An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and some accompanying study. Apprenticeship enables practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade or profession, in exchange for their continued labor for an agreed period after they have achieved measurable competencies. Apprenticeships last 3 to 7 years. People who complete an apprenticeship reach the "journeyman" or professional certification level of competence. Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor. In early modern usage, the clipped form prentice was common; the system of apprenticeship first developed in the Middle Ages and came to be supervised by craft guilds and town governments.
A master craftsman was entitled to employ young people as an inexpensive form of labour in exchange for providing food and formal training in the craft. Most apprentices were males, but female apprentices were found in crafts such as seamstress, cordwainer and stationer. Apprentices began at ten to fifteen years of age, would live in the master craftsman's household. Most apprentices aspired to becoming master craftsmen themselves on completion of their contract, but some would spend time as a journeyman and a significant proportion would never acquire their own workshop. In Coventry those completing seven-year apprenticeships with stuff merchants were entitled to become freemen of the city. Subsequently, governmental regulation and the licensing of technical colleges and vocational education formalized and bureaucratized the details of apprenticeship. Australian Apprenticeships encompass all traineeships, they cover all industry sectors in Australia and are used to achieve both'entry-level' and career'upskilling' objectives.
There were 475,000 Australian Apprentices in-training as at 31 March 2012, an increase of 2.4% from the previous year. Australian Government employer and employee incentives may be applicable, while State and Territory Governments may provide public funding support for the training element of the initiative. Australian Apprenticeships combine time at work with formal training and can be full-time, part-time or school-based. Australian Apprentice and Traineeship services are dedicated to promoting retention, therefore much effort is made to match applicants with the right apprenticeship or traineeship; this is done with the aid of aptitude tests and information on'how to retain an apprentice or apprenticeship'. Information and resources on potential apprenticeship and traineeship occupations are available in over sixty industries; the distinction between the terms apprentices and trainees lies around traditional trades and the time it takes to gain a qualification. The Australian government uses Australian Apprenticeships Centres to administer and facilitate Australian Apprenticeships so that funding can be disseminated to eligible businesses and apprentices and trainees and to support the whole process as it underpins the future skills of Australian industry.
Australia has a unusual safety net in place for businesses and Australian Apprentices with its Group Training scheme. This is where businesses that are not able to employ the Australian Apprentice for the full period until they qualify, are able to lease or hire the Australian Apprentice from a Group Training Organisation, it is a safety net, because the Group Training Organisation is the employer and provides continuity of employment and training for the Australian Apprentice. In addition to a safety net, Group Training Organisations have other benefits such as additional support for both the Host employer and the trainee/apprentice through an industry consultant who visits to make sure that the trainee/apprentice are fulfilling their work and training obligations with their Host employer. There is the additional benefit of the trainee/apprentice being employed by the GTO reducing the Payroll/Superannuation and other legislative requirements on the Host employer who pays as invoiced per agreement.
Apprenticeship training in Austria is organized in a dual education system: company-based training of apprentices is complemented by compulsory attendance of a part-time vocational school for apprentices. It lasts two to four years – the duration varies among the 250 recognized apprenticeship trades. About 40 percent of all Austrian teenagers enter apprenticeship training upon completion of compulsory education; this number has been stable since the 1950s. The five most popular trades are: Retail Salesperson, Car Mechanic, Cook. There are many smaller trades with small numbers of apprentices, like "EDV-Systemtechniker", completed by fewer than 100 people a year; the Apprenticeship Leave Certificate provides the apprentice with access to two different vocational careers. On the one hand, it is a prerequisite for the admission to the Master Craftsman Exam and for qualification tests, on the other hand it gives access to higher education via the TVE-Exam or the Higher Education Entrance Exam which are prerequisites for taking up studies at colleges, universities, "Fachhochschulen", post-secondary courses and post-secondary colleges.
