Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Seneca Lake (New York)
Seneca Lake is the largest of the glacial Finger Lakes of the U. S. state of New York, the deepest lake within the state. It is promoted as being the lake trout capital of the world, is host of the National Lake Trout Derby; because of its depth and relative ease of access, the US Navy uses Seneca Lake to perform test and evaluation of equipment ranging from single element transducers to complex sonar arrays and systems. The lake takes its name from the Seneca nation of Native Americans. At the north end of Seneca Lake is the city of Geneva, New York, home of Hobart and William Smith Colleges and the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, a division of Cornell University. At the south end of the lake is the village of Watkins Glen, New York, famed for auto racing and waterfalls. Due to Seneca Lake's unique macroclimate it is home to over 50 wineries, many of them farm wineries and is the location of the Seneca Lake AVA.. At 38 miles long, it is the second longest of the Finger Lakes and has the largest volume, estimated at 3.81 cubic miles half of the water in all the Finger Lakes.
It has an average depth of 291 feet, a maximum depth of 618 feet, a surface area of 66.9 square miles. For comparison, Scotland's famous Loch Ness is 22.5 miles long, 1.7 miles wide, has a surface area of 21.8 square miles, an average depth of 433 feet, a maximum depth of 744.6 feet, total volume of 1.8 cubic miles of water. Seneca's two main inlets are Catharine Creek at the Keuka Lake Outlet. Seneca Lake lets out into the Seneca River/ Cayuga-Seneca Canal, which joins Seneca and Cayuga Lakes at their northern ends, it is replenished at a rate of 328,000 gallons per minute. These springs keep the water moving in a circular motion; because of Seneca Lake's great depth its temperature remains a near-constant 39 °F. In summer the top 10 to 15 feet warms to 70–80 °F. Seneca lake has a typical aquatic population for large deep lakes in the northeast, with coldwater fish such as lake trout and Atlantic salmon inhabiting the deeper waters, warmwater fish such as smallmouth bass and yellow perch inhabiting the shallower areas.
The lake is home to a robust population of "sawbellies," the local term for alewife shad. Seneca Lake was formed at least two million years ago by glacial carving of valleys, it was a part of a series of rivers that flowed northward. Around this time many continental glaciers moved into the area and started the Pleistocene glaciation known as the Ice Age, it is presumed that the Finger Lakes were created by many advances and retreats of massive glaciers that were up to 2 miles wide. Over 200 years ago, there were Iroquois villages on Seneca Lake's surrounding hillsides. During the American Revolutionary War, their villages, including Kanadaseaga, were wiped out during the 1779 Sullivan Expedition by Continental troops under order by General George Washington to invade their homeland, destroy their dwellings and crops, end their threat to the patriots, they destroyed nearly 50 Cayuga villages. Today roadside signs trace Sullivan's route along the east side of Seneca Lake where the burning of villages and crops occurred.
After the war, the Iroquois were forced to cede their land. Their millions of acres were sold and some lands in this area were granted to veterans of the army in payment for their military service. A slow stream of European-American settlers began to arrive circa 1790; the settlers were without a market nearby or a way to get their crops to market. The settlers' isolation ended in 1825 with the opening of the Erie Canal; the canal linked the Finger Lakes Region to the outside world. Steamships and ferries became Seneca Lake's ambassadors of commerce and trade; the former, short Crooked Lake Canal linked Seneca Lake to Keuka Lake. Numerous canal barges sank during operations and rest on the bottom of the lake. A collection of barges at the southwest end of the lake, near the village of Watkins Glen, is being preserved and made accessible for scuba diving by the Finger Lakes Underwater Preserve Association; the lake is a popular fishing destination from all around. Fish species present in the lake include lake trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, landlocked salmon, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, northern pike and yellow perch.
The painted rocks located at the southern end of the lake on the eastern cliff face depict an American flag, Tee-pee, several Native Americans. The older paintings, located on the bottom of the cliff, were said to have been drawn in 1779 after the Senecas escaped men from John Sullivan's campaign. However, this account is questioned by historian Barbara Bell, arguing that it is unlikely that the Senecas would have returned to paint the paintings having just escaped from Sullivan's men, she suggests instead that these paintings may have been made much for tourists on Seneca Lake boat tours. It is known that the more visible and prominent paintings of the Native Americans, American flag, Tee-pee were added in 1929 during the Sullivan Sesquicentennial. There are two mistakes in these 1929 additions: firstly the Native Americans in the Seneca Region used longhouses and not Tee-pees, secondly the flag is displayed pointing to the left, never to be done on a horizontal surface. Seneca Lake is the site of strange and unexplained cannon-like booms and shakes that are heard and felt in the surrounding area.
