Glenelg East, South Australia
Glenelg East is a residential suburb 9 kilometres south west of the centre of Adelaide, South Australia. It is characterised by quarter-acre blocks with heritage homes and parks intermingled with contemporary modern homes and low-rise multi-dwelling units. In 2011 Glenelg East's population was 3,701 with a median age of 41. Children aged to 14 made up 14.1% of the population, those over 65 years 15.8%. The predominant home language is others being. Glenelg East is bordered by Anzac Highway to the north, Cliff Street to the south, Brighton Road to the west and Buttrose Street to the east. With the Glenelg and Glenelg South beaches within walking distance, the suburb is popular with families. There are several parks with children's play equipment, open spaces, barbecue facilities and shelters. Notable parks within the suburb include Da Costa, Margaret Messenger and Mel Baker Reserves. Glenelg East has two tennis clubs: the Helmsdale Tennis Club at Sandison Reserve, the Holdfast Tennis Club at Margaret Messenger Reserve.
The Glenelg Oval is a well-used cricket and Australian Rules Football venue, the home ground for the SANFL Glenelg Football Club. The suburb is a popular with cycling enthusiasts who rendezvous at a local coffee shop prior to weekend rides through Adelaide's beach suburbs; the City of Holdfast Bay Development Plan zones Glenelg East for single storey residences, a second story being allowed where compatible with existing buildings. The plan specifies that residential site sizes are maintained in excess of 600 square metres maintaining the lower density that residents seek. A feature of the development plan is its focus on Heritage Conservation Zones, one of, within the suburb surrounding Da Costa Park; the Heritage Conservation seeks to preserve certain styles of residential homes that are common in Glenelg East. The styles originate in overlapping periods. Original and restored examples of building styles from these periods are found throughout the suburb in the streets surrounding the Da Costa Park Heritage Conservation Zone.
The Tudor Revival and Californian Bungalow styles that were built in the Inter War period are the most prevalent, while a few examples of Federation Homes can be found. Common Housing Styles in the suburb of Glenelg East Glenelg Primary School is located within the suburb. Within walking distance in neighbouring suburbs are two private schools: St Peter's Woodlands Grammar School and Immanuel College. Glenelg East has access to main roads adjacent to the suburb. Travel times by car to the Adelaide CBD and the Adelaide Airport are about 25 and 15 minutes respectively; the suburb is well serviced by bus routes along Brighton Road. The Glenelg tram, which runs through Glenelg East, has four stops within the suburb. Trams at 15-20 minute intervals take about 25 minutes to the city and 50 minutes to the Adelaide Entertainment Centre; the service was first opened in August 1873 as the South Terrace railway line. It was taken over by the Municipal Tramways Trust and started operation as an electrified tramway on 14 December 1929.
The Mike Turtur Bikeway alongside the tramline makes commuting by bike popular on a sealed off-road bikeways and on secondary roads within the suburb. On 23 November 1947, Glenelg Council amalgamated and renamed the numerous settlements in the area to Glenelg East, Glenelg North and Glenelg South. Glenelg East was formed by combining Grovene, Dunleath and Da Costa Park; the township of Grovene was part of the City of West Torrens, while Da Costa Park was taken over from the Marion District Council. These amalgamations were in accordance with the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Local Government Areas; the original residential development was the result of a block of land in the south-west corner of the West Torrens District Council area being subdivided in 1911, the subdivided area being name Helmsdale and sold for building blocks. The area was adjoining Glenelg, situated to the east of Brighton Road, west of Sixth Avenue and between the Anzac Highway and the Glenelg Tramline. Between 1925 and 1926 land in Dunleath, since incorporated into Glenelg East, located south of the Glenelg Tramline to Farr Terrace, was released for residential development.