The person responsible for overseeing the training in
Architectural glass is glass, used as a building material. It is most used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope, including windows in the external walls. Glass is used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature; when used in buildings, glass is of a safety type, which include reinforced and laminated glasses. Glass casting is the process in which glass objects are cast by directing molten glass into a mould where it solidifies; the technique has been used since the Egyptian period. Modern cast glass is formed by a variety of processes such as kiln casting, or casting into sand, graphite or metal moulds. Cast glass windows, albeit with poor optical qualities, began to appear in the most important buildings in Rome and the most luxurious villas of Herculaneum and Pompeii. One of the earliest methods of glass window manufacture was the crown glass method. Hot blown glass was cut open opposite the pipe rapidly spun on a table before it could cool. Centrifugal force shaped the hot globe of glass into a round, flat sheet.
The sheet would be broken off the pipe and trimmed to form a rectangular window to fit into a frame. At the center of a piece of crown glass, a thick remnant of the original blown bottle neck would remain, hence the name "bullseye". Optical distortions produced by the bullseye could be reduced by grinding the glass; the development of diaper latticed windows was in part because three regular diamond-shaped panes could be conveniently cut from a piece of Crown glass, with minimum waste and with minimum distortion. This method for manufacturing flat glass panels was expensive and could not be used to make large panes, it was replaced in the 19th century by the cylinder and rolled plate processes, but it is still used in traditional construction and restoration. In this manufacturing process, glass is blown into a cylindrical iron mould; the ends are cut off and a cut is made down the side of the cylinder. The cut cylinder is placed in an oven where the cylinder unrolls into a flat glass sheets. Drawn Sheet glass was made by dipping a leader into a vat of molten glass pulling that leader straight up while a film of glass hardened just out of the vat – this is known as the Fourcault process.
This film or ribbon was pulled up continuously held by tractors on both edges. After 12 metres or so it tipped down to be further cut; this glass is clear but has thickness variations due to small temperature changes just out of the vat as it was hardening. These variations cause lines of slight distortions; this glass may still be seen in older houses. Float glass replaced this process. Developed by James Hartledsay in 1848; the glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, which are carried upon slings running on overhead rails. The sheet thus rolled is trimmed while hot and soft, so as to remove those portions of glass which have been spoiled by immediate contact with the ladle, the sheet, still soft, is pushed into the open mouth of an annealing tunnel or temperature-controlled oven called a lehr, down which it is carried by a system of rollers; the polished plate glass process starts with rolled plate glass. This glass is dimensionally inaccurate and created visual distortions; these rough panes were ground flat and polished clear.
This was a expensive process. Before the float process, mirrors were plate glass as sheet glass had visual distortions that were akin to those seen in amusement park or funfair mirrors; the elaborate patterns found on figured rolled-plate glass are produced in a similar fashion to the rolled plate glass process except that the plate is cast between two rollers, one of which carries a pattern. On occasion, both rollers can carry a pattern; the pattern is impressed upon the sheet by a printing roller, brought down upon the glass as it leaves the main rolls while still soft. This glass shows a pattern in high relief; the glass is annealed in a lehr. The glass used for this purpose is whiter in colour than the clear glasses used for other applications; this glass can be laminated or toughened depending on the depth of the pattern to produce a safety glass. Ninety percent of the world's flat glass is produced by the float glass process invented in the 1950s by Sir Alastair Pilkington of Pilkington Glass, in which molten glass is poured onto one end of a molten tin bath.
The glass floats on the tin, levels out as it spreads along the bath, giving a smooth face to both sides. The glass cools and solidifies as it travels over the molten tin and leaves the tin bath in a continuous ribbon; the glass is annealed by cooling in an oven called a lehr. The finished product has near-perfect parallel surfaces; the side of the glass, in contact with the tin has a small amount of the tin embedded in its surface. This quality makes that side of the glass easier to be coated in order to turn it into a mirror, however that side is softer and easier to scratch. Glass is produced in standard metric thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 19 and 22 mm, with 10mm being the most popular sizing in the architectural industry. Molten glass floating on tin in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere will spread out to a thickness of about 6 mm and stop due to surface tension. Thinner glass is made by stretching the glass while it cools. Thicker glass is pushed back and not permitted to expand as it cools on the tin.
Prism glass is architectural glass which bends light
A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security. There are many kinds of walls, including: Defensive walls in fortifications Walls in buildings that form a fundamental part of the superstructure or separate interior rooms, sometimes for fire safety Retaining walls, which hold back dirt, water, or noise sound Walls that protect from oceans or rivers Permanent, solid fences Border barriers between countries Brick wall Precast wall Stone wall Glass wall Doors are mobile walls on hinges which open to form a gateway Wall comes from Latin vallum meaning "...an earthen wall or rampart set with palisades, a row or line of stakes, a wall, a rampart, fortification..." while the Latin word murus means a defensive stone wall. English uses the same word to mean an external wall and the internal sides of a room, but this is not universal. Many languages distinguish between the two. In German, some of this distinction can be seen between Wand and Mauer, in Spanish between pared and muro.
The word wall referred to defensive walls and ramparts. The purposes of the walls in buildings are to support roofs and ceilings. In addition, the wall may house various types of utilities such as electrical plumbing. Wall construction falls into two basic categories: framed mass-walls. In framed walls the load is transferred to the foundation through columns or studs. Framed walls most have three or more separate components: the structural elements and finish elements or surfaces. Mass-walls are of a solid material including masonry, concrete including slipform stonemasonry, log building, cordwood construction, rammed earth, earthbag construction, tin cans, straw-bale construction, ice. There are three basic methods walls control water intrusion: moisture storage, drained cladding, or face-sealed cladding. Moisture storage is typical of stone and brick mass-wall buildings where moisture is absorbed and released by the walls of the structure itself. Drained cladding known as screened walls acknowledges moisture will penetrate the cladding so a moisture barrier such as housewrap or felt paper inside the cladding provides a second line of defense and sometimes a drainage plane or air gap allows a path for the moisture to drain down through and exit the wall.
Sometimes ventilation is provided in addition to the drainage plane such as in rainscreen construction. Face-sealed called barrier wall or perfect barrier cladding relies on maintaining a leak-free surface of the cladding. Examples of face sealed cladding are the early exterior insulation finishing systems, structural glazing, metal clad panels, corrugated metal. Building walls become works of art and internally, such as when featuring mosaic work or when murals are painted on them. In architecture and civil engineering, curtain wall refers to a building facade, not load-bearing but provides decoration, front, face, or historical preservation. Precast walls are walls which have been preassembled in a factory, shipped to where it is needed, ready to install, it is faster to install compared to brick and other walls, may have a lower cost compared to other types of wall. Mullion walls are a structural system that carries the load of the floor slab on prefabricated panels around the perimeter. A partition wall is a thin wall, used to separate or divide a room a pre-existing one.
Partition walls are not load-bearing, can be constructed out of many materials, including steel panels, cloth, plasterboard, blocks of clay, terra-cotta and glass. Some partition walls are made of sheet glass. Glass partition walls are a series of individual toughened glass panels mounted in wood or metal framing, they may slide along a robust aluminium ceiling track. The system does not require the use of a floor guide, which allows easy operation and an uninterrupted threshold. A timber partition consists of a wooden framework, supported on the floor or by side walls. Metal lath and plaster, properly laid, forms a reinforced partition wall. Partition walls constructed from fibre cement backer board are popular as bases for tiling in kitchens or in wet areas like bathrooms. Galvanized sheet fixed to wooden or steel members are adopted in works of temporary character. Plain or reinforced partition walls may be constructed from concrete, including pre-cast concrete blocks. Metal framed partitioning is available.
