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Gleichschaltung

Gleichschaltung, or in English co-ordination, was in Nazi terminology the process of Nazification by which Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society and societies occupied by Nazi Germany "from the economy and trade associations to the media and education". The apex of the Nazification of Germany was in the resolutions approved during the Nuremberg Rally of 1935, when the symbols of the Nazi Party and the State were fused and German Jews were deprived of their citizenship; the Nazis used the word Gleichschaltung for the process of successively establishing a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society and societies occupied by Nazi Germany. It has been variously translated as co-ordination, Nazification of state and society and bringing into line, but English texts use the untranslated German word to convey its unique historical meaning. In their seminal work on National Socialist vernacular, Nazi-Deutsch/Nazi-German: An English Lexicon of the Language of the Third Reich, historians Robert Micheal and Karin Doerr define Gleichschaltung as: "Consolidation.

All of the German Volk’s social and cultural organizations to be controlled and run according to Nazi ideology and policy. All opposition to be eliminated." The Nazis were able to put Gleichschaltung into effect due to the legal measures taken by the government during the 20 months following 30 January 1933, when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. One day after the Reichstag fire on 27 February 1933, President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg, acting at Hitler's request and on the basis of the emergency powers in article 48 of the Weimar Constitution, issued the Reichstag Fire Decree; this decree suspended most citizen rights provided for by the constitution and thus allowed for the arrest of political adversaries Communists, for terrorizing of other electors by the Sturmabteilung before the upcoming election. In this atmosphere the Reichstag general election of 5 March 1933 took place; the Nazis had hoped to win an outright majority and push aside their coalition partners, the German National People's Party.

However, the Nazis won only 43.9 percent of the vote, well short of a majority. Despite not securing the necessary vote to secure any amendments to the existing federal constitution, the disaffection with the predecessor Weimar government's attempt at democracy was palpable and subsequent violence followed. SA units stormed the Social Democrats' headquarters in Königsberg, destroying the premises and beating Communist Reichstag deputy Walter Schütz to death. Other non-Nazi party officials were attacked by the SA in Wuppertal, Braunschweig and elsewhere throughout Germany, in a series of violent acts which continued to escalate through the summer of 1933; when the newly elected Reichstag first convened on 23 March 1933—not including the Communist delegates because their party had been banned on 6 March—it passed the Enabling Act. This law gave the government—and in practice, Hitler—the right to make laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. Throughout Germany, the Nazis were able to tighten their grip upon the state thanks to the Enabling Act.

For all intents and purposes, the entire Weimar Constitution was rendered void. Soon afterwards the government banned the Social Democratic Party, as an "avalanche" soon buried the other parties. By midsummer, the other parties had been intimidated into dissolving themselves rather than face arrests and concentration camp imprisonment and all non-Nazi ministers of the coalition government had been compelled to resign their posts; the "First Gleichschaltung Law", passed using the Enabling Act. The same law ordered the state diets reconstituted on the basis of the votes in the last Reichstag election, gave the state governments the same powers the Reich government possessed under the Enabling Act; the "Second Gleichschaltung Law" deployed one Reichsstatthalter in each state, apart from Prussia. These officers, responsible to Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, were supposed to act as local proconsuls in each state, with near-complete control over the state governments. Another measure of Nazi Gleichschaltung was the passing of the "Law for the Restoration of a Professional Civil Service", decreed on 7 April 1933, which enabled the "co-ordination" of the civil service—which in Germany included not only bureaucrats, but schoolteachers and professors, judges and other professionals—at both the Federal and state level, authorized the removal of Jews and Communists from all corresponding positions.

