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Glen Innes, New South Wales

Glen Innes is a parish and town on the Northern Tablelands, in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the centre of the Glen Innes Severn Shire Council; the town is located at the intersection of the Gwydir Highway. At the 2016 census, Glen Innes had a population of 6,155; the original owners of Glen Innes and surrounding areas are the Ngarabal people. The Ngarabal name of the township of Glen Innes is Gindaaydjin, meaning "plenty of big round stones on clear plains"; the arrival of European settlers saw the significant disruption of the life of Ngarabal people. Many Ngarabal people continue to live in the Glen Innes area, still practising many aspects of their traditional culture and way of life. In about 1838 Archibald Boyd registered the first run in the Glen Innes district. Two stockmen known as "the Beardies" because of their long beards took Boyd to this area to establish his run. ‘The Beardies’ introduced other squatters to the best runs in the area to become known as the Land of the Beardies or Beardie Plains.

Furracabad Station was suggested by John James Galloway as an alternative to Wellingrove for a new town. However Furracabad Station was sold in the 1840s depression and passed to Major Archibald Clunes Innes to the Bank of Australasia to John Major, who sold it to Archibald Mosman; the name Glen Innes is believed to be bestowed by Mosman in honour of Innes. Glen Innes was gazetted as a town in 1852 and the first lots were sold in 1854; the post office was established in August 1854 and the court in 1858 when they replaced the Wellingrove offices. In 1866 the population was about 350, with a telegraph station, lands office, police barracks, post office and two hotels. There was still no coach service at this time. Tin was first discovered at Emmaville in 1872 and Glen Innes became the centre of a mining bonanza during the late 19th century. In 1875, the population had swelled to about 1,500 and the town had a two teacher school, three churches, five hotels, two weekly newspapers, seven stores and a variety of societies and associations.

On 19 August 1884 the new Main North railway from Sydney opened. The arrival of the rail service and the expansion of mining contributed a new prosperity in the town, reflected in some of the beautiful buildings there; the centre of the town retains some of its federation buildings and the owners have painted these buildings in the traditional colours. Many of these buildings have been placed on the Register of the National Estate; the town boasts a railway station, once part of the Main North Line. These days the line is closed at this point; the buildings have been reused. Glen Innes has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bourke Street: Glen Innes Showground Grey Street: Glen Innes Post and Telegraph Office Main Northern railway: Glen Innes railway station Main Northern railway, 694.371 km: Yarraford Rail Bridge over Beardy River According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 6,155 people in Glen Innes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 6.8% of the population.

82.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was England at 2.0%. 88.0% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Anglican 29.0%, Catholic 21.0% and No Religion 19.5%. The Glen Innes district has been a producer of wool and beef cattle since it was first settled. Sapphires are mined in the creek valleys west of town, while tin is no longer commercially mined, mineral exploration is ongoing; the town holds regular livestock sales in the local saleyards. The town contains all of the regular service industries required by the community. Notable individual businesses include a photographic processing facility, an exporter of waste material balers, a large cattle feedlot, transport depots. Sawmilling was a major industry of the district, but is now only conducted on a reasonable scale by the local minimum-security prison; the conversion of State Forests into National Parks has led to tourism becoming an important employer. Glen Innes is 1,062 metres AHD with an average annual rainfall of 857 mm.

The climate is classed as a temperate oceanic climate. The area has one of Australia's coldest climates outside the Snowy Mountains and Tasmania, with mild to warm summers and cold, windy winters with regular frosts and occasional snowfalls, though many snowfalls do not settle. Glen Innes's highest recorded temperature was 37.0 °C on 4 January 2014, its coldest was −12.8 °C on 8 July 2002. Rainfall is heaviest in late spring, owing to the effects of the surrounding mountains, causing uplift which in turn causes frequent, heavy storms during this period. At 6:33AM on 19 July 2019, the town registered a temperature of −12.3 °C, making it the coldest place in Australia in that year. Among the many attractions of this area are the extensive Land of the Beardies History Museum with its splendid collection of biographical and historical records, the town parks, fossicking areas, Gibraltar Range National Park, several waterfalls, the Australian Standing Stones, which are large monoliths and the World Heritage listed Washpool National Park.

There are several Christian churches, including the Cameron Memorial Uniting Church and St Andrews Presbyterian Church which hail from the town's Scottish roots. Annual events include: a gem and fossicking festival.

