Glenelg is a beach-side suburb of the South Australian capital of Adelaide. Located on the shore of Holdfast Bay in Gulf St Vincent, it has become a tourist destination due to its beach and many attractions, home to several hotels and dozens of restaurants. Established in 1836, it is the oldest European settlement on mainland South Australia, it was named after Lord Glenelg, a member of British Cabinet and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Through Lord Glenelg the name derives from Glenelg, Scotland. Prior to the 1836 British colonisation of South Australia and the rest of the Adelaide Plains was home to the Kaurna group of Aboriginal Australians, they knew the area as "Pattawilya" and the local river as "Pattawilyangga", now named the Patawalonga River. Evidence has shown that at least two smallpox epidemics had killed the majority of the Kaurna population prior to 1836; the disease appeared to have come down the River Murray from New South Wales. The first British settlers set sail for South Australia in 1836.
Several locations for the settlement were considered, including Kangaroo Island, Port Lincoln and Encounter Bay. The Adelaide plains were chosen by Colonel William Light, Governor John Hindmarsh proclaimed the province of South Australia at the site of The Old Gum Tree in Glenelg North on 28 December 1836; the first post office in Glenelg opened on 5 December 1849. A telegraph office was opened in September 1859 and the two offices amalgamated in 1868; the present post office building on Moseley Square was built in 1912. The sale of the surveyed lots that constitute the Town of Glenelg was remarkable: the right to purchase, at £1 per "town acre", was allocated by means of a ballot held in February 1839; the "winner" was a syndicate of six led by William Finke, with Osmond Gilles, his nephew John Jackson Oakden and H. R. Wigley notable members. Among the town's earliest public buildings were the Independent church, opened 7 March 1848, St Peter's church, opened 28 March 1852 and the Pier Hotel, opened Christmas Day 1856, all the work of Henry J. Moseley, for whom Moseley Street and Moseley Square were named.
No trace of the original structures remains. The Corporate Town of Glenelg was proclaimed in 1855, separating local governance of the township of Glenelg from that of the West Torrens and Brighton district councils. Construction of the Glenelg Institute, now the Glenelg Town Hall, started in 1875; the institute opened with lecture rooms, a concert hall and a library. The classical structure was designed by Edmund Wright, whose works include the Adelaide Town Hall and Adelaide General Post Office on King William Street; the hall sits on Moseley Square, just off the beach. The Holdfast Bay city council acquired the hall in 1887. Today it houses tourist information centre and restaurants. In August 1857, construction of Glenelg's first jetty commenced. Costing over £31,000 to build, the structure was 381 metres long; the jetty was used not only by fishermen but to accept cargo from ships, including a mail service operated by P&O, until Port Adelaide replaced it as Adelaide's main port. Passengers were able travel from the Glenelg jetty to Kangaroo Island by steamer.
Several additions to the jetty were made. A lighthouse was built in 1872 at the jetty's end, but a year it caught fire and was cast into the sea to save the rest of the structure. A replacement lighthouse was built in 1874, was 12.1 metres tall. Other additions included public baths, an aquarium, a police shed and a three-story kiosk with tea rooms; the kiosk structure housed a family. The kiosk was wrecked in a storm in 1943, the jetty was damaged by a freak cyclone in 1948. Most of the structure washed away and the remaining structure was deemed unsafe. Just two weeks the local council began drafting plans for a new jetty and construction was completed in 1969; the new structure was just 215 metres long, less than two-thirds of the length of the original jetty. The second jetty continues to stand today, at the end of Jetty Road. On 1 January 2016, two boys were drowned after falling into the water from rocks to north of the Glenelg jetty. Glenelg has been a popular spot for leisure for much of its history.
Following the success of Luna Park, Melbourne, a similar amusement park was constructed on Glenelg's foreshore in 1930. Luna Park Glenelg was placed in voluntary liquidation in 1934, all the rides were disassembled, purchased by the directors, transported to Sydney, where they were used to create Luna Park Milsons Point; the park's managers claimed that the reasons for the closure were the inability to make money from the park as it was, opposition to changes from Council and residents, who were afraid that "undesirables" would be attracted to the area. Built near the former Luna Park site was Magic Mountain, which first opened in 1982, it featured water slides, mini-golf, bumper boats, dodgem cars and many other amusements and was popular with many Adelaide residents. It was extensively criticised, called an eyesore and likened to a "giant dog dropping" in the media; as part of the Holdfast Shores development, Magic Mountain was demolished in 2004 and replaced with The Beachouse, a 5-storey modern centre with a more conservative design which still incorporates the historic carousel.
Since its opening, The Beachouse has been a popular attraction of the Glenelg area, appealing to both adults and children. A 25-metre single-arm Ferris wheel
Gene–environment interaction is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways. A norm of reaction is a graph that shows the relationship between genes and environmental factors when phenotypic differences are continuous, they can help illustrate GxE interactions. When the norm of reaction is not parallel, as shown in the figure below, there is a gene by environment interaction; this indicates. Environmental variation can be physical, biological, behavior patterns or life events. Gene–environment interactions are studied to gain a better understanding of various phenomena. In genetic epidemiology, gene–environment interactions are useful for understanding some diseases. Sometimes, sensitivity to environmental risk factors for a disease are inherited rather than the disease itself being inherited. Individuals with different genotypes are affected differently by exposure to the same environmental factors, thus gene–environment interactions can result in different disease phenotypes.
For example, sunlight exposure has a stronger influence on skin cancer risk in fair-skinned humans than in individuals with darker skin. These interactions are of particular interest to genetic epidemiologists for predicting disease rates and methods of prevention with respect to public health; the term is used amongst developmental psychobiologists to better understand individual and evolutionary development. Nature versus nurture debates assume that variation in a trait is due to either genetic differences or environmental differences. However, the current scientific opinion holds that neither genetic differences nor environmental differences are responsible for producing phenotypic variation, that all traits are influenced by both genetic and environmental differences. Statistical analysis of the genetic and environmental differences contributing to the phenotype would have to be used to confirm these as gene–environment interactions. In developmental genetics, a causal interaction is enough to confirm gene–environment interactions.
The history of defining gene–environment interaction dates back to the 1930s and remains a topic of debate today. The first instance of debate occurred between Lancelot Hogben. Galat h Fisher sought to eliminate interaction from statistical studies as it was a phenomenon that could be removed using a variation in scale. Hogben believed that the interaction should be investigated instead of eliminated as it provided information on the causation of certain elements of development. A similar argument faced multiple scientists in the 1970s. Arthur Jensen published the study “How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement?”, which amongst much criticism faced contention by scientists Richard Lewontin and David Layzer. Lewontin and Layzer argued that in order to conclude causal mechanisms, the gene–environment interaction could not be ignored in the context of the study while Jensen defended that interaction was purely a statistical phenomenon and not related to development. Around the same time, Kenneth J. Rothman supported the use of a statistical definition for interaction while researchers Kupper and Hogan believed the definition and existence of interaction was dependent on the model being used.
The most recent criticisms were spurred by Moffitt and Caspi's studies on 5-HTTLPR and stress and its influence on depression. In contrast to previous debates and Caspi were now using the statistical analysis to prove that interaction existed and could be used to uncover the mechanisms of a vulnerability trait. Contention came from Zammit and Lewis who reiterated the concerns of Fisher in that the statistical effect was not related to the developmental process and would not be replicable with a difference of scale. There are two different conceptions of gene–environment interaction today. Tabery has labeled them biometric and developmental interaction, while Sesardic uses the terms statistical and commonsense interaction; the biometric conception has its origins in research programs that seek to measure the relative proportions of genetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation within populations. Biometric gene–environment interaction has particular currency in population genetics and behavioral genetics.
Any interaction results in the breakdown of the additivity of the main effects of heredity and environment, but whether such interaction is present in particular settings is an empirical question. Biometric interaction is relevant in the context of research on individual differences rather than in the context of the development of a particular organism. Developmental gene–environment interaction is a concept more used by developmental geneticists and developmental psychobiologists. Developmental interaction is not seen as a statistical phenomenon. Whether statistical interaction is present or not, developmental interaction is in any case manifested in the causal interaction of genes and environments in producing an individual's phenotype. In epidemiology, the following models can be used to group the different interactions between gene and environment. Model A describes a genotype that increases the level of expression of a risk factor but does not cause the disease itself. For example, the PKU gene results in higher levels of phenylalanine than normal which in turn causes mental retardation.
The risk factor in Model B in contrast has a direct effect on disease susceptibility, amplified by the genetic susceptibility. Model C depicts the inverse, where the genetic susceptibility directly effects disease while the risk factor amplifies this effect. In each independent situation, the factor
Huguenot is a neighborhood on the South Shore of Staten Island, New York City. Named "Bloomingview", it was named for the Huguenots, led by Daniel Perrin, who settled in the area during the late 17th and early 18th centuries to escape religious persecution. Huguenot is bordered by Arden Heights to the north, Woodrow to the west, Prince's Bay to the south, Annadale to the east; the neighborhood is represented in the New York City Council by Joe Borelli, born and raised there. Huguenot is represented in the New York State Senate by Andrew Lanza and in the New York State Assembly by Michael Reilly The community was named after French Protestants fleeing persecution in Catholic-dominated France who settled in the area in the 17th century, formed one of the first permanent settlements on Staten Island; the Huguenot station along the Staten Island Railway opened when the railroad was extended to Tottenville in 1860. This station was given the name "Huguenot Park" though no park was located nearby, by 1971 the word "Park" had been dropped.
The name survives in the Huguenot Park branch of the New York Public Library was opened one block west of the station. The local Roman Catholic parish, Our Lady Star of the Sea, is one of the largest parishes on the South Shore, has experienced overcrowding problems for many years because of the rapid boom of new residents in the area; the New York Public Library operates the Huguenot Park branch at 830 Huguenot Avenue, near the intersection with Drumgoole Road East. The branch opened in January 1985, replacing what was once the smallest New York Public Library building just east of the station; the Huguenot Park branch was named in honor of the nearby Staten Island Railway station's former name. Huguenot is served by the Staten Island Railway at the Huguenot station. Huguenot is served by the S55 and S56 local buses on Luten Avenue, the S59 and S78 local buses on Hylan Boulevard. Express bus service is provided by the SIM2 along Huguenot Avenue and Woodrow Road, the SIM8 along Woodrow Road, the SIM25 along Foster Road, the SIM24 along Huguenot Avenue
Satoshi Yuki is a Japanese professional Go player. Yuki won the NHK Cup in 2010 for the second time in a row, becoming the third player after Eio Sakata and Norimoto Yoda to do such, he was selected as a representative of the Japanese team at the 16th Asian Games. In 2010, Yuki reached the final of the 22nd Asian TV Cup, he followed it by forcing Kang Dongyun into resignation. Yuki lost to Kong Jie in the final by resignation. Yuki has represented Japan on the international stage and has beaten several players including Cho Hunhyun, Chang Hao, Gu Li, Lee Sedol and Ma Xiaochun. In November 2010, Yuki won the Tengen, he swept title holder Keigo Yamashita in the finals. Yuki's title was the Kansai Ki-in's second major title in 29 years, coming a month after Hideyuki Sakai's Gosei title. Yuki participated in the RICOH Rengo Championship in 2011, he and his partner Ayumi Suzuki lost to Xie Yimin. In April 2011, Yuki reached 1,000 career wins and broke the record for youngest to 1,000 wins by three years.
2006: 40–15 2007: 35–15 2008: 35–17 2009: 40–15 2010: 38–20 2011: 27–20 Yuki, Satoshi. 結城聡 戦いに強くなる方法―シチョウの達人を目指す. 毎日コミュニケーションズ. ISBN 978-4839915094. Yuki, Satoshi. 結城聡名局細解. Seibundo Shinkosha. ISBN 978-4416705124. Yuki, Satoshi. 結城聡 囲碁・世界の新手法ガイド. Seibundo Shinkosha. ISBN 9784416508121. Yuki, Satoshi. 決定版 大斜・村正・大ナダレ. Seibundo Shinkosha. ISBN 978-4416509050. Yuki, Satoshi. プロの選んだ30の定石 アマの好きな30の定石. ISBN 978-4416510063. Yuki, Satoshi. 世界一わかりやすい打碁シリーズ 結城聡の碁. 毎日コミュニケーションズ. ISBN 978-4839936815. Yuki, Satoshi. 星の小ゲイマジマリ 後の攻防: 強くなる 囲碁・必須読本. Seibundo Shinkosha. ISBN 9784416313091. Yuki, Satoshi. 実戦手筋のテクニック. Kientosho 棋苑図書. ISBN 9784873653174. Tanioka, Ichiro. Toshitaka Asae. "結城聡の「冒険また冒険". 囲碁梁山泊 2015 白秋号. 関西社会人囲碁連盟. ISBN 9784907488093. Rin Kono. 名局細解 2012年5月号： 第67期本因坊リーグ 河野臨九段 VS 結城聡九段. ASIN B016UBUZLG. Reissue of Meikyoku Saikai supplement to monthly magazine "Igo" covering the 67th Honinbo League on December 8, 2011. GoGameWorld Player Info for Yuki Satoshi
The Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies at Leiden was founded in 1851. Its objective is the advancement of the study of the anthropology, social sciences, history of Southeast Asia, the Pacific Area, the Caribbean. Special emphasis is laid on the former Dutch colonies of the Dutch East Indies and the Dutch West Indies, its unique collection of books, manuscripts and photographs attracts visiting scholars from all over the world. On July 1, 2014, the management of the collection was taken over by Leiden University Libraries. In 1969, a KITLV office was started by Hans Ras in Jakarta, as a part of an agreement with the Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Here, publications from Indonesia and Singapore are bought and given a place in the library of the institute, publications of the institute are sold, original scientific works in the Dutch language are translated into Indonesian; the Jakarta office is, since July 1, 2014, part of Leiden University Libraries and Representative Office of Leiden University doubles as the representative office of Leiden University.
The KITLV Press distributed academic books on Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. It published three journals: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities, New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. Brill acquired KITLV Press in 2012. Official website KITLV-Jakarta Media related to KITLV at Wikimedia Commons
Stepping Stones: Live at the Village Vanguard is a live album led by trumpeter Woody Shaw, recorded at the Village Vanguard in 1978 and released on the Columbia label in 1979. Stepping Stones: Live at the Village Vanguard was reissued by Legacy Recordings in 2005; the re-release was produced by Shaw's producer Michael Cuscuna and Shaw's son Woody Louis Armstrong Shaw III, both of whom contributed new liner notes along with Shaw's long-time trombonist Steve Turre. The reissue was remastered by engineer Mark Wilder. Scott Yanow of Allmusic stated "the band sounds technically and creatively inspired... Shaw pushed those innovations as far. Few have come close to approaching his artistry and cerebral architecture and none have gone past it. Stepping Stones: Live at the Village Vanguard captures that artistry in motion". All compositions by Woody Shaw except as indicated "Stepping Stone" - 9:12 "In a Capricornian Way" - 11:16 "Seventh Avenue" - 8:35 "All Things Being Equal Are Not" - 12:04 * "Escape Velocity" - 11:14 ** "Blues for Ball" - 17:12 * "Theme for Maxine" - 1:00*Released on the 2005 reissue by Sony Legacy and in 2011 on Woody Shaw: The Complete Columbia Albums Collection.
**Originally released on Shaw's 1979 Columbia album Woody III. Stepping Stones: Live at the Village Vanguard was reissued on Woody Shaw: The Complete Columbia Albums Collection in 2011. An additional CD titled "Stepping Stones Bonus Tracks" was included:"It All Comes Back to You" - 10:14 "Watership Down" - 13:48 "Solar" - 16:20 "On Green Dolphin Street" - 16:01 "Days of Wine and Roses" - 13:40 Woody Shaw - cornet, flugelhorn Carter Jefferson - tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone Onaje Allan Gumbs - piano Clint Houston - bass Victor Lewis - drums