South Eastern Freeway
The South Eastern Freeway is a 76 kilometre controlled-access highway in South Australia. It carries traffic over the Adelaide Hills between Adelaide and the River Murray, near Murray Bridge, connecting via the Swanport Bridge to the Dukes Highway, the main road route to Victoria, it is referred to by South Australians as the Freeway, as it was the first freeway in South Australia, is still the longest, the only one with "Freeway" in its name rather than "Expressway" or "Highway". It is a part of the National Highway network linking the state capital cities Adelaide to Melbourne and signed as National Highway M1; the South Eastern Freeway includes 500-metre-long twin-tube tunnels in the descent towards Adelaide, the first of their kind on the National Highway. It is designated as the M1; the South Eastern Freeway features 6 lanes of traffic, arrester beds and concrete median barriers, with street lighting between Glen Osmond and Crafers. The remainder of the length to the Swanport Bridge is dual carriageways with two lanes in each direction.
Prior to the initial construction of the freeway in the 1960s, all inbound and outbound road traffic between Adelaide and south-eastern South Australia and Victoria had to travel on a two-lane highway built in the early part of the 20th century. With growth in Adelaide's population issues of congestion and safety mandated reconstruction. Studies began in 1962 for a freeway commencing from Crafers, that endpoint selected arguably due to the massive expenditure required with the precedent upgrade of the Mount Barker Road. Road construction began in 1965 from Crafers and the first stage of eastbound traffic lanes were opened in 1967, the first westbound section in 1969; the freeway was opened in stages. The final section bypassing the town of Murray Bridge and connecting to the new Swanport Bridge over the River Murray opened in 1979, replacing the historic bridge in the town for through traffic; the opening of the freeway resulted in the less direct Bridgewater railway line losing patronage, the line closed to passengers in 1987.
The Adelaide–Crafers Highway extension came as a much-needed upgrade and replacement to the previous link road, the Mount Barker Road, contoured to the Adelaide Hills, giving rise to many steep turns, ascending a tortuous route. The tightest hairpin turn on the Mount Barker Road became infamous as'the Devils Elbow' the site of car and semi-trailer accidents. On 16 May 1995, Prime Minister Paul Keating announced the construction of the new Adelaide-Crafers section; the Heysen Tunnels, named after well-known South Australian artist and benefactor Hans Heysen, were completed in 1998. Construction was completed early 2000 and on 5 March 2000 Prime Minister John Howard opened the new road, it was the largest South Australian road project at that time, costing a total of A$151 million, wholly funded by the Australian Federal Government. An additional exit was built at Monarto around 1999 to service an expanding commercial zone and Monarto Zoo in the area. Another exit was announced in 2014 at Bald Hills Road 4 km southeast of the Mount Barker interchange to service growing housing estates in southern Mount Barker and Nairne.
The contract was announced on 1 April 2015 that Bardavcol would commence construction in May 2015, with the interchange including entry and exit ramps in both directions opening in mid-2016. The $27M project was funded $16M by the Australian government, $8M from South Australia and $3M from Mount Barker district council; the new interchange opened on 15 August 2016. The Freeway bypasses many towns along the Princes Highway including Shortly after the Adelaide-Crafers section opened, several incidents involving semi-trailers drew media attention to the road. While the previous Mount Barker Road was a notorious stretch, its dangers were well known. Heavy vehicles with inadequate braking found it hard to slow down once they had exceeded a certain speed, it took some time, the addition of several warning signs prior to the descent, for heavy vehicles to become familiar with the freeway's characteristics. Semi-trailers can be seen travelling as slow as 20–30 km/h downhill. In 2005 changeable electronic road signs were installed every 200 metres, so that the speed limit of the road can be adjusted from Transport SA headquarters in Adelaide.
