Springburn is an inner city district in the north of the Scottish city of Glasgow, home to various working and middle-class households. Springburn developed from a hamlet at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Later in the 19th century the construction of lines through the area led to the establishment of Railway works. The Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway first opened in 1831 to supply the St. Rollox Chemical Works, the City Union Line was extended to Springburn in 1871 and the Hamiltonhill Branch Line opened in 1894. Initially located outwith the Glasgow boundary, the area was absorbed by the City of Glasgow Corporation in 1872. The areas economic development has a historical link to heavy industry, particularly railways. In the past, Springburns locomotive industry had a 25% global market share, the latter two eventually amalgamated to become part of the North British Locomotive Company in 1903. Also located in Springburn is the Eastfield Running Shed, originally built by the North British Railway near the Cowlairs Works in 1904.
St. Rollox became the largest works, and is the one still in operation today, after the collapse of the North British Locomotive Company in 1962. After a significant refurbishment programme, the site operates as a Rolling stock repair. Another large industrial company operating in Springburn is Promat UK, which manufactures Passive fire protection materials at the Germiston Works on Petershill Road, the highest point in Springburn and of the City of Glasgow is its famous park on Balgrayhill,364 feet above sea level. Springburn Park was opened by Glasgow Corporation in 1892 and laid out to a design by the City Engineer, Alexander B, James Reid, a business colleague of locomotive manufacturer Walter Neilson, gifted a bandstand, built by the Saracen Foundry, to the park in 1893. His son Sir Hugh Reid of Neilson and Companys Hyde Park Works gifted the lands of the adjacent Cockmuir Farm for the park to be extended to the east in 1900. A statue in honour of James Reid was erected in the park by public subscription in 1903, stobhill Hospital was built adjacent to the park in 1904.
Mosesfield House, situated in the park, was the site where George Johnston built Britains first Motor Car in 1895, the Barnhill Poorhouse, had opened at Springburn in 1850. Paupers who could not support themselves were sent here by the Parish and were obliged to work at such as bundling firewood, picking oakum. In 1905 the Glasgow Poorhouse in Townhead closed and its inmates went to Barnhill, in 1945 it was renamed Foresthall Home and Hospital and was thereafter used as a geriatric hospital and residential home. It was demolished in the late 1980s and a housing development now stands on the site
Highland Light Infantry
The Highland Light Infantry was a light infantry regiment of the British Army formed in 1881. Its exact status was ambiguous, although the regiment insisted on being classified as a non-kilted Highland regiment it recruited mainly from Glasgow in Lowland Scotland, the battalion was stationed in England from 1883, but moved to India the following year. In February 1900 it departed from Colombo to return home and it moved to Mesopotamia in December 1915 and saw action at the Siege of Kut in Spring 1916 and the Battle of Sharqat in October 1918. The 2nd Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 5th Brigade in the 2nd Division in August 1914 for service on the Western Front, the 1/9th Battalion landed in France as part of the 5th Brigade in the 2nd Division in November 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 10th and 11th Battalions landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 28th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 12th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 46th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front, the 14th Battalion landed in France as part of the 120th Brigade in the 40th Division in June 1916 for service on the Western Front.
The 15th Battalion, the 16th Battalion and the 17th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 97th Brigade in the 32nd Division in November 1915 for service on the Western Front, relief attempts failed, but the men of the Frankfurt trench refused to surrender. After refusing to surrender, the Germans stormed the trench and found only 15 wounded men alive, general Sir Hubert Gough praised their stand under Army Order 193. Members of the 17th Battalion were painted by the war artist Frederick Farrell in Flanders in 1917, the 18th Battalion landed in France as part of the 106th Brigade in the 35th Division in February 1916 for service on the Western Front. In 1923, the title was expanded to the Highland Light Infantry. David Niven was commissioned into the regiment in 1930 and served with the 2nd Battalion, the 2nd Battalion moved to Egypt early in the war and saw action at the Battle of Keren in March 1941. It transferred to the Western Desert and saw combat at the Battle of Knightsbridge in June 1942 and the Battle of Fuka in July 1942.