On 14 July 1933, the Nazis passed the "Law Against the Founding of New Parties", which declared the NSDAP as the country's only legal political party. The "Law Concerning the Reconstruction of the Reich" formally did away with the concept of a federal republic, converting Germany into a centralized state; the states were reduced to mere provinces, as their institutions were abolished altogether. All of their powers passed to the central government. A law passed on 14 February formally abolished the Reichsrat. One of the most important steps towards Gleichschaltung of German society was the introduction of the

Paco de LucĂ­a interpreta a Manuel de Falla

Paco de Lucía interpreta a Manuel de Falla is the twelfth studio album by the Spanish composer and guitarist Paco de Lucía. All the pieces were written by Manuel de Falla. De Falla was a composer who wrote little music for the guitar. Although there is no doubt that de Falla was influenced by cante jondo, his music has to be arranged for guitar. In this respect, he can be compared to another Spanish composer, Isaac Albéniz whose piano music has entered the guitar repertory; the three dances from The Three-Cornered Hat were written for orchestra. They take the form of farrucas. El Amor Brujo was written to feature a flamenco dancer plus musicians, it was scored for a small band and a singer, a vocal part intended for a cantaora. "Danza de los Vecinos" from The Three-Cornered Hat – 3:09 "Danza ritual del fuego" – 4:24 "Introducción y pantomima" – 2:59 "El Paño Moruno" – 1:27 "Danza del Molinero" – 3:04 "Danza" – 3:24 "Escena" – 1:25 "Canción del fuego fatuo" – 4:05 "Danza del terror" – 1:48 "Danza de la Molinera" – 4:01 Paco de Lucía - Flamenco guitar Ramón de Algeciras - Flamenco Guitar Pepe de Lucía - Vocal Alvaro Yebenes - Bass Guitar Rubem Dantas - Percussion Jorge Pardo - Flute Pedro Ruy-Blas - Drums Gamboa, Manuel José and Nuñez, Faustino..

Paco de Lucía. Madrid:Universal Music Spain

Mohsin Zaidi

Mohsin Zaidi was an Indian Urdu poet who used the pen name'Mohsin'. He is best known as a writer of ghazals. Saiyed Mohsin Raza Zaidi was born on 10 July 1935 in Bahraich, a town in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, his parents were Sughra Begum. Zaidi attended the Islamia School in Pratapgarh, K. P. Hindu High School, Government High School through the 1940s, he started writing Urdu poetry in 1950 at the age of 15 while in high school in Pratapgarh. He attended Maharaj Singh Inter College, from 1951 to 1952, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature and economics from Lucknow University in 1954, a master's degree in economics from Allahabad University in 1956. Zaidi joined the Indian Economic Service in 1956 and worked with the Government of India until his retirement in 1993, he held positions with the Central Government in the ministries of chemicals and fertilizers, agriculture, in the Planning Commission. He retired as a senior economist in the Senior Administrative Grade of Joint Secretary.

As part of government assignments, he toured Japan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia and Algeria. Zaidi was impressed by Naazish Pratapgarhi, yet his major inspiration came from Mir Taqi Mir, Momin Khan Momin, Mirza Ghalib, Haider Ali Aatish, Mir Anis, Daagh Dehlvi and Mir Dard. Among the neoclassical and modern poets his favourites were Muhammad Iqbal, Firaq Gorakhpuri, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Jigar Moradabadi. Zaidi was a writer of ghazals, a traditional form of poetry utilizing specific diction and narration; the study of economics influenced Zaidi's poetry. Kumar Pashi said that Zaidi was among the few poets who used traditional ghazal to express new ideas. Makhmoor Saeedi, a contemporary poet and Urdu critic, praised Zaidi's mastery at creating an impression while writing in simple and unadorned language, he noted Zaidi's themes: "integrity of character, opposition to all tyrannical powers, belief in retribution for one's actions, search for virtues in human nature, belief in the victory of truth."According to Shaarib Rudawlvi, Zaidi's work "had a freshness of thought, intense feelings, dexterity of expression."

He noted the "spontaneity" of Zaidi's poetry which gracefully moved from one idea to another. He wrote that Zaidi's greatest quality was maintaining his unique style instead of bowing to the pressures of short-lived literary movements. Shehr-e-Dil Rishtah-e-Kalaam Mataa-e-Aakhir-e-Shab Baab-e-Sukhan Jumbish-e-Nok-e-Qalam Zaidi died in Lucknow on 3 September 2003. NewsEvents, The Annual of Urdu Studies, University of Wisconsin Muhsin Zaidi 1935 – A Date List of Urdu Literature – by Shamsur Rahman Faruqi & Frances W. Pritchett Muhsin Zaidi 1935–2003 – List of Urdu Authors: Urdu Youth Forum Mention of 29th issue of Irteqa on life & works of Mohsin Zaidi Vichardhara – excerpts from a mushaira A Ghazal of Mohsin Zaidi

Kawit (queen)

Kawit was an ancient Egyptian queen consort, a lower ranking wife of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II of the 11th Dynasty. Her tomb and small decorated chapel were found in her husband's Deir el-Bahari temple complex, behind the main building, along with the tombs of five other ladies, Henhenet, Kemsit and Mayet, she and three other women of the six bore queenly titles, most of them were priestesses of Hathor, so it is possible that they were buried there as part of the goddess's cult, but it is possible that they were the daughters of nobles the king wanted to keep an eye upon. Her stone sarcophagus is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo; the queen is depicted with short hair, she is sitting on a chair, a servant girl is arranging her hair, while a servant is pouring her a drink. On her sarcophagus her only titles are priestess and King's Ornament, her queenly title appears only in her chapel. In her tomb were six miniature wax figurines depicting Kawit, in small wooden coffins, these may be early versions of ushabti.

The queen was depicted on reliefs in the funerary temple of her husband Mentuhotep II. These depictions are today destroyed, but it seems that she appeared in a scene showing a row of royal women. On the preserved fragments she is shown before queen Kemsit, her title in the depiction is beloved king's wife. Her titles were: King's Beloved Wife, King's Ornament, King's Sole Ornament, Priestess of Hathor

Corymbia gummifera

Corymbia gummifera known as red bloodwood, is a species of tree a mallee, endemic to eastern Australia. It has rough, tessellated bark on the trunk and branches, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, creamy white flowers and urn-shaped fruit. Corymbia gummifera is a tree that grows to a height of 20–35 m a mallee, forms a lignotuber. Young plants and coppice regrowth have leaves that are paler on the lower surface, egg-shaped to lance-shaped, 90–165 mm long and 30–52 mm wide, petiolate. Adult leaves are glossy dark green, paler on the lower surface, lance-shaped, 55–160 mm long and 15–50 mm wide, tapering to a petiole 8–23 mm long; the flower buds are arranged on the ends of branchlets on a branched peduncle 17–33 mm long, each branch of the peduncle with seven buds on pedicels 2–15 mm long. Mature buds are oval to pear-shaped, 8–12 mm long and 4–6 mm wide with a conical to rounded or beaked operculum. Flowering occurs from December to June and the flowers are creamy white.

The fruit is a woody urn-shaped capsule 12–22 mm long and 9–18 mm wide with the valves enclosed in the fruit. The red bloodwood was first formally described in 1788 by Joseph Gaertner who gave it the name Metrosideros gummifera and published the description in his book De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum; the name Eucalyptus corymbosa, published by James Edward Smith in his 1795 A Specimen of the Botany of New Holland, is regarded as a synonym by the Australian Plant Census. Eucalyptus corymbosus, published in 1797 by Cavanilles in his book Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum is an orthographical variant. Eucalyptus oppositifolia, published in 1804 by Desfontaines is a nomen nudum because no description was provided. Eucalyptus purpurascens var. petiolaris, published in 1828 by de Candolle is regarded as a synonym. Eucalyptus longifolia, published in 1920 by Joseph Maiden is an invalid name because it had been used for a different species. In 1995 Ken Hill and Lawrie Johnson changed the name to Corymbia gummifera.