Social Security System (Philippines)

The Philippine Social Security System is a state-run, social insurance program in the Philippines to workers in the private and informal sectors. SSS is established by virtue of Republic Act No.1161, better known as the Social Security Act of 1954. This law was amended by Republic Act No. 8282 in 1997. Government employees, are covered under a separate state-pension fund by the Government Service Insurance System. President Manuel Roxas, to give relief to the people who were facing difficulties in the post-war period, called on the legislators to create a social security program in his State of the Nation Address in January 1948 but he died without passing the bill. On July 7, 1948, President Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas and created the social security study commission through Executive Order No. 150. The commission drafted the Social Security Act, submitted to Congress. In 1954, Representative Floro Crisologo, Senators Cipriano Primicias and Manuel Briones introduced bills to the Congress that were enacted as Republic Act 1161 or the Social Security Act of 1954 during the term of Ramon Magsaysay.

The law was called the Social Security Law. However, its implementation was delayed by objections made by labor groups, it was only in 1957 bills. 1792, amending the original Social Security Act. On September 1, 1957, the Social Security Act of 1954 was implemented under Carlos P. Garcia's term. On September 7, 1979, the Presidential Decree No. 1636 amended the Republic Act No. 1161 and extended compulsory coverage to people who identified as self-employed. The new rules which took effect on January 1, 1980. New rules allowed farmers and fisherfolks to be included in the coverage in 1992 and the year after, household helpers earning at least ₱1,000 monthly; the SSS, on 1995, covered laborers in informal sector earning the same wage monthly. On May 1, 1997, President Fidel V. Ramos signed Republic Act No. 8282 known as Social Security Act of 1997. The law amended the SSS and provided better benefit packages, expansion of coverage, flexibility in investments, stiffer penalties for violators of the law, condonation of penalties of delinquent employers, the establishment of a voluntary provident fund for members.

SSS transferred the administration of its Medicare program, which gave benefits for the healthcare purposes of members, to the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation when Republic Act No. 7875 or the National Health Insurance Act of 1995 was enacted. In 2017, about 2.2 million people receiving pension from the SSS saw their take-home benefits increased by ₱1,000 with the approval of President Rodrigo Duterte. Starting with a fund of ₱500,000 from the government, SSS' total assets grew to ₱474.7 billions and served 34.2 million members in 2016. In 2018, the Republic Act No. 11199 or the Social Security Act of 2018 was passed, providing mandatory inclusion of Filipinos working domestically and internationally. SSS provides death, maternity leave, permanent disability, retirement and involuntary separation/unemployment benefits; the Employees' Compensation Program which started in 1975 provided double compensation to workers who had illness, accident during work-related activities, or died. EC benefits are granted only to members with employers other than themselves.

SSS members can make'salary' or'calamity' loans. Salary loans are calculated based on a member's particular monthly salary credit. Calamity loans are for instances when the government has declared a state of calamity in the area where an SSS member lives, following disasters such as flooding and earthquakes. He/she must be at least 15 years old. Non-working persons are welcome. In order for a member of SSS to claim lifetime monthly pension, he must be at least 60 years old and he must have at least 120 monthly contributions. SSS' offices are located in 291 branches all over the country. There is an option to make a call to SSS' branches. Members can utilize the toll-free number, open on weekdays and online services for transactions such as securing SSS identification number and applying for loans and retirement benefits. Philippine Social Security System

Maggot

A maggot is the larva of a fly. A 2012 study estimated the population of maggots in North America alone to be in excess of 3×105 trillion. "Maggot" should not be taken as such. In many non-technical texts the term is used for insect larvae in general. Other sources have coined their own definitions. Maggot-like fly larvae are of wide importance in medicine. Anglers use maggots provided by commercial suppliers to catch non-predatory fish. Maggots are the most popular bait for anglers in Europe. Anglers throw handfuls into the "swim" they are targeting; the angler use the largest or most attractive maggots on the hook, hoping to be irresistible to the fish. Commercial maggot breeders from the UK sell their maggots to tackle dealers throughout the E. U. and North America. In North America, maggots have been used as ice fishing bait. Live maggots of certain species of flies have been used since antiquity for wound debridement. In controlled and sterile settings overseen by medical practitioners, maggot therapy introduces live, disinfected maggots into non-healing skin or soft wounds of a human or animal.