It took part in the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and, after a period in Yugoslavia and Greece, the Highland Light Infantry was amalgamated with the Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1959 to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers. The regular 1st battalions of the two Regiments combined at Redford Barracks, Edinburgh to form the 1st Battalion of the new regiment, the HLI was the only regular Highland regiment to wear trews for full dress, until 1947 when kilts were authorised. An earlier exception was the Glasgow Highlanders who wore kilts and were a battalion within the HLI. The HLIs full dress in 1914 was a one, comprising a dark green shako with diced border and green cords, scarlet doublet with buff facings. Officers wore plaids of the tartan, while in drill order all ranks wore white shell jackets with trews. Second World War, Scheldt, Walcheren Causeway, Reichswald, North-West Europe 1940, 44-45, Keren Cauldron, Landing in Sicily, Greece 1944–45 1901–, John Hamilton Elphinstone Dalrymple, CB 1881–1901, Gen.
Walter Douglas Phillips Patton-Bethune 1901–1903, Lt-Gen
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War, usually known as the Boer War and at the time as the South African War, started on 11 October 1899 and ended on 31 May 1902. Great Britain defeated two Boer states in South Africa, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, Britain was aided by its Cape Colony, Colony of Natal and some native African allies. The British war effort was supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, India. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion in them was largely hostile to Britain, inside Britain and its Empire there was significant opposition to the Second Boer War. The British were overconfident and under-prepared, the Boers were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith and Mafeking in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso and Stormberg. Staggered, the British brought in numbers of soldiers and fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener and they relieved the three besieged cities, and invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900.
The onward marches of the British Army were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland, the British quickly seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile. In conventional terms, the war was over, Britain officially annexed the two countries in 1900, and called a khaki election to give the government another six years of power in London. However, the Boers refused to surrender and they reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two more years of attacks and quick escapes followed. As guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters easily blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places, the British solution was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, and barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. The civilian farmers were relocated into concentration camps, where very large proportions died of disease, especially the children, the British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the highly mobile Boer guerrilla units.
The battles at this stage were small operations with few combat casualties The war ended in surrender, the British successfully won over the Boer leaders, who now gave full support to the new political system. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, the conflict is commonly referred to as simply the Boer War, since the First Boer War is much less well known. Boer was the term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Companys original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope. It is officially called the South African War and it is known as the Anglo-Boer War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog, Tweede Boereoorlog, in South Africa it is officially called the South African War
Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver.
Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry.
This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history and practice
Royal Scots Fusiliers
The regiment was raised in Scotland in 1678 by Stuart loyalist Charles Erskine, de jure 5th Earl of Mar for service against the rebel covenanting forces during the Second Whig Revolt. It was used to keep the peace and put down brigands, mercenaries, in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the regiment was ordered south. Initially, it stayed loyal to James II of England, the regiment was converted to fusiliers in 1685. It was nicknamed the Duke of Marlboroughs Own for its excellent service in all of the Dukes campaigns in the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was renamed the North British Fusilier Regiment of Foot in 1707 reflecting Treaty of Union that led to the creation of Great Britain. The regiment was awarded the title Royal around 1713 and it was numbered the 21st Regiment in 1751, when seniority numbers were introduced. The regiment served under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Haines at the Battle of Inkerman in November 1854 during the Crimean War, the regiment finally saw the restoration of Scots in their title in 1877.
Under the reforms the regiment became The Royal Scots Fusiliers on 1 July 1881 and it became the County Regiment of Ayrshire, Kirkcudbrightshire, Roxburghshire and Wigtownshire in South-West Scotland. This made them a Lowland Regiment and forced them to adopt trews, the regiment saw action at the Battle of the Tugela Heights in February 1900 during the Second Boer War. Captain Hugh Trenchard was seriously wounded while serving with the regiment near Krugersdorp at this time, the 1st Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of 9th Brigade in the 3rd Division in August 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 2nd Battalion landed at Zeebrugge as part of the 21st Brigade in the 7th Division in October 1914 for service on the Western Front, the 6th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 27th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. Lieutenant Colonel Winston Churchill commanded the battalion when it was located near Ploegsteert Wood during Spring 1916, the 7th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 45th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front.
The 8th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 77th Brigade in the 26th Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front, the 1st Battalion spent the whole war as part of the 29th Independent Infantry Brigade Group. The battalion participated in the Battle of Madagascar in 1942 as did the 2nd Battalion and they were transferred to British India to fight in the South-East Asian Theatre. The 36th Division spent the rest of the war under command of the British Fourteenth Army, the 2nd Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers was serving in Edinburgh on the outbreak of war under Scottish Command, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Walter Clutterbuck. In early October 1939 the battalion was grouped with the 2nd Seaforth Highlanders and 2nd Northants to create the 17th Infantry Brigade, which was assigned to the 5th Infantry Division. After 2 years spent on defence in the United Kingdom, the battalion and brigade were detached from the 5th Division. The battalion next saw service fighting in Sicily, in 1944 the division fought in the Battle of Anzio in some of the fiercest fighting of the Italian Campaign thus far.
