A side cap is a foldable military cap with straight sides and a creased or hollow crown sloping to the back where it is parted. It is known as a garrison cap or flight cap, pilotka, a wedge cap, or field service cap, it follows the style. There was a previous version known as the "torin", which had a much more curved top line when viewed from the side. Both Austrian and torin types were distinguished by the inclusion of a fold-down section for warming the ears and back of the head in inclement weather; these two styles are still used by officers of some British units and continue to include this feature. In appearance the cap is similar to the glengarry, but differs by a lack of the tartan, or check trim and ribbons typical of the Scottish cap, it has been associated with various military forces from before World War I until the present day. A convenient feature of this cap is that when the owner is indoors and no coat-hook is available, it can be stored by folding it over the belt or, unofficially, by tucking it under a shoulder strap.
Other terms for this cap in semi-official and or slang usage include garrison cover, flight cap, side cap, overseas cap, envelope hat, piss-cutter, chip hat, cunt cap. All ranks of the Royal Australian Air Force are entitled to wear the blue garrison cap with appropriate cap badge in service dress and flying dress uniforms; the piping of the garrison cap for air officers is light blue, the piping for all other ranks is solid blue. The RAAF is the only branch of the Australian Defence Force entitled to wear the garrison cap. In the Canadian Forces, the field service cap is defined by the Canadian Forces Dress Instructions as a "cloth folding or'wedge cap'... Designed for wear during field operations and training, it may now be worn as an undress cap with full and undress uniforms." The cap is worn as part of the undress uniform by students of Royal Military College of Canada, as an optional item by all ranks of rifle regiments with ceremonial dress, mess dress, service dress uniforms. The field service cap was adopted army-wide in 1939, replaced in 1943 by a khaki beret.
The coloured field service cap was a variant permitted for private purchase and worn only when off duty. These were in the colours of the corps of the wearer. For personnel within the Royal Canadian Air Force, the blue wedge cap is authorized for wear with all orders of dress, save for the combat uniform, it is properly worn "on the right side of the head, centred front and back, with the front edge of the cap 2.5 centimetres above the right eyebrow." Cap badges are worn on the left side, with the centre of the badge 6.5 centimetres from the front of the cap centred between the flap and the top seam. The cap worn by general officers is embellished with silver piping. Air force military police in dress uniform wear a scarlet flash in the front of their wedge caps showing 1 centimetre. Air force members of Canadian Special Operations Forces Command wear a tan flash in the front of their wedge caps. Prior to Unification in 1968, the Royal Canadian Air Force wore uniforms similar to those worn by the Royal Air Force, including a blue wedge cap.
After 1968, the uniforms of the three services were replaced by a universal rifle-green uniform. With the advent of the Distinct Environmental Uniform, the blue wedge cap returned; the wedge cap is the official headdress of the Air Force Association of Canada and the Royal Canadian Air Cadets. In the Italian language, the side cap is called bustina, it was adopted by the Royal Italian Army in the 1920s, by the 1930s it was the main cap used by personnel belonging to the Royal Italian Army, the Regia Aeronautica and the Blackshirts. It remained in use until well after World War II. In France, the bonnet de police replaced the kepi because of its greater convenience, when the "Adrian" steel helmet was issued in 1915; the French bonnet de police had a different origin than that of the glengarry. The French headdress originated as a long, pointed bonnet worn by grenadiers and dragoons, having a pompon at the end of the Liripipe trailing crown; the rim of the cap was folded upward when in garrison, the tall mitre insignia of their regiment removed, while the falling top looped sideways or backwards sometimes fixed within the rim or knotted by the tassel to the shoulder epaulets to prevent its swinging.
The pompon or tassel hung down at the back between the soldier's shoulder blades. By the mid-nineteenth century the bonnet de police had become a true flat cap with no trailing crown. Instead the pompon dangled from a short cord sewn onto the rim in front of the bonnet de police, hanging above the soldier's right eye; this style of headdress with a trailing tassel was worn by both the Belgian Army and the Spanish Army during the first half of the 20th Century. It is still used by the Spanish Foreign Legion; when reintroduced for undress or fatigue wear in the 1890s, the French army's bonnet de police had become a plain item of dress without decoration. The colour of this working cap matched that of the tunic. Between 1944 and 1962 however
The Thin Red Line (Battle of Balaclava)
The Thin Red Line was a military action by the British Sutherland Highlanders 93rd Regiment at the Battle of Balaklava on 25 October 1854, during the Crimean War. In this incident, around 200 men of the 93rd, aided by a small force of 100 walking wounded, 40 detached Guardsmen, supported by a substantial force of Turkish infantrymen, led by Sir Colin Campbell, routed a Russian cavalry charge. Campbell's Highland Brigade had taken part in actions at the Battle of Alma and the Siege of Sevastopol. There were more than at any other; the event was lionized in the British press and became an icon of the qualities of the British soldier in a war, arguably poorly managed and unpopular. The Russian cavalry force of 2,500 was on the road to the Crimean city of Balaclava. About 400 of them were involved in the incident, it was early morning, the sole force that lay between the oncoming cavalry and the disorganised and vulnerable British camp was the 93rd Regiment. Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde is said to have told his men, "There is no retreat from men.
You must die where you stand." Sir Colin's aide John Scott is said to have replied, "Sir Colin. If needs be, we'll do that." Campbell formed the 93rd into a line two deep — the "thin red line". Convention dictated. However, felt he had insufficient trained men to form square, met the charge head on with the 2-deep firing line; as the Russian cavalry approached, the Turks on the flanks fled. The 93rd discharged three volleys: at 600, 350 and 150 yards however they did not get a chance to discharge one at point blank range as the Russians turned away. Accounts of the Highlanders state they started forward for a counter-charge before the final volley, but Sir Colin stopped them with a cry of "93rd, damn you highlanders for all that eagerness!"The Times correspondent, William H. Russell, wrote that he could see nothing between the charging Russians and the British regiment's base of operations at Balaklava but the "thin red streak tipped with a line of steel" of the 93rd. Popularly condensed into "the thin red line", the phrase became a symbol of British composure in battle.
The battle is represented in Robert Gibb's 1881 oil painting The Thin Red Line, displayed in the Scottish National War Museum in Edinburgh Castle. It is commemorated in the assembly hall of Campbell's former school, High School of Glasgow, where there is a painting of the action hung in the grand position, a tribute to one of the school's two generals, the other being Sir John Moore, dismembered by a cannonball during the Peninsular War; the Thin Red Line has become an English language figure of speech for any thinly spread military unit holding firm against attack. The phrase has taken on the metaphorical meaning of the barrier which the limited armed forces of a country present to potential attackers; the term "the thin red line" referred to the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and their job to defend the British Empire and the United Kingdom after the incorporation of the Argylls and Sutherlands into a single regiment now known as the Argyll and Sutherland battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
The derived term'the Thin Blue Line' refers colloquially to the police, which soon gave birth to the equal term of the "Thin Red Line" which refers colloquially to the fire brigade. Such uses are common in the US as bumper stickers expressing membership or support of police and fire departments. Rudyard Kipling wrote the poem Tommy that has the lines "Then it's Tommy this, an' Tommy that, an' Tommy,'ow's yer soul? / But it's "Thin red line of'eroes' when the drums begin to roll," – "Tommy Atkins" being slang for a common soldier in the British Army. James Jones wrote a novel about American infantry soldiers fighting in Guadalcanal during World War II and titled it The Thin Red Line; the book was adapted into feature films in 1964 and in 1998. George MacDonald Fraser describes the Thin Red Line, the Charge of the Heavy Brigade, the Charge of the Light Brigade in his novel Flashman at the Charge. In the 1968 film Carry On... Up the Khyber, a soldier played by Charles Hawtrey draws a thin red line on the ground with paint and brush, arguing that the enemy will not dare to cross it.
The action was the origin of A Scottish Soldier. The Green Hills of Tyrol is one of the best known tunes played by pipe bands today, it was from the opera William Tell by Rossini, but was transcribed to the pipes in 1854 by Pipe Major John MacLeod after he heard it played by a Sardinian military band when serving in the Crimean War with his regiment, the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders. Kenneth Alford wrote his march The Thin Red Line in 1908 to commemorate the "thin red line"; the battle is referenced by English metal band Saxon in the song "The Thin Red Line" on their 1997 album Unleash the Beast, by the Canadian band Glass Tiger on their 1986 album The Thin Red Line. The band Steeleye Span references the term in their song "Fighting for Strangers" from the album Spanning the Years. Van Halen`s "Unchained" references the term on their 1981 album Fair Warning; the band Big Audio Dynamite references the term in their song "Union, Jack" from the album Megatop Phoenix. Jason Isbell references the term in his song "Grown" from the album Sirens of the Ditch.
The Dreadnoughts, a Canadian punk band, reference the term in the song "The Cruel Wars" on their album Uncle Touchy Goes to College. Charge of the Heavy Brigade Charge of the Light Brigade During the German Siege of Sevastopol in 1942, the 456th Rifle Regiment of the 109
Sillitoe Tartan is the nickname given to the distinctive black and white chequered pattern known as dicing, associated with the police in Scotland, but which spread to widespread use in Australia, New Zealand, the rest of the United Kingdom and Chicago as well as Pittsburgh in the United States. Elsewhere it is rare, such as in parts of Canada where it is limited to the Auxiliary Police services. Based on the diced bands seen on the Glengarries that are worn by several Scottish regiments of the British Army, the pattern was first adopted for police use in 1932 by Sir Percy Sillitoe, Chief Constable of the City of Glasgow Police. Sillitoe Tartan may be composed of several different colours and number of rows depending on local custom, but when incorporated into uniforms, or vehicle livery, serves to uniquely identify emergency services personnel to the public; the Sillitoe tartan was an Scottish phenomenon until introduced in South Australia in 1961. From 1972, within the United Kingdom, the original black and white Scottish version began to spread throughout England and Wales and it is now used by all police forces in Great Britain.
Most forces use black and white chequered hat bands, however the City of London Police is unique in that it uses distinctive red and white chequers. The City of London Corporation run the Hampstead Heath Constabulary and the Billingsgate Market Constabulary, who both use red and white chequers; the Hammersmith and Fulham Parks Constabulary, who are run by the local authority originally used red and white chequers in line with their corporate colours of the council but they reverted to the standard type. Attested cathedral constables, employed at a number of Anglican cathedrals, have adopted a royal blue and white chequered cap band in order to distinguish them from their Home Office police colleagues; the now defunct Royal Parks Constabulary wore green and white chequers, but changed to the standard police blue and white chequers. The Royal Parks Constabulary Scotland were a separate force to their aforementioned English counterparts and they used green and white chequers. While the Sillitoe Tartan is not used in the dress uniform of the Police Service of Northern Ireland, it does appear on the force's baseball caps, motorcycle helmets and high-visibility jackets.
Blue and white chequers are associated with the police, may be used on vehicles and signage. Subsequent to the launching of Battenburg markings on police vehicles in the 1990s, the police introduced retro-reflective versions of the Sillitoe tartan markings to their uniforms in blue and white, rather than the blue and yellow used on vehicles. Many police forces have a sky white Sillitoe Tartan hatband as part of their PCSOs uniform; this is as a result of moves by the trade union UNISON to develop a national law enforcement uniform within the UK. As a result of this the blue and white Sillitoe Tartan has been taken up by a number of municipal organisations, including the London Borough of Newham Law Enforcement and Nottingham City Council Community Protection, who are accredited under the Community Safety Accreditation Scheme, it is being taken on by a number of private security organisations in recognition that they are now part of the extended policing family. Blue and white chequers have become the ubiquitous symbol of policing in Australia.
The pattern was introduced into the country by the Commissioner of the South Australia Police in 1961, following a fact-finding tour of Glasgow in 1960. The police forces of the remaining states and territories progressively adopted the pattern during the 1970s; the pattern is displayed on all Australian police uniforms. The Australasian Centre for Policing Research approved a national specification for police vehicle markings in 1995 which saw all vehicles marked with a chequer band stripe running the full length of the vehicle; this was adopted by all states with the exception of New South Wales which adopted the national standard in 2002. Other coloured chequered patterns may be used to denote other emergency services and particular usage varies from state to state. For example, in New South Wales the Ambulance Service uses red and white chequers on ambulances and paramedic's uniforms, while the State Emergency Service uses orange and white Sillitoe Tartan. St. John Ambulance uses a white and green pattern on their vehicles and operational uniforms in both South Australia and Victoria.
In New South Wales the Roads & Maritime Services Traffic Emergency Patrol have adopted a yellow and purple Sillitoe Tartan whereas the Victorian counterpart, VicRoads have adopted a green and white variant. General law enforcement in New Zealand is the responsibility of the country's national police service; the New Zealand Police wear a blue uniform, similar in colour to those found in Australia, share the same three-row Sillitoe Tartan of blue and white. The pattern is borne across stab vests and elsewhere. Unlike their Australian counterparts, New Zealand police vehicles do not display Sillitoe Tartan markings, but instead are marked with Battenberg markings. Use of the Sillitoe Tartan is rare in Canada and is limited to auxiliary police services. For example, the Toronto Police Auxiliary wear a black chequered band on their caps. A two-row Chicago-style Sillitoe tartan is borne on the high-visibility vests of the Vancouver Police and Metro Vancouver Transit Police, but not on their high-visibility jackets nor other uniforms.
Only a few police forces in the United States have adopted the chequered pattern: the Chicago Police
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states; the Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was created as the British Commonwealth through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931; the current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, established the member states as "free and equal". The human symbol of this free association is the Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II, the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting appointed Charles, Prince of Wales to be her designated successor, although the position is not technically hereditary.
The Queen is the head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by English language, history and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law; these values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth cover more than 29,958,050 km2, equivalent to 20% of the world's land area, span all six inhabited continents. Queen Elizabeth II, in her address to Canada on Dominion Day in 1959, pointed out that the confederation of Canada on 1 July 1867 had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire", she declared: "So, it marks the beginning of that free association of independent states, now known as the Commonwealth of Nations." As long ago as 1884 Lord Rosebery, while visiting Australia, had described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".
Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain; the term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, when the term British Commonwealth of Nations was substituted for British Empire in the wording of the oath taken by members of parliament of the Irish Free State. In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".
The term "Commonwealth" was adopted to describe the community. These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949. Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1947 respectively. Although the Union of South Africa was not among the Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act, 1934, the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of 1934—were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state. After the Second World War ended, the British Empire was dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, members of the Commonwealth.
There remain the 14 self-governing British overseas territories which retain some political association with the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature. Burma and Aden are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt, Transjordan, Sudan, British Somaliland, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates; the postwar Commonwealth was given a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day 1953 broadcast, in which she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an new conception – built on the highest qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship and the desire for freedom and peace". Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four-minute mile in 1954
King's Own Scottish Borderers
The King's Own Scottish Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Scottish Division. On 28 March 2006 the regiment was amalgamated with the Royal Scots, the Royal Highland Fusiliers, the Black Watch, the Highlanders and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland, becoming the 1st Battalion of the new regiment; the regiment was raised on 18 March 1689 by David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven to defend Edinburgh against the Jacobite forces of James II. It's claimed; the regiment's first action was at the Battle of Killiecrankie on 27 July 1689. Although this battle was a defeat for the Williamite army, the Jacobite commander, John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee, was killed by a volley fired by Leven's Regiment, bringing an end to James II's attempt to save his throne in Scotland; the regiment was judged to have performed well and was granted the privilege of recruiting by beat of drum in the City of Edinburgh without prior permission of the provost.
For a period it was known as Semphill's Regiment of Foot, the name under which it fought at the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 and the Battle of Culloden in 1746. When the British infantry were allocated numerical positions in the'line' of Infantry the regiment was numbered 25th Regiment of Foot in 1751; the regiment fought at the Battle of Minden on 1 August 1759 with five other regiments. The 25th was the county regiment of Sussex in 1782 when it became known as the 25th Regiment of Foot; the regiment was awarded the right to bear the emblem of the Sphinx for their role in the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. Its recruiting area was moved to the Scottish Borders region in 1805 from when the regiment became known as the 25th Regiment of Foot; the regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Fulford Barracks in York from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment.
The regiment moved to Berwick Barracks in July 1881. Under the reforms the regiment became The King's Own Borderers on 1 July 1881. A 3rd, Battalion was formed as the Scottish Borderers Militia, with headquarters at Dumfries; the regiment became The King's Own Scottish Borderers in 1887. During the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878 to 1880, the regiment formed part of the 2nd division, renamed the Khyber Line Force while guarding the lines of communication between Kabul and Peshawar; the 3rd battalion was embodied in January 1900 for service in the Second Boer War, 998 officers and men embarked for South Africa on the SS Kildon Castle two months later. Most of the battalion returned home in June 1902. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the Bachelor's Walk massacre happened in Dublin, on 26 July 1914, when a column of troops of the King's Own Scottish Borderers were accosted by a crowd on Bachelor's Walk.
The troops attacked "hostile but unarmed" protesters with rifle fire and bayonets - resulting in the deaths of four civilians and injuries to in excess of 30 more. The 1st Battalion was serving in India when the war broke out. After returning to England it landed at Cape Helles in Gallipoli as part of the 87th Brigade in the 29th Division in April 1915. After being evacuated from Gallipoli in January 1916 it moved to Alexandria in Egypt and landed at Marseille in March 1916 for service on the Western Front, it saw action at the Battle of the Somme in Autumn 1916, the Battle of Ypres in Autumn 1917, the Battle of Lys in April 1918 and the Battle of Cambrai in October 1918. During the Home Rule Crisis in 1914, the 2nd Battalion was stationed in Dublin as part of 13th Brigade in the 5th Division, they killed four civilians and wounded 38 after opening fire on a group of unarmed civilians on the day of the Howth gun-running in July 1914. It landed at Le Havre in August 1914 for service on the Western Front and saw action at the Battle of Mons in August 1914, the Battle of Le Cateau in August 1914 and the First Battle of the Aisne in September 1914.
It saw combat at the Second Battle of Ypres in May 1915, the Battle of the Somme in November 1916, the Battle of Vimy Ridge in April 1917, the Battle of Passchendaele in November 1917 and the Battle of Lys in April 1918. The 1/4th Battalion and the 1/5th Battalion landed in Gallipoli as part of the 155th Brigade in the 52nd Division in June 1915. After being evacuated from Gallipoli in January 1916 they moved to Egypt and took part in the Third Battle of Gaza in November 1917 before landing at Marseille in April 1918 for service on the Western Front; the 6th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 28th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. It saw action at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, the Battle of the Somme in November 1916, the Battle of Arras in May 1917 and the Battle of Passchendaele in November 1917; the 7th Battalion and the 7th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 46th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front.
They fought at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, the Battle of the Somme in November 1916, the Battle of Arras in May 1917, the Battle of Pilckem Ridge in August 19
The Balmoral is a traditional Scottish hat that can be worn as part of formal or informal Highland dress. Developed from the earlier blue bonnet, dating to at least the 16th century, it takes the form of a knitted, soft wool cap with a flat crown, it is named after a royal residence in Scotland. It is an alternative to the Glengarry bonnet. With a voluminous crown, today the bonnet is smaller, made of finer cloth, tends to be dark blue, black, or lovat green. Ribbons in, or attached to the back of, the band are sometimes worn hanging from the back of the cap. A regimental or clan badge is worn on the left-hand side, affixed to a silk or grosgrain ribbon cockade, with the bonnet worn tilted to the right to display this emblem; the centre of the crown features a toorie, traditionally red. Some versions have a diced band around the circumference of the lower edge; as worn by Scottish Highland regiments the blue bonnet developed into a stiffened felt cylinder decorated with an ostrich plume hackle sweeping over the crown from left to right.
In the 19th century this tall cap evolved into the extravagant full dress feather bonnet while, as an undress cap, the plainer form continued in use until the mid-19th century. By known as the Kilmarnock bonnet, it was replaced by the Glengarry bonnet, in use unofficially since the late eighteenth century and was a folding version of the cylindrical military cap; the name "Balmoral" as applied to this traditional headdress appears to date from the late 19th century and in 1903 a blue bonnet in traditional style but with a stiffened crown was adopted by some Lowland regiments as full dress headgear. After the Second World War, while all other Scottish regiments chose the Glengarry, a soft blue Balmoral was adopted as full dress headgear by the Black Watch and was worn with the green no. 1 dress jacket and with khaki no. 2 or service dress. As part of the amalgamation of the Scottish regiments in 2006, the military Balmoral was done away with and all battalions of the Royal Regiment of Scotland now wear the Glengarry.
