Ascot Gold Cup
The Gold Cup is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to horses aged four years or older. It is run at Ascot over a distance of 2 miles 3 furlongs and 210 yards, it is scheduled to take place each year in June, it is Britain's most prestigious event for "stayers" – horses which specialise in racing over long distances. It is traditionally held on the third day of the Royal Ascot meeting, known colloquially as Ladies' Day. Contrary to popular belief the actual title of the race does not include the word "Ascot"; the event was established in 1807, it was open to horses aged three or older. The inaugural winner, Master Jackey, was awarded prize money of 100 guineas; the first race took place in the presence of King George Queen Charlotte. The 1844 running was attended by Nicholas I of Russia, making a state visit to England; that year's winner was unnamed at the time of his victory, but he was given the name "The Emperor" in honour of the visiting monarch. In return Nicholas offered a new trophy for the race — the "Emperor's Plate" — and this became the title of the event for a short period.
Its original name was restored during the Crimean War. The Gold Cup is the first leg of Britain's Stayers' Triple Crown, followed by the Goodwood Cup and the Doncaster Cup; the last horse to win all three races in the same year was Double Trigger in 1995. The Gold Cup is one of three perpetual trophies at the Royal Ascot meeting, along with the Royal Hunt Cup and the Queen's Vase, which can be kept permanently by the winning owners. A number of horses have won it more than once, the most successful is Yeats, who recorded his fourth victory in 2009. A The race was abandoned in 1964 because of waterlogging b c Rock Roi finished first in 1971 and 1972, but he was disqualified both times d Royal Gait was first in 1988, but he was relegated to last place following a stewards' inquiry e The 2005 running took place at York The race was run at Newmarket during the wartime periods of 1917–18 and 1941–44. Horse racing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Paris-Turf: "1978". "1979". "1980". "1981".
"1983". "1984". "1985". "1986". "1987". Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018galopp-sieger.de – Ascot Gold Cup. horseracingintfed.com – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Gold Cup. pedigreequery.com – Ascot Gold Cup – Ascot. Tbheritage.com – Ascot Gold Cup. Abelson, Edward; the Breedon Book of Horse Racing Records. Breedon Books. Pp. 88–92. ISBN 1-873626-15-0. YouTube Race Video https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfn5x2SD03q4TvYnBjgdsNth34if5VTOt
General Stud Book
The General Stud Book is a breed registry for horses in Great Britain and Ireland. More it is used to document the breeding of Thoroughbreds and related foundation bloodstock such as the Arabian horse. Today it is published every four years by Weatherbys. Volume 47 was published in 2013. In 1791, James Weatherby published Introduction to a General Stud Book, an attempt to collect pedigrees for the horses racing and that had raced in the past, it was filled with errors and was not at all complete, but it was popular and led in 1793 to the first volume of the General Stud Book which had many more pedigrees and was more accurate. Volume one was revised many times, the most important being in 1803, 1808, 1827, 1859 and 1891; the General Stud Book has been owned by Weatherbys since. This differs from the American Stud Book, owned by the United States Jockey Club. American Stud Book Australian Stud Book British Racing History
The hand is a non-SI unit of measurement of length standardized to 4 inches. It is used to measure the height of horses in some English-speaking countries, including Australia, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States, it was based on the breadth of a human hand. The adoption of the international inch in 1959 allowed for a standardized imperial form and a metric conversion, it may be abbreviated to "h" or "hh". Although measurements between whole hands are expressed in what appears to be decimal format, the subdivision of the hand is not decimal but is in base 4, so subdivisions after the radix point are in quarters of a hand, which are inches. Thus, 62 inches is a half hands, or 15.2 hh. "Hands" may be abbreviated to "h", or "hh". The "hh" form is sometimes interpreted as standing for "hands high." When spoken aloud, hands are stated by numbers, 15.0 is "fifteen hands", 15.2 is alternately "fifteen-two" or "fifteen hands, two inches," and so on. To convert inches to hands, the number in inches is divided by four the remainder is added after the radix point.
Thus, a horse that measures 60 inches is 15 hands high and a horse halfway between 15 and 16 hands is 15.2 hands, or 62 inches tall Because the subdivision of a hand is a base 4 system, a horse 64 inches high is 16.0 hands high, not 15.4. A designation of "15.5 hands" is not halfway between 15 and 16 hands, but rather reads 15 hands and five inches, an impossibility in a base 4 radix numbering system, where a hand is four inches. The hand, sometimes called a handbreadth or handsbreadth, is an anthropic unit based on the breadth of a male human hand, either with or without the thumb, or on the height of a clenched fist. On surviving Ancient Egyptian cubit-rods, the royal cubit is divided into seven palms of four digits or fingers each. Five digits are equal to a hand, with thumb; the royal cubit measured 525 mm, so the length of the ancient Egyptian hand was about 94 mm. In Biblical exegesis the hand measurement, as for example in the Vision of the Temple, Authorized Version Ezekiel 40:43, is taken to be palm or handbreadth, in modern translations may be rendered as "handbreadth" or "three inches".