This partition consists of track and studs. Internal wall partitions known as office partitioning, are made of plasterboard or varieties of glass. Toughened glass is a common option, as low-iron glass increases solar heat transmission. Wall partitions are constructed using beads and tracking, either hung from the ceiling or fixed into the ground; the panels are fixed. Some wall partition variations specify their fire resistance and acoustic performance rating. Movable partitions are walls; these include: Sliding—a series of panels that slide in tracks fixed to the floor and ceiling, similar sliding doors Sliding and
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
Postage stamps and postal history of Germany
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Germany and philatelically related areas. The main modern providers of service were the Reichspost, the Deutsche Post under Allied control, the Deutsche Post of the GDR, the Deutsche Bundespost, along with the Deutsche Bundespost Berlin, are now the Deutsche Post AG; the Metzger Post is credited to be the first international post of the Middle Ages. The guild of butchers organized courier mail services with horses; the Metzger Post was established in the twelfth century and survived until 1637, when Thurn und Taxis's monopoly took over. In 1497, on behalf of Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire, Franz von Taxis established a postal service that replaced the ad-hoc courier for official mail. A horse relay system was created that shortened the transit time for mail and made its arrival predictable. Thereafter, the house of Thurn und Taxis using the imperial yellow and black livery maintained the postal privilege for many centuries.
The Thurn-und-Taxis-Post employed the first horse-drawn mail coaches in Europe since Roman times. They started in the town of Kocs, giving rise to the term "coach". Thurn und Taxis lost its monopoly when Napoleon granted the Rhine Confederation the right to conduct postal services; the agency continued to operate and issued some stamps but when Prussia created the North German Confederacy, Thurn und Taxis had to sell its privileges in 1867. Prior to the German unification of 1871, individual German states and entities started to release their own stamps, Bavaria first on November 1, 1849 with the one kreuzer black. States or entities that issued stamps subsequently were Baden, Brunswick, Hamburg, Heligoland, Lübeck, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prussia, Schleswig-Holstein, Württemberg. Thurn und Taxis, while not a state, had the authority to issue stamps and transport mail and released stamps; the northern German states joined in the North German Confederation in 1868 and united their postal services in the "North German Postal District".
After the unification, Bavaria and Württemberg retained their postal authority to continue producing stamps until March 31, 1920. The Deutsche Reichspost started on May 4, 1871 using stamps of the North German Confederation until it issued its first stamps on January 1, 1872. Heinrich von Stephan, inventor of the postcard and founder of the Universal Postal Union, was the first Postmaster-General; the most common stamps of the Reichspost were the Germania stamps. Germania stamps were issued from 1900 until 1922 making it the longest running series in German philately with the change in the inscription from Reichspost to Deutsches Reich being the major modification during this period. Early postage from about 1887 or 1888 consisted of common contemporary German stamps and is only recognized by the post office cancellation stamp as having been used in a colony; such stamps are known as "Vorläufer" stamps. In the next step regular stamps were used with overprints indicating the name of the territory.
By 1896 and thereafter overprinted stamps were issued by the German authorities for all colonies: German South-West Africa, German New Guinea, Togo, Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, German East Africa and Kamerun. By about 1900 the yacht issue was introduced for the various colonial territories which had a uniform appearance depicting the imperial yacht SMY Hohenzollern. After Germany lost control of its colonies in the course of World War I, overprinted yacht stamps were temporarily used by the new colonial rulers. Imperial Germany maintained post offices in certain towns in Morocco and China. Issued stamps can be recognized by the cancellation stamp or the overprint may show local denomination and the name of the country. During World War I, German authorities issued stamps in occupied countries, namely Belgium, Poland and areas of the western and eastern front; the Reichspost continued to function as a governmental entity. In 1919 the Reichspost issued its first commemorative and semipostal stamps.