They are known locally as the Seneca Guns, La
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Larne is a seaport and industrial market town, as well as a civil parish, on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, with a population of 18,323 people in the 2008 Estimate. The Larne Local Government District had a population of 32,180 in 2011, it has been used as a seaport for over 1,000 years, is today a major passenger and freight roll-on roll-off port. Larne is administered by East Antrim Borough Council. Together with parts of the neighbouring districts of Antrim and Newtownabbey and Causeway Coast and Glens, it forms the East Antrim constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly; the civil parish is situated in the historic barony of Glenarm Upper. The coastal area around Larne has been inhabited for millennia, is thought to have been one of the earliest inhabited areas of Ireland, with these early human populations believed to have arrived from Scotland via the North Channel; the early coastal dwellers are thought to have had a sophisticated culture which involved trading between the shores of the North Channel and between other settlements on the coasts of Scotland.
The coast of Scotland is in fact visible from here. Archaeological digs in the area have found flintwork and other artefacts which have been assigned dates from 6000 BC onwards; the term Larnian has been coined by archaeologists to describe such flintworks and similar artefacts of the Mesolithic era. Larnian is currently used to refer to people from Larne; the River Inver runs through Larne and was the name of a small village to one side of the current Larne town. Its name is an anglicised spelling of the Irish inbhear, meaning "river-mouth, estuary". A longer Irish name for Larne is Inbhear an Latharna; the oldest recorded name for Larne Lough is the Irish Loch Inbhear nOllarbha. Larne Lough is thought to have been mentioned by the Roman Emperor Serverus who described how, in 204AD, a Roman slave galley bound for Scotland was blown off course and took shelter in a place that they called Portus Saxa. Larne takes its name from Latharna, a Gaelic territory or túath, part of the Ulaid minor-kingdom of Dál nAraidi.
The name spelt as Latharne was used at one point in reference to the Anglo-Norman cantred of Carrickfergus. Latharna itself means "descendants of Lathar", with Lathar according to legend being a son of the pre-Christian king Úgaine Mór; the area where the modern town sits was known in Irish as Inbhear an Latharna and was anglicised as Inver Larne or Inver. The territorial name Latharna was only applied to the location of the present town in recent centuries. There was Viking activity in the area during the 10th and 11th centuries AD. Viking burial sites and artefacts have been dated to that time. Ulfreksfjord was an Old Norse name for Larne Lough. According to the Norse historian Snorri Sturluson, King of Ireland, defeated Orkney Vikings at Ulfreksfjord in 1018; this was anglicised as Wulfrickford. Other Norse-derived names for Larne Lough and the surrounding area are found in various records, they include Woking's Fyrth, Wolderfirth and Olderfleet. The only one that survives is Olderfleet; the ending -fleet comes from the Norse fljot, meaning "inlet".
Older- may come from the Norse oldu, meaning "wave". However, P. W. Joyce in his Irish Names of Places suggests that it comes from Ollarbha, the Irish name for the river. In the 13th Century the Scots Bissett family built Olderfleet Castle at Curran Point. In 1315 Edward the Bruce of Scotland landed at Larne with his 6000 strong army en route to conquer Ireland, where Olderfleet Castle was of strategic importance. Edward saw Ireland as another front in the ongoing war against Norman England. In 1569 Queen Elizabeth I, Queen of England and Ireland, appointed Sir Moyses Hill as the governor of Olderfleet Castle, it was seen as strategically important for any Tudor conquest of Ulster. Following the 17th century Union of the Crowns of Scotland and Ireland under James VI & I many more settlers would have arrived to Ulster via Larne during the Plantation of Ulster; the area around County Antrim itself, was not part of the official 17th century Plantation. During the 18th century many Scots-Irish emigrated to America from the port of Larne.
A monument in the Curran Park commemorates the Friends Goodwill, the first emigrant ship to sail from Larne in May 1717, heading for Boston, Massachusetts in the New England region of the modern United States of America. Boston's long standing Scots-Irish roots can be traced to Larne; the town is documented as being the first in county Antrim to be taken by United Irishmen during the ill-fated rebellion of 1798. The Protestant rebels from this area filled Larne and engaged the government forces around 2am on the morning of the 7th of June; this surprise attack drove the garrison to flee the town, at which point the rebel force marched off to join up with McCracken and fight in the Battle of Antrim. In 1914, Loyalists opposed to the Home Rule Act 1914 prepared for armed resistance. In an episode known as the Larne Gun Running German and Italian weapons with ammunition were transported into the ports of Larne and Bangor in the dead of night and distributed throughout Ulster; this event marked a major step in cementing the right to Ulster Unionist self-determination, with the recogni
Haltwhistle is a small town and civil parish in Northumberland, England, 10 miles east of Brampton, near Hadrian's Wall. It had a population of 3,811 at the 2011 Census. Stone-built houses are a feature of Haltwhistle, it is one of two settlements in Great Britain which claim to be the exact geographic centre of the island, along with Dunsop Bridge in Lancashire, 71 miles to the south. The name Haltwhistle has nothing to do with a railway stop. Early forms of the name are Hautwesel, Hawtewysill, Haltwesell; the second part -twistle relates to two streams or rivers. It derives from two Old English words twicce or twise,'twice','division into two' and wella,'stream, brook'; the second word is reduced in the compound word to ull, making twisella. All but one of the examples in place names represent a high tongue of land between two streams where they join; the first part is derived from Old English hēafod, here'hill-top', in general,'head','headland','summit','upper end' or'source of a stream'. If so, it describes the hill-top on which Holy Cross Church and the oldest part of Haltwhistle was built, enclosed on the north-east and west by Haltwhistle Burn and on the south by the South Tyne.