On being released, land was in demand with reports of 85 blocks being sold in a morning for a total of £24,067, with properties fronting Brighton Road selling for double the price of other allotments. A second portion of Dunleath was released in January 1946 by Miss Charlotte I. Sandison, of Glenelg and the estate of her sister. Miss Sandison and her sister had inherited the land from Mr. E. L. J. McHenry son of Dr. McHenry, the original owner; as Mr McHenry had no descendants and the Sandison's family had been tenants on the property 87 years prior, the land was willed directly to the sisters. Da Costa Park, now included in the suburb, is named after Benjamin Mendes Da Costa a resident of Adelaide who engaged in Mercantile pursuits in the early days of the Crown Colonly who became the owner of considerable property in South Australia prior to retiring to England in 1848. After his death he left his property in South Australia to St Peters College
Division of Hindmarsh
The Division of Hindmarsh is an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia covering the western suburbs of Adelaide. The division was one of the seven established when the former Division of South Australia was split on 2 October 1903, was first contested at the 1903 election, though on vastly different boundaries; the Division is named after Sir John Hindmarsh, Governor of South Australia 1836-38. The 78 km² seat extends from the coast in the west to South Road in the east, covering the suburbs of Ascot Park, Brooklyn Park, Fulham, Grange, Henley Beach, Kidman Park, Kurralta Park, Plympton, Semaphore Park, West Beach and West Lakes; the international Adelaide Airport is centrally located in the electorate making noise pollution a prominent local issue, besides the aged care needs of the elderly population − the seat has one of the highest proportions of citizens over the age of 65 in Australia. Progressive boundary redistributions over many decades transformed Hindmarsh from a safe Labor seat in to a marginal seat won by the government of the day.
Though based on the greater Port Adelaide area to the north of the present boundary, now represented by the Division of Port Adelaide, Hindmarsh has long been dominated by working-class families and aged pensioners. Redistributions from the late 1940s onward have moved Hindmarsh clear of its initial boundaries over time to include wealthy seaside suburbs in and around Glenelg and the Holdfast Bay area to the south. With only the two additional seats of Adelaide and Boothby covering the metropolitan area until 1949, the south-east state border rural seat of Barker was considered a "hybrid urban-rural" seat, stretching all the way from the southern tip of South Australia at least as far as Glenelg and the Holdfast Bay area, at times stretched as far as the western metropolitan suburbs of Keswick and Henley Beach. After 1949 some of the area had variously been covered by Boothby and now-abolished Hawker; the present Hindmarsh has changed little geographically since neighbouring Hawker was abolished in 1993, though the north-western coastal strip was added from 2004.
Though now a marginal seat, for nearly a century it had been one of the safest Labor seats in the country, was in Labor hands for all but three years from the 1903 election to the 1993 election. As a measure of the strength of Labor support at the time, it was the only seat in the state won by Labor in the massive United Australia Party landslide of 1931. One of the few times that Labor's hold on the seat was threatened in this time came in 1966, when the Labor margin was pared down to 1.7 percent. Sitting member Clyde Cameron still won enough primary votes to retain the seat outright. Prominent members for the electorate have included Norman Makin, Speaker in the Scullin government, a cabinet minister in the Curtin and Chifley governments, Clyde Cameron, a cabinet minister in the Whitlam Government. A redistribution ahead of the 1984 election made Hindmarsh far less safe for Labor. From on, successive redistributions gave it a voting pattern similar to mortgage belt seats, which tend to be marginal.
Labor's hold on the seat became more tenuous in the redistribution prior to the 1993 election when it absorbed most of the area around Holdfast Bay, in abolished Hawker. This reduced Labor's two-party margin from an marginal 5.3 percent to a paper-thin one percent. Combined with state-level anger at the time stemming from the State Bank Collapse, this was enough for Liberal Christine Gallus the member for Hawker, to win the seat in 1993 with a one percent two-party margin from a two percent two-party swing, becoming only the second non-Labor MP to win it, she consolidated her hold on the seat at the 1996 election amid her party's large victory that year, increasing her margin to 8.1 percent – the strongest result for a non-Labor candidate in the seat's history. Gallus fended off spirited challenges from Labor's Steve Georganas at both the 1998 election and 2001 election, winning each time with a margin of less than two percent; when Gallus retired at the 2004 election, Georganas won the seat on a razor-thin 0.06 percent two-party margin from a one percent two-party swing, defeating Liberal candidate Simon Birmingham.
Georganas increased his two-party margin above five percent at both the 2007 election and the 2010 election. Though Georganas was thought to have built up a base with the substantial Greek community in Hindmarsh, he was defeated at the 2013 election when Liberal Matt Williams won the seat with a 1.89 percent margin from a 7.97 percent two-party-preferred swing. He became its third non-Labor member, the first to oust a sitting Labor MP in the seat; the only South Australian seat to change hands in 2013, Hindmarsh became the most marginal seat in South Australia, the only marginal Liberal seat in the state, only to be won back by Georganas for Labor at the 2016 election. Being the only South Australian seat changing hands and won by the incoming government in 2013, coupled with being the only South Australian seat changing hands in 2016 aside from Mayo, underscored the marginal seat volatility of present-day Hindmarsh. Not a "bellwether" electorate however, ABC psephologist Antony Green listed the nearby Division of Makin as one of eleven seats throughout Australia which he classed as bellwethers in his 2016 pre-election guide, was notably the only bellwether outside of New South Wales and Queensland.
South Australian Senator Nick Xenophon confirmed in December 2014 that by mid-2015 the Nick Xenophon Team party would announce candid
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Glenelg, South Australia
Glenelg is a beach-side suburb of the South Australian capital of Adelaide. Located on the shore of Holdfast Bay in Gulf St Vincent, it has become a tourist destination due to its beach and many attractions, home to several hotels and dozens of restaurants. Glenelg became infamous for being the site of the Beaumont children disappearance in 1966. Established in 1836, it is the oldest European settlement on mainland South Australia, it was named after Lord Glenelg, a member of British Cabinet and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. Through Lord Glenelg the name derives from Glenelg, Scotland. In Scottish Gaelic the name is Gleann Eilg; the name Glenelg is noteworthy for being a palindrome. Prior to the 1836 European settlement of South Australia and the rest of the Adelaide Plains was home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians, they knew the area as "Pattawilya" and the local river as "Pattawilyangga", now named the Patawalonga River. Evidence has shown that at least two smallpox epidemics had killed the majority of the Kaurna population prior to 1836.
The disease appeared to have come down the River Murray from New South Wales. The first British settlers set sail for South Australia in 1836. Several locations for the settlement were considered, including Kangaroo Island, Port Lincoln and Encounter Bay; the Adelaide plains were chosen by Colonel William Light, Governor John Hindmarsh proclaimed the province of South Australia at the site of The Old Gum Tree in Glenelg North on 28 December 1836. The first post office in Glenelg opened on 5 December 1849. A telegraph office was opened in September 1859 and the two offices amalgamated in 1868; the present post office building on Moseley Square was built in 1912. The sale of the surveyed lots that constitute the Town of Glenelg was remarkable: the right to purchase, at ₤1 per "town acre", was allocated by means of a ballot held in February 1839; the "winner" was a syndicate of six led by William Finke, with Osmond Gilles, his nephew John Jackson Oakden and H. R. Wigley notable members. Among the town's earliest public buildings were the Independent church, opened 7 March 1848, St Peter's church, opened 28 March 1852 and the Pier Hotel, opened Christmas Day 1856, all the work of Henry J. Moseley, for whom Moseley Street and Moseley Square were named.
No trace of the original structures remains. The Corporate Town of Glenelg was proclaimed in 1855, separating local governance of the township of Glenelg from that of the West Torrens and Brighton district councils. Construction of the Glenelg Institute, now the Glenelg Town Hall, started in 1875; the institute opened with lecture rooms, a concert hall and a library. The classical structure was designed by Edmund Wright, whose works include the Adelaide Town Hall and Adelaide General Post Office on King William Street; the hall sits on Moseley Square, just off the beach. The Holdfast Bay city council acquired the hall in 1887. Today it houses tourist information centre and restaurants. In August 1857, construction of Glenelg's first jetty commenced. Costing over £31,000 to build, the structure was 381 metres long; the jetty was used not only by fishermen but to accept cargo from ships, including a mail service operated by P&O, until Port Adelaide replaced it as Adelaide's main port. Passengers were able travel from the Glenelg jetty to Kangaroo Island by steamer.
Several additions to the jetty were made. A lighthouse was built in 1872 at the jetty's end, but a year it caught fire and was cast into the sea to save the rest of the structure. A replacement lighthouse was built in 1874, was 12.1 metres tall. Other additions included public baths, an aquarium, a police shed and a three-story kiosk with tea rooms; the kiosk structure housed a family. The kiosk was wrecked in a storm in 1943, the jetty was damaged by a freak cyclone in 1948. Most of the structure washed away and the remaining structure was deemed unsafe. Just two weeks the local council began drafting plans for a new jetty and construction was completed in 1969; the new structure was just 215 metres long, less than two-thirds of the length of the original jetty. The second jetty continues to stand today, at the end of Jetty Road. On 1 January 2016, two boys were drowned after falling into the water from rocks to north of the Glenelg jetty. Glenelg has been a popular spot for leisure for much of its history.
Following the success of Luna Park, Melbourne, a similar amusement park was constructed on Glenelg's foreshore in 1930. Luna Park Glenelg was placed in voluntary liquidation in 1934, all the rides were disassembled, purchased by the directors, transported to Sydney, where they were used to create Luna Park Milsons Point; the park's managers claimed that the reasons for the closure were the inability to make money from the park as it was, opposition to changes from Council and residents, who were afraid that "undesirables" would be attracted to the area. Built near the former Luna Park site was Magic Mountain, which first opened in 1982, it featured water slides, mini-golf, bumper boats, dodgem cars and many other amusements and was popular with many Adelaide residents. It was extensively criticised, called an eyesore and likened to a "giant dog dropping" in the media; as part of the Holdfast Shores development, Magic Mountain was demolished in 2004 and replaced with The Beachouse, a 5-storey modern centre with a more conservative design which still incorporates the historic car
Brighton, South Australia
Brighton is a coastal suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, situated between Seacliff and Glenelg and aside Holdfast Bay. Some notable features of the area are the Brighton-Seacliff Yacht Club, the Brighton Surf Lifesaving Club, the Brighton Jetty, a beach; the Windsor Theatre constructed in 1925 is a long-standing institution, showing cinema to the locals two films per night. Brighton Post Office opened on 27 August 1849. Brighton Jetty Post Office opened on 1 March 1950 and closed in 1979. Brighton became the seat of a newly-formed municipality, the Corporate Town of Brighton, in 1858; the first Brighton Town Hall was built in 1869 and was just the fourth Town Hall built in the colony of South Australia. The architect and builder was George William Highet who arrived in the colony in 1836 and served as a town clerk and inaugural councillor, he died in Brighton aged 80 years. The hall was constructed of stone from Ayliffe’s quarry in the Adelaide Hills laid on concrete foundations, it was used as the civic centre of the City of Brighton from 1869 until 1936 when it was leased by the RSL.
The second town hall was opened in 1937, at 24 Jetty Road, still fulfils a civic administration purpose. Brighton was the home of Antarctic explorer and academic Sir Douglas Mawson, he was buried at St Jude's Church Cemetery in the suburb. Brighton has a large sandy beach, patrolled by the Brighton Surf Lifesaving Club on Weekends and Public Holidays between November and March. Brighton Beach is popular for Adelaide beach goers as it is safe - rated as Least Hazardous by Surf Lifesaving. A sand replenishment program has been in operation for many years resulting in the beach sand dunes increasing through the program of replacing eroded sand and replanting of the dunes with plants and grasses. In summer, a sandbar forms in the water which can produce waves on windy days. Brighton is well known by local surfers for producing messy but fun'stormy sessions'; the Esplanade is an area of prime real estate, transformed over the years from a street of old cottages to new modern town houses. Brighton's Jetty Road runs perpendicular to the Esplanade and is home to many restaurants and the local hotel, known as "The Esplanade", or "Espy".
The first Brighton Jetty was weathered the sea and storms for over 100 years. The Brighton jetty was badly damaged by winter storms in the 1994; the jetty was rebuilt using funds supplied by a mobile phone service provider, hence the tower on the end of the jetty. In 1926 the women of Brighton erected a drinking fountain near the entrance of the jetty to commemorate the death of Kathleen Duncan Whyte, fatally attacked by a shark while swimming. Kitty taught swimming at Brighton for many years. In 1919 Kitty saved a swimmer from drowning and was awarded a Grand Diploma by the Royal Life Saving Society. At the shore end of the jetty is a War Memorial arch. Here, traditional Dawn Services are held annually on Anzac Day to commemorate fallen service men and women. Brighton is the home of the Brighton Jetty Classic, an Open Water Swim made up of the 1500 metre Brighton Jetty Classic Swim and the 400 metre Jetty Swim, aimed at first time open water swimmers; the Brighton Jetty Classic had its first year in 2006 when 800 swimmers completed the event.
It is an annual event, being hosted on the first Sunday in February. The 2010 event had over 1200 swimmers; the course is around the Brighton Jetty, which makes the Jetty a fantastic viewing platform for spectators. Although called Adelaide Brighton Cement, the cement works are located in the nearby suburb of Marino. City of Holdfast Bay The Brighton Jetty Classic The Brighton Surf Lifesaving Club Brighton Beach Summary from Surf Lifesaving Australia
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Adelaide Metro is the public transport system of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is an intermodal system offering an integrated network of bus and train service throughout the metropolitan area to 63 million riders annually, with an average daily ridership of 173,000 people; the system has evolved over the past fifteen years, patronage increased during the 2014–15 period, a 5.5 percent increase on the 2013 figures due to electrification of frequented lines. Adelaide Metro began in 2000 with the privatisation of existing government-operated bus and train routes; the Glenelg tram, the only of Adelaide's tramways to survive the 1950s, was integrated into the current system. Services are now run by four private operators and united with common ticketing systems and livery and signage under the supervision of South Australia's Department of Planning and Infrastructure. Since the last fifteen years, energy sustainability and eco-friendly transport has been a major focus for Adelaide Metro.
Despite this 80 percent of Adelaide's metropolitan buses still run on diesel fuel rather than biodiesel or batteries. Adelaide Metro has faced criticism for punctuality issues, "unreliable" services, ageing buses and incidents of coarse language and assault on some lines; the complaints increased since the system switched to a private operator in October 2011. The Adelaide Metro received 7,562 feedback reports–more than 40 a day–in 2012. In order to counteract these problems and increase accountability, performance data will now be published weekly as opposed to quarterly by the Adelaide Metro; this will highlight how trains and buses are performing in terms of punctuality and service, as well as comparisons to interstate public transport. The 2014 service figures indicate that the system performed better in 2014 than it did the previous year; the Adelaide Metro is a brand introduced in April 2000 following the second round of tenders privatisation of government-operated bus services. The public transport system in Adelaide has been known under several names.
The State Transport Authority was formed in 1974, combining the metropolitan rail operations of the former South Australian Railways Commission, the bus and tram operations of the former Municipal Tramways Trust. Adelaide removed all tramlines during the 1960s leaving only the Glenelg line; this tramline was extended in 2007 by the Department Of Transport, Energy & Infrastructure, again to the Adelaide Entertainment Centre in 2010. In July 1994, the STA was abolished and government public transport services were transferred to TransAdelaide, a publicly owned corporation. In 1995–96, there was a partial tendering of the bus services. TransAdelaide retained three contract regions, Serco won two contract regions, Hills Transit a joint venture between Australian Transit Enterprises and TransAdelaide, one. Services were run and marketed under each operator's name, presenting a disjointed network to the public; the 2000 round of tenders saw the end of TransAdelaide's direct operation of bus services in its own right, although it retained the train and tram services.
Serco won the North-South, Outer North, Outer North-East contract areas, SouthLink the Outer South contract area, Torrens Transit the East-West contract area and City Free services and Transitplus, a joint venture between Australian Transit Enterprises and TransAdelaide, the Hills Contract area. The Adelaide Metro brand was applied across all transport operators, appearing to the public as a unified network, with common livery, timetable designs and a city Information Centre; the State Government pledged that the Adelaide Metro would use cleaner fuels like biodiesel and natural gas in an effort to make Adelaide a carbon neutral city, however nearly 80 percent of the Adelaide Metro buses are still run on diesel, harmful for the environment due to the presence of sulfur. The largest element of Adelaide's public transport system is a fleet of diesel and natural gas powered buses; the majority of services terminate in the Adelaide city centre, suburban railway stations or shopping centre interchanges.
As contracts are revised for privatised bus operations, more cross suburban routes are added to the network, whereas in the past bus routes were focused on moving passengers from the suburbs to the CBD. A major component of the Adelaide Metro bus service is the O-Bahn guided busway to Modbury carrying around 9 million passengers a year. From opening in 1986 until August 2011 it was the world's longest busway, with a length of 12 kilometres and remains the world's fastest busway with a maximum permitted speed of 100 km/h. Away from the O-Bahn, whilst there have been dedicated bus lanes and bus only signal phases at some traffic lights provided for a number of years, a major improvement to bus priority and reliability arrived with the delivery in July 2012 of the CBD Bus Lane project. Adelaide Metro buses are operated by: Torrens Transit – North-South, East-West and Outer North East contract areas SouthLink – Outer South, Outer North and Hills contract areas. Companies which had operated Adelaide Metro services in the past but which no longer operate in Adelaide are: Serco – ended its contract in 2004, at the contracted half-term break-point, after failing to renegotiate its contract on better terms.
Serco had informed the Minister for Transport that it was not willing to continue to operate the bus services for a further five years on the terms contained in the existing Contract