The first semipostal stamp in 1919 carried a surcharge for the benefit of war invalids. In 1923 during hyperinflation, the Reichspost issued stamps up to 50 billion marks; the main common stamp series was the "famous German people" series, followed by the Hindenburg stamps. The first of the valuable German Zeppelin stamps appeared in 1928, Scott # C35-37. After the Treaty of Versailles a number of areas underwent plebiscites in 1920 to determine their future fate; these areas issued stamps: Allenstein and Marienwerder and Upper Silesia. After the Treaty of Versailles the Free City of Danzig was established as an independent entity in 1920. At first German stamps were still used, after a while overprinted with "Danzig". Thereafter Danzig introduced its own stamps until 1939. In addition, the Polish Post maintained a presence in Danzig and issued Port Gdansk overprinted Polish stamps. After the Treaty of Versailles, the Memel Territory was established. German French and Lithuanian overprinted stamps were used.
Memel issued stamps between 1923 when it was annexed by Lithuania. After the Treaty of Versailles the Saar territory was administered by the League of Nations, it issued its own stamps from 19
Safety glass is glass with additional safety features that make it less to break, or less to pose a threat when broken. Common designs include laminated glass, wire mesh glass and engraved glass. Wire mesh glass was invented by Frank Shuman. Laminated glass was invented in 1903 by the French chemist Édouard Bénédictus; these four approaches can be combined, allowing for the creation of glass, at the same time toughened and contains a wire mesh. However, combination of a wire mesh with other techniques is unusual, as it betrays their individual qualities. Toughened glass is processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering, by design, creates balanced internal stresses which causes the glass sheet, when broken, to crumble into small granular chunks of similar size and shape instead of splintering into random, jagged shards; the granular chunks are less to cause injury. As a result of its safety and strength, tempered glass is used in a variety of demanding applications, including passenger vehicle windows, shower doors, architectural glass doors and tables, refrigerator trays, as a component of bulletproof glass, for diving masks, various types of plates and cookware.
In the United States, since 1977 Federal law has required safety glass located within doors and tub and shower enclosures. Laminated glass is composed layers of plastic held together by an interlayer; when laminated glass is broken, it is held in place by an interlayer of polyvinyl butyral, between its two or more layers of glass, which crumble into small pieces. The interlayer keeps the layers of glass bonded when broken, its toughening prevents the glass from breaking up into large sharp pieces; this produces a characteristic "spider web" cracking pattern when the impact is not enough to pierce the glass. Laminated glass is used when there is a possibility of human impact or where the glass could fall if shattered. Skylight glazing and automobile windshields use laminated glass. In geographical areas requiring hurricane-resistant construction, laminated glass is used in exterior storefronts, curtain walls and windows; the PVB interlayer gives the glass a much higher sound insulation rating, due to the damping effect, blocks most of the incoming UV radiation.
Wire mesh glass has a mesh of thin metal wire embedded within the glass. Wired glass, as it is described, does not perform the function most individuals associate with it; the presence of the wire mesh appears to be a strengthening component, as it is metallic, conjures up the idea of rebar in reinforced concrete or other such examples. Despite this belief, wired glass is weaker than unwired glass due to the incursions of the wire into the structure of the glass. Wired glass may cause heightened injury in comparison to unwired glass, as the wire amplifies the irregularity of any fractures; this has led to a decline in its use institutionally in schools. In recent years, new materials have become available that offer both fire-ratings and safety ratings so the continued use of wired glass is being debated worldwide; the US International Building Code banned wired glass in 2006. Canada’s building codes still permit the use of wired glass but the codes are being reviewed and traditional wired glass is expected to be restricted in its use.
Australia has no similar review taking place. Wired glass is still used in the US for its fire-resistant abilities, is well-rated to withstand both heat and hose streams; this is why wired glass is used on service elevators to prevent fire ingress to the shaft, why it is found in institutional settings which are well-protected and partitioned against fire. The wire prevents the glass from falling out of the frame if it cracks under thermal stress, is far more heat-resistant than a laminating material. In 2014, researchers used lasers to create an analogue of nacre by engraving networks of wavy 3D "micro-cracks" in glass microscope slides; when the slides were subjected to an impact, the micro-cracks absorbed and dispersed the energy, keeping the glass from shattering. Altogether, treated glass was 200 times tougher than untreated glass. Architectural glass