Rowland suggests Hal from'hill' An suggestion is French haut-, meaning'high', since the settlement existed long before the Norman Conquest. Haltwhistle was in existence in Roman times, as it is one of the closest approaches of the River South Tyne in its upland reaches to Hadrian's Wall; the old Roman road or Stanegate passes just two miles to the north of the town. The development of the town stemmed from its position on the main Newcastle to Carlisle road and on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway line; the expansion of Haltwhistle in the 18th and 19th centuries was due to coal mining in the area and to a lesser extent the use of Haltwhistle as a loading point for metal ores coming from the mines on Alston Moor. In 1836 while some workmen were quarrying stone for the Directors of the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, on the top of Barcombe, a high hill in the township of Thorngrafton and Parish of Haltwhistle, one of them found a copper vessel containing 63 coins, 3 of them gold and 60 copper.
The gold coins were, one of Claudius Caesar, reverse Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus. The find is known as the Thorngrafton Hoard and the empty arm-purse can still be seen in the museum at Chesters Fort. More paint manufacture became a major commercial force in the town, but has now stopped major production. Current local employers include factories making de-icing products. In the 21st century, the tourist industry dominates the economy with Hadrian's Wall and walking and rambling counting among the principal interests of tourists. Haltwhistle lies within the now unitary Northumberland County Council and was up until April 2009 part of Tynedale district, it maintains an active Town Council which has succeeded in making a number of local improvements including the establishment in 1975 of a heated outdoor swimming pool complex, popular during the summer months. It is believed that Haltwhistle may be one of the smallest towns to have made such a provision in Great Britain. An electoral ward with the same name still exists.
This ward stretches from Hexham south up the R. South Tyne and has a total population taken at the 2011 Census of 4,832; the town is in the parliamentary constituency of Hexham. Haltwhistle was a market town for the exchange of local goods. In the 18th century two Quakers set up a baize manufactury and there was a weaving establishment. On the Haltwhistle Burn were fulling mills and spinning mills. A walk along this stream to the Roman Wall, shows that it must have been a hive of industry with quarries, coal mining and lime burning kilns; the Directory of 1822 gives a whole range of craftsmen and traders—60 in number, including makers of clogs. The weekly market was held on Thursdays and there were fairs on 14 May and 22 November for cattle and sheep. Hadrian's Wall to the north of the town is used as a major selling point for the town; the section of the wall closest to Haltwhistle is among the most spectacular and complete, with the wall striding eastwards from the lake at Crag Lough along the spine of the Whin Sill.
The remains of Haltwhistle Castle and the series of Bastles, Haltwhistle Tower. Haltwhistle claims to be at the geographic centre of Britain – equidistant from the sea as measured along the principal points of the compass. A hotel in the centre of Haltwhistle is named the Centre of Britain Hotel in recognition of this claim; the claim is rather tenuous as it requires that the northern extremity is taken to be Orkney rather than Shetland. Depending on how the centre of the island is calculated, the centre can be said to be Dunsop Bridge in Lancashire. See centre points of the United Kingdom. There are many historic properties nearby, including Featherstone Castle, Blenkinsop Castle, Unthank Hall, Bellister Castle, Coanwood Friends Meeting House, Thirlwall Castle. Haltwhistle Viaduct lies to the south of the railway station and was the first major feature on the Alston Line to Alston, Cumbria. Railway The town is served by Haltwhistle railway station on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway known as the Tyne Valley Line.
The line was opened in 1838, links the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in Tyne and Wear with Carlisle in Cumbria. The line follows the course of the River Tyne through Northumberland. Passenger services on the Tyne Valley Line are operated by Abellio ScotRail; the line is heavily used for freight. The railway station is on the south side of the town close by the River South Tyne; until 1976 the rai
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression, longer than it is wide; the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. Other terms used for valleys are: Vale: A valley. Dell: A small and wooded valley. Glen: A long valley bounded by sloped concave sides. Strath: A wide, flat valley through which a river runs. Mountain cove: A small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. Hollow: A term used sometimes for a small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges. Cwm: A deep, narrow valley. A steephead valley is a deep, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.