The hand is a traditional unit in the UK. It was standardised at four inches by a statute of King Henry VIII in 1540, but some confusion between the various types of hand measurement, between the hand and the handsbreadth, appears to have persisted. Phillips's dictionary of 1706 gives four inches for the length of the handful or hand, three inches for the handsbreadth. Wright's 1831 translation of Buffon mentions "A hand breadth, the breadth of the four fingers of the hand, or three inches", but the Encyclopædia Perthensis of 1816 gives under Palm: "A hand, or measure of lengths comprising three inches". Today the hand is used to measure the height of horses and other equines, it is used in the U. S. and in some other nations that use the metric system, such as Canada and the UK. In other parts of the world, including continental Europe, in FEI-regulated international competition, horses are measured in metric units metres or centimetres. In South Africa, measurements may be given in both hands and centimetres, while in Australia, the equestrian regulations stipulate that both measurements are to be given.
In those countries where hands are the usual unit for measuring horse height, inches rather than hands are used in the measurement of miniature horses, miniature ponies, miniature mules and Shetland ponies. A horse is measured from the ground to the top of the highest non-variable point of the skeleton, the withers. For official measurement, the spinous process of the fifth thoracic vertebra may be identified by palpation, marked if necessary. Miniature horses, but not miniature ponies, are measured at the base of the last true hairs of the mane rather than at the withers. For international competition regulated by the Fédération Équestre Internationale and for USEF competition in the US, a horse can be measured with shoes on or off. In the United Kingdom, official measurement of horses is overseen by the Joint Measurement Board. For JMB purposes, the shoes must be removed and the hooves prepared for shoeing prior to measurement. Anthropic units List of horse breeds List of unusual units of measurement Pony Span
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded. Stallions follow the conformation and phenotype of their breed, but within that standard, the presence of hormones such as testosterone may give stallions a thicker, "cresty" neck, as well as a somewhat more muscular physique as compared to female horses, known as mares, castrated males, called geldings. Temperament varies based on genetics, training, but because of their instincts as herd animals, they may be prone to aggressive behavior toward other stallions, thus require careful management by knowledgeable handlers. However, with proper training and management, stallions are effective equine athletes at the highest levels of many disciplines, including horse racing, horse shows, international Olympic competition; the term "stallion" dates from the era of Henry VII, who passed a number of laws relating to the breeding and export of horses in an attempt to improve the British stock, under which it was forbidden to allow uncastrated male horses to be turned out in fields or on the commons.
"Stallion" is used to refer to males of other equids, including zebras and donkeys. Contrary to popular myths, many stallions do not live with a harem of mares. Nor, in natural settings, do they fight each other to the death in competition for mares. Being social animals, stallions who are not able to find or win a harem of mares band together in stallions-only "bachelor" groups which are composed of stallions of all ages. With a band of mares, the stallion is not the leader of a herd but defends and protects the herd from predators and other stallions; the leadership role in a herd is held by a mare, known colloquially as the "lead mare" or "boss mare." The mare determines the movement of the herd as it travels to obtain food and shelter. She determines the route the herd takes when fleeing from danger; when the herd is in motion, the dominant stallion herds the straggling members closer to the group and acts as a "rear guard" between the herd and a potential source of danger. When the herd is at rest, all members share the responsibility of keeping watch for danger.
The stallion is on the edge of the group, to defend the herd if needed. There is one dominant mature stallion for every mixed-sex herd of horses; the dominant stallion in the herd will tolerate both sexes of horses while young, but once they become sexually mature as yearlings or two-year-olds, the stallion will drive both colts and fillies from the herd. Colts may present competition for the stallion, but studies suggest that driving off young horses of both sexes may be an instinctive behavior that minimizes the risk of inbreeding within the herd, as most young are the offspring of the dominant stallion in the group. In some cases, a single younger mature male may be tolerated on the fringes of the herd. One theory is that this young male is considered a potential successor, as in time the younger stallion will drive out the older herd stallion. Fillies soon join a different band with a dominant stallion different from the one that sired them. Colts or young stallions without mares of their own form small, all-male, "bachelor bands" in the wild.
Living in a group gives these stallions the protective benefits of living in a herd. A bachelor herd may contain older stallions who have lost their herd in a challenge. Other stallions may directly challenge a herd stallion, or may attempt to "steal" mares and form a new, smaller herd. In either case, if the two stallions meet, there is a true fight. If a fight for dominance occurs do opponents hurt each other in the wild because the weaker combatant has a chance to flee. Fights between stallions in captivity may result in serious injuries. In the wild, feral stallions have been known to mate with domesticated mares; the stallion's reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics. The external genitalia comprise: the testes; the testes of an average stallion are ovoids 8 to 12 cm long, 6 to 7 cm high by 5 cm wide. Stallions have a vascular penis; when non-erect, it is quite flaccid and contained within the prepuce. The retractor penis muscle is underdeveloped.