The only maggots cleared for marketing in the United States are larvae of Calliphorid flies of the species Phaenicia sericata. This species of maggots is most used in the world as well but it is unclear whether it is the only species cleared for marketing outside of the United States, they feed on the dead or necrotic tissue, leaving sound tissue unharmed. Studies have shown that maggots kill bacteria. There are three midgut lysozymes of P. sericata that have been shown to show antibacterial effects in maggot debridement therapy. The study demonstrated that the majority of gram-positive bacteria were destroyed in vivo within the particular section of the P. sericata midgut where lysozymes are produced. During the passage through the intestine of the maggots, the ability of bacteria to survive drastically decreased, implying the antibacterial action of the three midgut lysozymes; as of 2008, maggot therapy was being used in around 1,000 medical centers in Europe and over 300 medical centers in the United States.

The presence and development of maggots on a corpse are useful in the estimation of time elapsed since death. Depending on the species and the conditions, maggots may be observed on a body within 24 hours; the eggs are laid directly on the food source, when the eggs hatch, the maggots move towards their preferred conditions and begin to feed. By studying the insects present at a crime scene, forensic entomologists can determine the approximate time of death. Insects are useful after a post-mortem interval of 25–80 hours, depending on ambient conditions. After this interval, this method becomes less reliable. Blow flies are used in forensic entomology to determine PMI because of their oviposition on carrion and corpses; the black blowfly, Phormia regina, is widespread across the US and the earliest species to oviposit on a corpse, making it important to forensic science. As with fleas and ticks, maggots can be a threat to household pets and livestock sheep. Flies reproduce in the summer months, maggots can come in large numbers, creating a maggot infestation and a high risk of myiasis in sheep and other animals.

Humans are not immune to the feeding habits of maggots and can contract myiasis. Interaction between humans and maggots occurs near garbage cans, dead animals, rotten food and other breeding grounds for maggots; when maggots turn into adult flies and start the life cycle over, numbers will grow exponentially if unchecked, but disease, natural predators and parasites keep the population under control. Sealing garbage and using a garbage disposal or freezing rotting leftovers until waste collection day helps prevent infestation. Introducing an environmental control, such as Hister beetles, can help reduce maggot populations. Annelids Caterpillars Polychaete Worm Maggot farming Diptera at Curlie

A. H. M. Jones

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones FBA — known as A. H. M. Jones or Hugo Jones — was a prominent 20th century British historian of classical antiquity of the Roman Empire. Jones's best-known work, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602, is considered the definitive narrative history of late Rome and early Byzantium, beginning with the reign of the Roman tetrarch Diocletian and ending with that of the Byzantine emperor Maurice. One of the most common modern criticisms of this work is its total reliance on literary and epigraphic primary sources, a methodology which mirrored Jones's own historiographical training. Archaeological study of the period was in its infancy when Jones wrote, which limited the amount of material culture he could include in his research, he published his first book, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, in 1937. In 1946, he was appointed to the chair of the Ancient History department at University College, London. In 1951, he assumed the same post there, he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1947.

Jones was an fast reader with an encyclopedic memory. His disdain for "small talk" sometimes made him seem remote and cold to those who did not know him well, but he was warmly regarded by his students, he was sometimes criticized for not acknowledging the work of earlier scholars in his own footnotes, a habit he was aware of and apologized for in the preface to his first book. Jones died of a heart attack in 1970 while traveling by boat to Thessaloniki to give a series of lectures. Since Jones's death, popular awareness of his work has been overshadowed by the work of scholars of Late Antiquity, a period which did not exist as a separate field of study during his lifetime. Late Antiquity scholars refer to him and his enormous contributions to the study of the period are acknowledged. History of Abyssinia The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces The Herods of Judaea The Greek City from Alexander to Justinian Ancient Economic History Constantine and the Conversion of Europe Athenian Democracy Studies in Roman Government and Law The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social and Administrative Survey Sparta The Decline of the Ancient World Augustus The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, with John Robert Martindale and John Morris A. H. M. Jones and the Later Roman Empire.

Edited by David M. Gwynn. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2008

Delirium tremens

Delirium tremens is a rapid onset of confusion caused by withdrawal from alcohol. When it occurs, it is three days into the withdrawal symptoms and lasts for two to three days. Physical effects may include shaking, irregular heart rate, sweating. People may see or hear things other people do not. A high body temperature or seizures may result in death. Alcohol is one of the most dangerous drugs from. Delirium tremens only occurs in people with a high intake of alcohol for more than a month. A similar syndrome may occur with barbiturate withdrawal. Withdrawal from stimulants such as cocaine does not have major medical complications. In a person with delirium tremens it is important to rule out other associated problems such as electrolyte abnormalities and alcoholic hepatitis. Prevention is by treating withdrawal symptoms. If delirium tremens occurs, aggressive treatment improves outcomes. Treatment in a quiet intensive care unit with sufficient light is recommended. Benzodiazepines are the medication of choice with diazepam, lorazepam and oxazepam all used.