Structural valley: A valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands. Dry valley: A valley not created by sustained surface water flow. Longitudinal valley: An elongated valley found between two parallel mountain chains. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, gullies and kloofs, are not referred to as valleys. A valley formed by flowing water, called fluvial valley or river valley, is V-shaped; the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce a bottom. Shallower slopes may produce gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain; some broad V examples are: North America: Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, others in Grand Canyon NP Europe: Austria: narrow passages of upper Inn valley, affluents of Enns Switzerland: Napf region, Zurich Oberland, Engadin Germany: affluents to the middle reaches of Rhine and MoselSome of the first human complex societies originated in river valleys, such as that of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Ganges, Yellow River and arguably Amazon.
In prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, stimulating the development of agriculture. Most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a wide river valley with a wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the chalk dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock claystone. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift and Gregory Rift are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. There are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is U-shaped and resembles a trough; this trough valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size. Continuously flowing glaciers – in the ice age – and large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys, sometimes with valley steps that reflect differing erosion rates. Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation; the glaciers carved it out wider and deeper changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of glaciation and abrasion, which results in large rocky material being carried in the glacier. A material called; as the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley; this replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. Other interesting glacially carved valleys include: Yosemite Valley Side valleys of the Austrian river Salzach for their parallel directions and hanging mouths.
Some Scottish glens full with flowers. That of the St. Mary River in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be up to 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water, they served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. In northern Central Europe, the Scandinavian ice sheet during the various ice ages advanced uphill against the lie of the land; as a result, its meltwaters flowed parallel to the ice margin to reach the North Sea basin, formin
Glenrock is a town in Converse County, United States. The population was 2,576 at the 2010 census. Glenrock, known as Deer Creek Station, had its beginning as a mail and stage station along the Oregon Trail; the station served as a stopping point along the trail and was a vital supply point for thousands of emigrants as they traveled westward. A significant number of industries were established after 1889 and expanded the growth and economy of many communities like Glenrock in central Wyoming. Rock in the Glen This landmark has been viewed by an estimated 350,000 immigrants that have migrated westward since the mid-1800s. In 1812, it was first discovered by American fur trappers during a creation of a fur trapping route; this trappers trail has known many names depending upon the group traveling upon it. These names include the Oregon and Mormon trails. Mormon Mines On June 10, 1847, the first group of Mormons reached Deer Creek in the Glenrock region. A mere ten days a coal mine produced the first recorded coal mined in the Wyoming territory.
Deer Creek Station Originally, Deer Creek Station stood as a pioneer and Indian trading post in the 1850s and as a relay terminal for the overland stage line. Ten years in 1860, it would become a "home station for the pony express." In 1861, the station became incorporated into the telegraph system. On October 18, 1861, the telegrapher at Deer Creek Station helped to send along the first relayed message to Cleveland, Ohio from the West; as the telegraphy began to replace the pony express, the relationship between Indians and the U. S. Government worsened in the Glenrock region. Over the course of three years, from 1862-1866, Deer Creek Station stood as a military outpost. With few troops stationed in the fort, in 1866, Indians burned it down, this includes the telegraph station located in Deer Creek Station, it was never rebuilt as it became part of the past. September 27, 1923 – near Glenrock, soon after the washout of Chicago and Quincy Railroad's bridge over Cole Creek, a passenger train fell through the washout, killing 30 of the train's 66 passengers.
This marked the worst railroad accident in Wyoming's history. Glenrock is located at 42°51′29″N 105°51′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.28 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,576 people, 1,102 households, 713 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,129.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,201 housing units at an average density of 526.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.0% White, 0.5% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population. There were 1,102 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.3% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age in the town was 41.3 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.7% male and 48.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,231 people, 925 households, 641 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,155.3 people per square mile. There were 1,131 housing units at an average density of 585.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.53% White, 0.31% African American, 1.61% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 2.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.81% of the population. There were 925 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.89. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.8% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,300, the median income for a family was $40,927. Males had a median income of $32,778 versus $18,795 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,088. About 11.4% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.7% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. Public education in the town of Glenrock is provided by Converse County School District #2; the district has three campuses – Grant Elementary School, Glenrock Intermediate Middle School/Glenrock Middle School, Glenrock High School. Outdoor recreation opportunities are plentiful in the area surrounding Glenrock, as the Laramie Mountains, Medicine Bow National Forest, the Platte River are nearby.
The Deer Creek Days Festival and outdoor activities attract visitors to the town. Other attractions include: Deer Creek Museum Glenrock Golf Course Paleon Museum The Glenrock P