Erection and protrusion take place by the increasing tumescence of the erectile vascular tissue in the corpus cavernosum penis. When not erect, the penis is housed within the prepuce, 50 cm long and 2.5 to 6 cm in diameter with the distal end 15 to 20 cm. The retractor muscle contracts to retract the penis into the sheath and relaxes to allow the penis to extend from the sheath; when erect, the penis doubles in length and thickness and the glans increases by 3 to 4 times. The urethra opens within a small pouch at the distal end of the glans. A structure called the urethral process projects beyond the glans; the internal genitalia comprise the accessory sex glands, which include the vesicular glands, the prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands. These contribute fluid to the semen at ejaculation, but are not necessary for fertility. Domesticated stallions are trained and managed in a variety of ways, depending on the region of the w
American Quarter Horse
The American Quarter Horse, or Quarter Horse, is an American breed of horse that excels at sprinting short distances. Its name came from its ability to outdistance other horse breeds in races of less; the American Quarter Horse is the most popular breed in the United States today, the American Quarter Horse Association is the largest breed registry in the world, with 3 million living American Quarter Horses registered in 2014. The American Quarter Horse is well known both as a race horse and for its performance in rodeos, horse shows and as a working ranch horse; the compact body of the American Quarter Horse is well-suited to the intricate and speedy maneuvers required in reining, working cow horse, barrel racing, calf roping, other western riding events those involving live cattle. The American Quarter Horse is shown in English disciplines and many other equestrian activities.. In the 17th century, colonists on the eastern seaboard of what today is the United States began to cross imported English Thoroughbred horses with assorted "native" horses such as the Chickasaw horse, a breed developed by Native American people from horses descended from Spain, developed from Iberian and Barb stock brought to what is now the Southeastern United States by the Conquistadors.
One of the most famous of these early imports was Janus, a Thoroughbred, the grandson of the Godolphin Arabian. He was foaled in 1746, imported to colonial Virginia in 1756; the influence of Thoroughbreds like Janus contributed genes crucial to the development of the colonial "Quarter Horse". The breed is sometimes referred to as the "Famous American Quarter Running Horse"; the resulting horse was small and quick, was used as a work horse during the week and a race horse on the weekends. As flat racing became popular with the colonists, the Quarter Horse gained more popularity as a sprinter over courses that, by necessity, were shorter than the classic racecourses of England, were no more than a straight stretch of road or flat piece of open land; when matched against a Thoroughbred, local sprinters won. As the Thoroughbred breed became established in America, many colonial Quarter Horses were included in the original American stud books, starting a long association between the Thoroughbred breed and what would become known as the "Quarter Horse", named after the 1⁄4 mile race distance at which it excelled.
With some individuals being clocked at up to 55 mph. In the 19th century, pioneers heading West needed a willing horse. On the Great Plains, settlers encountered horses that descended from the Spanish stock Hernán Cortés and other Conquistadors had introduced into the viceroyalty of New Spain, which today includes the Southwestern United States and Mexico; these horses of the west included herds of feral animals known as Mustangs, as well as horses domesticated by Native Americans, including the Comanche and Nez Perce tribes. As the colonial Quarter Horse was crossed with these western horses, the pioneers found that the new crossbred had innate "cow sense", a natural instinct for working with cattle, making it popular with cattlemen on ranches. Early foundation sires of Quarter horse type included Steel Dust, foaled 1843; the main duty of the ranch horse in the American West was working cattle. After the invention of the automobile, horses were still irreplaceable for handling livestock on the range.
Thus, major Texas cattle ranches, such as the King Ranch, the 6666 Ranch, the Waggoner Ranch played a significant role in the development of the modern Quarter Horse. The skills needed by cowboys and their horses became the foundation of the rodeo, a contest which began with informal competition between cowboys and expanded to become a major competitive event throughout the west. To this day, the Quarter Horse dominates the sport both in speed events and in competition that emphasizes the handling of live cattle. However, sprint races were popular weekend entertainment and racing became a source of economic gain for breeders as well; as a result, more Thoroughbred blood was added back into the developing American Quarter Horse breed. The American Quarter Horse benefitted from the addition of Arabian and Standardbred bloodlines. In 1940, the American Quarter Horse Association was formed by a group of horsemen and ranchers from the southwestern United States dedicated to preserving the pedigrees of their ranch horses.
The horse honored with the first registration number, P-1, was Wimpy, a descendant of the King Ranch foundation sire Old Sorrel. Other sires alive at the founding of the AQHA were given the earliest registration numbers Joe Reed P-3, Chief P-5, Oklahoma Star P-6, Cowboy P-12, Waggoner's Rainy Day P-13; the Thoroughbred race horse Three Bars, alive in the early years of the AQHA, is recognized by the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame as one of the significant foundation sires for the Quarter Horse breed. Other significant Thoroughbred sires seen in early AQHA pedigrees include Rocket Bar, Top Deck and Depth Charge. Since the American Quarter Horse formally established itself as a breed, the AQHA stud book has remained open to additional Thoroughbred blood via a performance standard. An "Appendix" American Quarter Horse is a first generation cross between a registered Thoroughbred and an