The Anzio landings were an attempt to outflank the German Gustav Line, one of many lines the Germans had created across Italy
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, and third largest in the United Kingdom. Historically part of Lanarkshire, it is now one of the 32 council areas of Scotland and it is situated on the River Clyde in the countrys West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as Glaswegians, Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Britain. From the 18th century the city grew as one of Great Britains main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America. Glasgow was the Second City of the British Empire for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew in population, reaching a peak of 1,128,473 in 1939. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers about 2.3 million people, at the 2011 census, Glasgow had a population density of 8, 790/sq mi, the highest of any Scottish city. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and is well known in the sporting world for the football rivalry of the Old Firm between Celtic and Rangers.
Glasgow is known for Glasgow patter, a dialect that is noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow is the form of the ancient Cumbric name Glas Cau. Possibly referring to the area of Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, the Gaelic name Baile Glas Chu, town of the grey dog, is purely a folk-etymology. The present site of Glasgow has been settled since prehistoric times, it is for settlement, being the furthest downstream fording point of the River Clyde, the origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotlands second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, there had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth, sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives as the Glasgow Fair.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries, the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the towns religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe, Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. The citys Tobacco Lords created a water port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde. By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgows River Clyde, at the time, Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar and cotton
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the country, in Medieval Europe, the term regiment denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader who was often the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the 17th century, a regiment was usually about a thousand personnel. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, task forces and other, similarly-sized operational units. By the beginning of the 18th century, regiments in most European continental armies had evolved into permanent units with distinctive titles and uniforms, when at full strength, an infantry regiment normally comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8–10 companies. In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment, a cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers, making up a single entity. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification.
Prior to World War I, a regiment in the French, Russian. As far as possible, the battalions would be garrisoned in the same military district, so that the regiment could be mobilized. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up an entity of up to 1,000 troopers. Usually, the regiment is responsible for recruiting and administering all of a military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be either combat units or administrative units or both and this is often contrasted to the continental system adopted by many armies. Generally, divisions are garrisoned together and share the same installations, thus, in divisional administration and officers are transferred in and out of divisions as required. Some regiments recruited from specific areas, and usually incorporated the place name into the regimental name. In other cases, regiments would recruit from an age group within a nation. In other cases, new regiments were raised for new functions within an army, e. g. the Fusiliers, the Parachute Regiment, a key aspect of the regimental system is that the regiment or battalion is the fundamental tactical building block.
This flows historically from the period, when battalions were widely dispersed and virtually autonomous. For example, a regiment might include different types of battalions of different origins, within the regimental system and usually officers, are always posted to a tactical unit of their own regiment whenever posted to field duty
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Islay is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as The Queen of the Hebrides, it lies in Argyll just south west of Jura, the islands capital is Bowmore where the distinctive round Kilarrow Parish Church and a distillery are located. Port Ellen is the main port, Islay is the fifth-largest Scottish island and the seventh-largest island surrounding Great Britain, with a total area of almost 620 square kilometres. There is ample evidence of the settlement of Islay and the first written reference may have come in the 1st century AD. The island had become part of the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata during the Early Middle Ages before being absorbed into the Norse Kingdom of the Isles. During the 17th century the Clan Donald star waned, but improvements to agriculture and transport led to a rising population and this was followed by substantial forced displacements and declining resident numbers. Today, it has over 3,000 inhabitants and the commercial activities are agriculture, malt whisky distillation.
The island has a history of religious observance and Scottish Gaelic is spoken by about a quarter of the population. Its landscapes have been celebrated through various art forms and there is a growing interest in renewable energy, Islay is home to many bird species such as the wintering populations of Greenland white-fronted and barnacle goose, and is a popular destination throughout the year for birdwatchers. The climate is mild and ameliorated by the Gulf Stream, Islay is 40 kilometres long from north to south and 24 kilometres broad. The east coast is rugged and mountainous, rising steeply from the Sound of Islay, the highest peak being Beinn Bheigier, the western peninsulas are separated from the main bulk of the island by the waters of Loch Indaal to the south and Loch Gruinart to the north. The fertile and windswept southwestern arm is called The Rinns, the south coast is sheltered from the prevailing winds and, as a result, relatively wooded. The fractal coast has numerous bays and sea lochs, including Loch an t-Sailein, Aros Bay, in the far southwest is a rocky and now largely uninhabited peninsula called The Oa, the closest point in the Hebrides to Ireland.
The islands population is centred around the villages of Bowmore. Other smaller villages include Bridgend, Port Charlotte, the rest of the island is sparsely populated and mainly agricultural. The underlying geology of Islay is intricate for such a small area, the deformed Palaeoproterozoic igneous rock of the Rhinns complex is dominated by a coarse-grained gneiss cut by large intrusions of deformed gabbro. Once thought to be part of the Lewisian complex, it lies beneath the Colonsay Group of metasedimentary rocks that forms the bedrock at the end of the Rinns. It is a quartz-rich metamorphic marine sandstone that may be unique to Scotland, south of Rubh a Mhail there are outcrops of quartzite, and a strip of mica schist and limestone cuts across the centre of the island from The Oa to Port Askaig
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Royal Highland Fusiliers
The Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion, The Royal Regiment of Scotland is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The regiment was formed as the Royal Highland Fusiliers on 20 January 1959 by the amalgamation of the Royal Scots Fusiliers with the Highland Light Infantry, the regimental band played at independence ceremonies in Hargeisa in 1960. It relocated to Kiwi Barracks at Bulford Camp in 1970, after a two-year posting to Malaysia, the regiment returned to Redford Barracks in 1973 moving on to Barrosa Barracks at Hemer in 1979. The regiment were at the Palace Barracks at Holywood in 1983, Berlin in 1985 and briefly back in Redford Barracks before going to Oakington Barracks at Cambridge in 1989. After taking part in the Gulf War in 1991, the regiment moved to St Barbara Barracks at Fallingbostel in 1993 from where it deployed units to Bosnia in 1994 and to Macedonia and Kosovo in 1999. The regiment moved back to Fort George in July 2000 and to Salamanca Barracks in Cyprus in September 2003, the battalion was involved in Operation TELIC IV in Iraq in Summer 2004 and in Operation TELIC VI in Iraq in Spring 2006.
The battalion moved to Glencorse Barracks in Penicuik at the same time, in Summer 2015 units of the battalion were deployed to Afghanistan to train the Afghan National Army. Currently as a light role battalion under the command of 51st Infantry Brigade, the regiment and current battalion has the distinction among British infantry regiments of carrying three Colours on parade. The Regimental capbadge was the grenade in flames taken from the Royal Scots Fusiliers cap badge, the tartan is Mackenzie, the blue and green government tartan with added white and red lines. The Regiments Battle Honours include, Assaye, The Storming of Badajos, Waterloo, Inkerman,44 battle honours are carried on the Regimental Colour,29 on the Queens Colour and 2, Seringapatam and Assaye, on the Assaye Colour. 1959–, HRH Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, CI, GCVO 2003–, HRH Prince Andrew, The Duke of York, KCVO, ADC Colonels of the regiment were,1959, Maj-Gen. Ronald Albert Bramwell-Davis, CB, DSO 1959–1964, Brig.
Archibald Ian Buchanan-Dunlop, CBE, DSO 1964–1969, henry Lowther Ewart Clark Leask, DSO, OBE 1969–1979, Maj-Gen. Charles Whish Dunbar, CBE 1979–1991, Maj-Gen, robert Leslie Stuart Green 1991–1997, Brig. Iain Stuart Reid, OBE 1997–2003, Maj-Gen, angus Iain Ramsay, CBE, DSO 2003-2006, Maj-Gen. The band members wear a different type of capbadge in which the Regimental flaming grenade capbadge is superimposed on the saltire of St Andrew, the Drum major wears Mackenzie tartan trews, fusilier officers full dress pattern scarlet doublet and bearskin with a grenade cap badge and white hackle. The Charles Rennie Mackintosh designed Regimental Headquarters and Museum is operated by the Regimental Secretary, the battalions recruitment team is based at Walcheren Barracks in the Maryhill district of Glasgow. A regimental magazine is published, The Journal of the Royal Highland Fusiliers. There are various old comrades groups and associations linked to the current and antecedent Regiments of the RHF, the History of the Royal Scots Fusiliers 1678-1918