This has both improved safety for commuters, emergency service workers like the Country Fire Service. In 2010 and 2011, after more incidents involving trucks having problems braking down the hill, including one going into a bus stop, another going straight through the intersection at the bottom, the government added new laws that any vehicle with 5 axles or more must stay in the left lane and must not exceed a 60 km/h limit from the interchange at Crafers to the old tollhouse. More Safety cameras are installed in an attempt to ensure trucks abide by this new limit. Additional signs for the two arrester beds on the descent have been added, to encourage out of control drivers to use them as a safer alternative. In August 2014, another truck collided with many cars at the lower part of the highway, killing two people. Brake failure was suspected to be the cause of the accident; the Adelaide end of the South Eastern Freeway leads downhill to traffic lights at the intersection of Glen Osmond Road which continues northwest as route number A1 into the Adelaide city centre, Portrush Road which carries the National Highway designation north to bypass the city and towards Port Adelaide, Cross Road which leads west towar
Mount Osmond, South Australia
Mount Osmond is a small suburb of 2,497 people in the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is part of the City of Burnside local government area and located in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills, five kilometres south east of the city centre; the suburb is high on the hill of the same name, the last hill on the right when approaching Adelaide down the South Eastern Freeway before the road levels out onto the Adelaide Plains. It is bounded to the north by the suburb of Beaumont, to the north-east by Burnside, to the east by Waterfall Gully, to the south by Leawood Gardens/Eagle On The Hill, to the south-west by Urrbrae, to the west by Glen Osmond and to the north-west by St Georges; the suburb is at a high elevation in the Mount Lofty Ranges, provides views over Adelaide as well as containing a renowned golf course and country club. Mining operations in the 19th century gave the area notoriety, but it has since developed into a small and secluded suburb. Mount Osmond is within the traditional lands of the Kaurna people, forms part of the Mount Lofty Ranges and is therefore part of the Dreamtime story of the ancestor-creator Nganno.
According to the legend, Nganno was wounded in a battle and laid down to die, forming the Mount Lofty Ranges. When Adelaide was first planned and mapped out by Col. William Light, Mount Osmond received the three allotments 1070, 1277 and 1278. While much of Adelaide was quickly bought Mount Osmond did not enjoy any early buyers; the first reported activity in the area was after the mining rush of Glen Osmond due to the Wheal Watkins and Wheal Gawler mines. Lot 1277 yielded a mine in Slaughterhouse Gully but it was worked only briefly. Subsequent finds of bluestone proved fruitful and the mineral was extracted until 1900, when mining ended and the last of the mines were either filled in or cordoned off. Developers bought the lots that composed Mount Osmond but once again interest in the suburb was minor. Attempts to bring in settlers culminated in the construction of Mount Osmond Road in 1882, it wound around the hills from. Developers broke down the three large lots into two hundred 1-acre ones in the hope of sales.
A few lots were sold to quarrymen and gardeners around Mount Barker Road, but the vast remainder was leased to stockowners as pasture for their livestock. Much of Mount Osmond, along with a large portion of the surrounding area, was bought in 1907 by Ernest C. Sanders, his family made great use of the land, with his sons building houses on the vast property while raising sheep and growing hay. Considerable time was spent by the Sanders family in mapping the area; the Sanders family decided to sell much of their portion of Mount Osmond, around 1922–23 it was put on the market. Like earlier attempts at sales on Mount Osmond, little interest was received and none was sold until 1925; the land was developed into a golf course and Country Club with the assistance of the Burnside Council and its engineers. Credit to the novel idea went to H. E. S. Melbourne, Burnside's chief engineer at the time – who found support among numerous Burnside Councillors; the golf course and country club were developed on the highest part of the mount, on 85 acres of former Sanders estate.
The remaining land was sold by the country club to buyers with strict rules on the development and maintenance of the properties – specific rules applying to aesthetic features gardens, are of note. With a golf course and country club in the vicinity, as well as electricity and a water supply from Waterfall Gully's first creek the eighteen marketed lots once again sold poorly. One of the last large land purchases was that of Ross Thiem in the 1940s. A club member, C. W. Lloyd, sold 200 acres around the golf course, again used as pasture by Thiem, who ran sheep on the property – and was the last to do so; the Highways Department acquired land in 1951, buying 200 acres of land above Beaumont for future transport planning. Thiem's land was sold in the 1950s, to the Rossdale Property Co, their subsequent attempts at selling the land were just as fruitless as those before, once again the property changed hands to the Mount Osmond Heights Pty Ltd. The land was newly subdivided, it was in the late 1960s that much of Mount Osmond was sold to residential buyers.
Fifty-two out of the 116 new sites had been sold by 12 October 1968 at an average of $3,500, according to the Adelaide daily The Advertiser. Since the land sales of that era, Mount Osmond has developed because of the scarcity of land and the housing and development restrictions of the Hills Face Zone. Now the suburb is home to large, tree-filled houses and properties. With the upgrade of Mount Barker Road to become part of the South Eastern Freeway from 1997, Mount Osmond received its own freeway interchange as part of the development. Mount Osmond is composed of the Mount itself and a ridge stretching out to the south-east between the valley of the South Eastern Freeway and that of Waterfall Gully. Much of the suburb is more than 300 metres above sea level, with the Mount Osmond peak itself at 384 metres. Between the north-east and north-west are slopes leading down to the suburbs of Beaumont, Glen Osmond and Waterfall Gully, most of, owned as public land by various government departments – either as parks, tracks or vacant land for possible future use.