Corymbia gummifera occurs on flats and low hills along the coast between the extreme eastern corner of Victoria and south-eastern Queensland. It grows best on moist, loamy soil, but is commonly found on poorer sandy soils; the heartwood of C. gummifera is strong and durable, but has extensive gum lines. It is used for rough construction purposes, such as poles, sleepers and mining timbers

Reflected appraisal

Reflected appraisal is a term used in psychology to describe a person's perception of how others see and evaluate him or her. The reflected appraisal process concludes that people come to think of themselves in the way they believe others think of them; this process has been deemed important to the development of a person's self-esteem because it includes interaction with people outside oneself, is considered one of the main influences on the development of self-concept. Harry Stack Sullivan first coined the term reflected appraisal in 1953 when he published The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry, though Charles H. Cooley was the first to describe the process of reflected appraisal when he discussed his concept of the looking-glass self. Although some of our self-views are gained by direct experience with our environment, most of what we know about ourselves is derived from others. In 1979, Shrauger and Shoeneman found that rather than our self-concepts resembling the way others see us, our self-concepts are filtered through our perceptions and resemble how we think others see us.

Felson explained that individuals are not accurate in judging what others think of them. Among the causes of the discrepancy is the apprehension of others about revealing their views. At best, they may reveal favorable views rather than both favorable and unfavorable views. Consistent with other research, Felson found that individuals have a better idea of how groups see them than of how specific individuals see them. Individuals learn the group standards and apply those standards. In turn, when group members judge individuals, they use the same standards that individuals applied to themselves, thus we find a correspondence in other's appraisals of the self. The extent to which reflected appraisals affect the person being appraised depends upon characteristics of the appraiser and his or her appraisal. Greater impact on the development of a person's self-concept is said to occur when: the appraiser is perceived as a credible source the appraiser takes a personal interest in the person being appraised the appraisal is discrepant with the person's self-concept at the moment the number of confirmations of a given appraisal is high the appraisals coming from a variety of sources are consistent and appraisals are supportive of the person's own beliefs about himself or herself.

Several studies have been conducted on the way reflected appraisal affects various relationships in a person's life. The idea that a person's self-concept is related to what that person perceives as another's opinion holds more weight with significant others. Appraisals from significant others such as parents, close friends, trusted colleagues, other people the individual admires, influences self-concept development and has more influence than a stranger on a child's developing self-esteem. Study of this topic has led to the realization that people sometimes tend to anticipate what will happen in the future based on a previous perception. Reflected appraisals are present among family members. All family members have opinions about one another and are less reticent to express them to each other than is the case outside of family relations. Siblings may be only too eager to give critical feedback regarding each other's behavior, social skills, intelligence. Not all of these appraisals, of course, are significant for one's self-esteem.

Both what is being appraised and who does the appraising, are important qualifiers. For children, on most things, the reflected appraisals of their parents may matter much more than those of their siblings. Reflected appraisal has been the main process examined in studies of self-esteem within families; the bulk of this research has focused on the effects of parental behavior on children's self-esteem. In general, these studies find that parental support and encouragement and use of inductive control are related positively to children's self-esteem. Most of these parental variables could be considered indicators of positive reflected appraisals of the child, they are the parental behaviors found to be associated with the development of other positive socialization outcomes in children and adolescents. In the investigation of the reflected appraisal process with newly married couples, social status derived from one's position in the social structure influences the appraisal process; the spouse with the higher status in the marriage is more to not only influence their partner's self-views, but their partner's views of them.

Spouses with a lower status in the marriage have less influence on the self-view of their higher status counterparts or on how their higher-status counterparts view them. Through reflected appraisals, we are given lines to speak in everyday situations that are sometimes so specific that some people refer to them as scripts. Through these scripts, we are given our lines, our gestures, our characterizations; the scripts tell us how to act in future scenarios, what is expected of us. Others tell us what they expect from us, how we should look, how we should behave, how we should say our lines; the messages we receive about ourselves during the process of reflected appraisal can become self-fulfilling prophecies. The Pygmalion effect, Rosenthal effect, observer-expect