Use of the Balmoral has been championed by songwriter Richard Thompson, who uses it on stage, in addition to its traditional place in Highland dress. Several Canadian regiments, including the Nova Scotia Highlanders and the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada wear the Balmoral, it has been recorded as being worn unofficially by Confederate soldiers in the American Civil War. The Hong Kong Police Band bagpipes section wears a red version; the Balmoral is used as a part of a uniform in Army Cadets and pipe band. It is used as an element of formal highland dress
Cavalry Corps (Ireland)
The Cavalry Corps is the armoured formation of the Irish Army. In peacetime the Cavalry carries out various duties in aid to the Civil Power, such as: Border operations supporting Gardaí. Escort duties - cash, explosives, VIP, prisoner. Patrolling Government installations. Intelligence, target acquisition, reconnaissance. For this, the corps is equipped with various light armoured vehicles including the Mowag Piranha and RG-32M Light Tactical Armoured Vehicle, which are utilised as part of the light cavalry mission, in support of the infantry; the Cavalry Corps traces its history to the formation of the Armoured Car Corps on 14 September 1922. Mechanised from the start, the corps utilised armoured vehicles that the British Army left following the War of Independence. Following a debate on the use of the term "cavalry", whether the word was meant to encompass horse, wheeled or tracked, the corps was renamed as the Cavalry Corps in 1934; the first Irish Landsverk L60 was delivered in 1935 and joined Ireland's only other tank a Vickers Mk.
D in the 2nd Armoured Squadron. The second Landsverk L60 arrived in 1936; the Landsverk's were still in use up until the late 1960s. One L60 is preserved in running order and the other is in the National Museum of Ireland, Collins Barracks, Dublin. After The Emergency, the corps established a main battle tank cadre equipped with the Churchill, which formed the basis of the 1st Tank Squadron in 1959; this was equipped with the Comet until its disbandment in 1973. The Cavalry Corps has served in many locations on UN peacekeeping missions, including the Congo and Lebanon, either as Cavalry groups on their own, or attached as part of a battalion group. In these deployments the Cavalry Corps were equipped with Panhard AML vehicles - prior to their retirement in 2013; the Cavalry Corps today is equivalent in size to a single cavalry regiment. Instead, cavalry operates as independent squadrons. Today, the army has a total of three cavalry squadrons: 1st Cavalry Squadron 2nd Cavalry Squadron 1st Armoured Cavalry Squadron The 1st, 2nd Squadrons are standard light cavalry units equipped with the Mowag Piranha AFV and other light armoured vehicles.
One squadron is attached to each of the army's two infantry brigades to act as light armoured support. In addition to their regular duties, 2nd Cavalry Squadron operates as the Presidential Motorcycle Escort, a task inherited from the Blue Hussars in 1948; the 1st Armoured Cavalry Squadron was formed in 1998 by the amalgamation of the 1st Armoured Car Squadron and the reformed 1st Tank Squadron. 1st Armoured Cavalry Squadron is an independent unit, stationed at The Curragh. Disbanded 4th Cavalry Squadron, Athlone 31st Reserve Cavalry Squadron, Cork 54th Reserve Cavalry Squadron, Longford 62nd Reserve Cavalry Squadron, Dublin The Army Reserve squadrons have been integrated with the Permanent Defence Forces units as part of the "single force concept". ISTAR CBRN Recce Obstacle Recce Route Recce Patrolling Scouting Observation Post Screen Close Target Reconnaissance Control Measure Security & Marking Location Recce Security/Protective Screens Advance & Rear Guard Counter Recce Deception Anti-Airborne Flank Protection Rear Area & Supply Route Security Exploitation Raids Pursuit Seize & Hold Recce Strike Delaying Action Secondary Liaison Traffic Regulation Escort Communications The Cavalry Corps | Irish Army