They should be given until a person is sleeping. The antipsychotic haloperidol may be used; the vitamin thiamine is recommended. Mortality without treatment is between 15% and 40%. Death occurs in about 1% to 4% of cases. About half of people with alcoholism will develop withdrawal symptoms upon reducing their use. Of these, three to five percent have seizures; the name delirium tremens was first used in 1813. The word "delirium" is Latin for "going off the furrow," a plowing metaphor, it is called shaking frenzy and Saunders-Sutton syndrome. Nicknames include the shakes, barrel-fever, blue horrors, bats, drunken horrors, gallon distemper, quart mania, pink spiders, among others; the main symptoms of delirium tremens are nightmares, global confusion, disorientation and auditory hallucinations, tactile hallucinations, high blood pressure, heavy sweating, other signs of autonomic hyperactivity. These symptoms may appear but develop two to three days after the stopping of heavy drinking, being worst on the fourth or fifth day.

These "symptoms are characteristically worse at night". In general, DT is considered the most severe manifestation of alcohol withdrawal and occurs 3–10 days following the last drink. Other common symptoms include intense perceptual disturbance such as visions of insects, snakes, or rats; these may be hallucinations or illusions related to the environment, e.g. patterns on the wallpaper or in the peripheral vision that the patient falsely perceives as a resemblance to the morphology of an insect, are associated with tactile hallucinations such as sensations of something crawling on the subject—a phenomenon known as formication. Delirium tremens includes intense feelings of "impending doom". Severe anxiety and feelings of imminent death are common DT symptoms. DT can sometimes be associated with severe, uncontrollable tremors of the extremities and secondary symptoms such as anxiety, panic attacks and paranoia. Confusion is noticeable to onlookers as those with DT will have trouble forming simple sentences or making basic logical calculations.

DT should be distinguished from alcoholic hallucinosis, the latter of which occurs in 20% of hospitalized alcoholics and does not carry a significant mortality. In contrast, DT occurs in 5–10% of alcoholics and carries up to 15% mortality with treatment and up to 35% mortality without treatment. DT is characterized by the presence of altered sensorium. DT has extreme autonomic hyperactivity, 35-60% of patients have a fever; some patients experience seizures. Delirium tremens is caused by a long period of drinking being stopped abruptly. Withdrawal leads to a biochemical regulation cascade, it may be triggered by head injury, infection, or illness in people with a history of heavy use of alcohol. Another cause of delirium tremens is abrupt stopping of tranquilizer drugs of the barbiturate or benzodiazepine classes in a person with a strong addiction to them; because these tranquilizers' primary pharmacological and physiological effects stem from their manipulation of the GABA chemical and transmitter somatic system, the same neurotransmitter system affected by alcohol, delirium tremens can occur upon abrupt decrease of dosage in those who are dependent.

These DTs are much the same as those caused by alcohol and so is the attendant withdrawal syndrome of which they are a manifestation. That is the primary reason benzodiazepines are such an effective treatment for DTs, despite being the cause of them in many cases; because ethanol and tranquilizers such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines function as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA receptors, the brain, in its desire to equalize an unbalanced chemical system, triggers the abrupt stopping of the production of endogenous GABA. This decrease becomes more and more marked as the addiction becomes stronger and as higher doses are needed to cause intoxication. In addition to having sedative properties, GABA is an immensely important regulatory neurotransmitter that controls the heart rate, blood pressure, seizure threshold among myriad other important autonomic nervous subsystems. Delirium tremens is most common in people who have a history of alcohol withdrawal in those who drink the equivalent of 7 to 8 US pints

Grigorios Aggelidis

Grigorios Aggelidis is a German banker and politician of the Free Democratic Party. From 1987 until 1993, Aggelidis worked with Dresdner Bank before moving on to Dresdner Vermögensberatungs GmbH, he worked with Credit Suisse from 2001 until 2008. Aggelidis became a member of the German Bundestag in the 2017 federal elections, representing the Hannover-Land I constituency alongside Hendrik Hoppenstedt and Caren Marks, he has since been serving on the Committee on Family Affairs, Senior Citizens and Youth, where he is his parliamentary group's spokesperson. He is a member of the Committee on the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. In addition to his committee assignments, he has been serving as deputy chairman of the German-Greek Parliamentary Friendship Group. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Member of the Board of Trustees Rotary International, Member