A somewhat "ring" of reserves exist on the slopes anti-clockwise from the Old Bullock Track to Mount Osmond Road near the freeway interchange. The South Australian Department of Environment and Natur
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Electoral district of Unley
Unley is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. Named after the suburb of the same name, it is the state's smallest electorate by area at just 14.1 km2. It is a suburban electorate in Adelaide's inner south, taking in the suburbs of Eastwood, Fullarton, Glenunga, Highgate, Hyde Park, Kings Park, Myrtle Bank, Unley, Unley Park and Wayville, as well as parts of Glen Osmond and Millswood. Unley was created as a conservative seat, it was first contested at the 1938 election, where it was held by conservatives until the 1962 election, when Gil Langley captured the seat for Labor. Unley was one of the seats that put Labor in government at the 1965 election after decades of the Playmander in opposition, with Labor managing to retain Unley in the close 1968 and 1975 elections and the 1979 election loss. Langley was succeeded by Labor's Kym Mayes at a state government minister. In the close 1989 election Labor again managed to retain Unley. However, Mayes was defeated at the 1993 election landslide by Liberal Mark Brindal on a swing of over 12 percent, on paper turning Unley from marginal Labor to safe Liberal at one stroke.
Brindal went on to serve as a minister in the government of John Olsen. The electoral redistribution ahead of the 2002 election had a large effect on Unley, which lost several suburbs west of Goodwood Road while gaining several suburbs east of Fullarton Road, changing Unley from a marginal seat to a safe to safe Liberal seat; this helped Brindal retain Unley with only a small swing against him as the Liberals lost government. Brindal relinquished preselection of Unley prior to the 2006 election, contesting instead the electoral district of Adelaide held by the Minister for Education, Jane Lomax-Smith. Despite a statewide Labor landslide, David Pisoni narrowly won with a 51 percent two-party vote despite a challenge from City of Unley mayor and Labor candidate Michael Keenan, it has since reverted to a safe to safe Liberal seat. ECSA profile for Unley: 2018 ABC profile for Unley: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Unley: 2018
Burnside, South Australia
Burnside is a small, upper class suburb, part of the City of Burnside in the eastern suburbs of Adelaide. It is a residential suburb, was one of the first suburbs of Adelaide, it was named Burnside, an amalgamation of the Scottish word for creek, "burn" and "side" because of the original property's location on the side of Second Creek. Burnside is 5 km east of the Adelaide city centre. Burnside was established and named by Peter Anderson and his family who emigrated from Scotland in 1839. Anderson started a large farm on leased land near Second Creek; the farm had a large number of animals including pigs and cattle as well as barley and wheat crops. By the 1870s the area had developed into a small village. Burnside Post Office had opened on 21 July 1863. There are a number of parks but most noticeably bordering several that are shared with other suburbs; the Burnside Swimming Centre is located in nearby Hazelwood Park. Langman Reserve is part of both Burnside and Waterfall Gully and the large Newland Park has several ovals.
The Feathers Hotel, a Georgian style pub, is located within the suburb. It is home to a State government school. A number of churches in various denominations including Baptist and Anglican call the suburb home. Burnside is a upper class suburb. Owing to being one of Adelaide's first suburbs, there are many grand historic homes located within the area. A significant number of its residents own houses that are situated on the hills which offer impressive views of the city. In the 2016 Census, there were 2,930 people in Burnside. 63.3% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 6.7% and China 6.1%. 71.6% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin at 8.0%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 36.3%, Catholic 18.4% and Anglican 14.2%. George Aiston and ethnographer Dorrit Black, artist Jimmy Melrose, aviator Christopher Pyne, federal MP and Liberal frontbencher, a former student of Burnside Primary Sydney Talbot Smith, freelance journalist and civic worker List of Adelaide suburbs City of Burnside
Glen Osmond Road, Adelaide
Glen Osmond Road is a major section of the Princes Highway and state Highway 1 in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. Connecting the Adelaide city centre with the Adelaide Hills via the South Eastern Freeway, it has intersections at Fullarton Road, Cross Road and Portrush Road. Glen Osmond Road houses a strip shopping precinct on the section between Greenhill and Fullarton Roads; the precinct is populated by independent boutiques. It is a community main street stationed in the leafy suburbs of Adelaide’s south east, it was earlier known as "The Gateway" because of its connection between the Adelaide CBD and Hills. The Glen Osmond Road Precinct Association is an association guiding the growth and development of Glen Osmond Road and marketing the local business community. GORPA is funded by an exclusive rate applied to properties on the City of Unley side of Glen Osmond Road. Glen Osmond Road forms the boundary of two Council areas -- the City of City of Burnside; the councils work together to promote the local community.
Each council has staff dedicated for Economic Development. Australian Roads portal Highway 1 Highway 1 Glen Osmond Road Precinct Directory
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories