narrowest part of Scotland, it was the site of two, now ruined, castles at Colzium. These were shown in Timothy Pont's map of 1580 and can been seen on Blaeu's map, derived from it; the town came into being in 1620 although a barony of Kilsyth preceded this. Regarding the name of the town, modern research into Kilsyth's toponymy leads to different findings than earlier analysis.
The civil war Battle of Kilsyth took place on hillsides between Kilsyth and Banton in 1645. Kilsyth was closely associated with the various attempts by the Jacobites to regain the crown. Bonnie Prince Charlie is reported to have spent the night in the town in January 1746; the battlefield is now under the Townhead Reservoir, a artificial body of water used to feed the Forth and Clyde Canal, close to its highest elevation. The canal was cut through Dullatur Bog in 1769-1770 bringing economic benefit to Kilsyth.. The parish was known as Moniabrugh, or one of its variants, with its name changing sometime in the 18th century; the town economy has shifted over the past three centuries from dairy farming, handloom weaving and extractive industries to light engineering and service industries. Many of the townsfolk of working age now commute to work in Glasgow. Following its foundation as an early monastic settlement, the town has a long tradition of radical protestantism and was the scene of major revivals for example under the leadership of James Robe in 1742.
William Chalmers Burns a minister in Kilsyth, St. Peter's and China saw revival in 1839, part of the Second Great Awakening. William Irvine was born in Kilsyth in 1863; the formation of the new Church of God, the first Pentecostal Church in Scotland in 1902 led to further outbreaks of revival in 1908 and to Kilsyth becoming an early focus of Pentecostalism. Kilsyth was part of the deanery of Lennox; the parish was called variously Monyabroch, Monaeburgh, or Moniabrocd, but part of the parish was called Kelvesyth by the beginnings of the 13th century. The lands passed through the hands of branches of the Callendar and Livingston families as their fortunes waxed and waned becoming the property of the Edmonstones. Kilsyth was established as a Burgh of Barony in 1620. A Town Charter was granted in 1826, it is now within North Lanarkshire jurisdiction. In 2012, the multi-member ward was represented by three elected councillors. Jamie Hepburn MSP was elected as Cumbernauld and Kilsyth member of the Scottish Parliament on 5 May 2011 with a majority of 3459.
Since May 2015, Stuart MacDonald has been Westminster MP for the Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch East. He is a member of the Scottish National Party; as he said in his maiden speech he has sometimes been mistaken for his namesake, an SNP MP. Kilsyth Community Council, as the locally elected representative body, is an active community group but enjoys limited powers. Since 1995 Kilsyth has been part of North Lanarkshire; the arms of Cumbernauld and Kilsyth District Council featured an open Bible and the shuttle and miner's lamp. These symbols were taken from the earlier arms of Kilsyth; however the open Bible and the miner's lamp were the only symbols which were carried on to the North Lanarkshire coat of arms. Kilsyth has many of the elements associated with a Scottish market town, including a pedestrianised Main Street with a wide range of local and specialist independent shops, attractive par