click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Glenmont station

Glenmont is a Washington Metro station in Montgomery County, Maryland on the Red Line. It is the northeastern terminus of the Red Line; the station, located at Georgia Avenue and Layhill Road, serves the suburbs of Glenmont and Aspen Hill. Service began on July 25, 1998. Glenmont was planned to be the location of the end of a line in the original layout of the Metrorail system, approved in 1968. Two months the Glenmont Vicinity Citizens Association and several other citizens' groups attempted to have the line end at Silver Spring instead because they did not want the added development and they thought the extended lines would be too expensive. There were concerns that the line would be extended to Olney, which would change its rural character; the House Interior Appropriates Subcommittee was not convinced, the plan went along unchanged. At the time, the station was planned to open in 1979; as of 1970, the site for building the station was vacant land zoned for residential use and owned by Georgia Avenue Baptist Church.

Safeway wanted to build a supermarket on the site, it petitioned the county to change the site from residential to commercial zoning in 1970. Metro had not planned to purchase the land until 1975. WMATA protested, saying that rezoning would add $750,000 to the value of the land, which would increase its costs when it needed to purchase the land. WMATA could not purchase the land at the time because engineering studies determining the exact placement of the station had not yet been completed and, regardless, it had not appropriated the funds to purchase the land yet. Metro asked Montgomery County to purchase the land to hold for its eventual use, but the county declined when WMATA could not guarantee that engineering studies would find the site suitable for the station; because the surrounding land was classified as commercial and because WMATA would not need the land for the station for at least eight more years, the Montgomery County Council said it had no authority to decline the rezoning request.

Days a deal was struck, whereas WMATA pledged to purchase the land within three years, Montgomery County would reserve the land for WMATA, Georgia Avenue Baptist Church would not be required to pay property tax on the land. In May 1977, Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams questioned extending the Red Line to Glenmont, citing the increased costs projected after engineers determined that the bedrock required building the tracks much deeper than had been anticipated. Under pressure from the Office of Management and Budget and President Jimmy Carter's administration, Adams requested that the line be studied again to determine whether a bus, trolley, or highway would be a good alternative to extending the red line to Glenmont. Montgomery County Executive James P. Gleason responded, saying that the line had been studied extensively and he considered pulling all county funding from building the Metrorail system if the Glenmont extension did not go forward. By June, a compromise had been reached.

The following month, Gleason decided to withhold all funding to WMATA until the Department of Transportation guaranteed in writing that the Metrorail extension to Glenmont would be built. The Montgomery County Council voted in disagreement with Gleason's decision, thinking that the action might jeopardize the Metrorail extension to Shady Grove, but the Council did not have the power to force him to send the money to WMATA. Maryland Secretary of Transportation Hermann Intemann decided to withhold state funding to WMATA until Adams guaranteed the line would be built. In October, consultants suggested building Forest Glen and Wheaton stations as two small, separated tubes, rather than using one large cavernous design, used for nearly every other underground station; the consultants said. Glenmont station would still be built with the cavernous underground design. Gleason praised the study because it saved significant money without sacrificing the stations, he decided to release Montgomery County's construction funding after plans surfaced for a study by region-wide task force.

In February 1978, the Department of Transportation approved engineering studies of the Glenmont line extension, which suggesting it was warming to building the line after all. The study by a regionwide task force ended up approving the routing of stations on other Metrorail lines but it did not review the routing of the red line at all. In August, WMATA board members approved a Metrorail plan that included building the Glenmont extension as the latter phase of a two-phase construction schedule. WMATA released the plan to the Department of Transportation. In July 1979, Adams released all held-up federal funding for all of Metrorail's lines. With all federal construction delays resolved, the Glenmont metro station was scheduled to open in 1986. By 1982, the station's opening was rescheduled to 1991. In 1984, President Reagan's administration limited the number of miles of track that could be built preventing the extending the red line from Wheaton to Glenmont; that year, the Senate Appropriations Committee voted to lift the construction limitation.

The Reagan administration continued to block federal funding, opening of the Glenmont station was pushed back to 1994. In 1985, the Office of Management and Budget recommended halting all federal funding of construction, further jeopardizing the Glenmont extension. In 1991, Congress approved construction funding, WMATA said the Glenmont station was scheduled to open in 1998. President Bill Clinton's administration approved funding of the Glenmont extension in 1993. WMATA broke g

Petrovision

Petrovision is a professional convention as well as a technocratic event organized by the Society of Petroleum Technologists, Branch of Petroleum Refining and Petro Chemicals, Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai. It aims at providing a scaffold for burgeoning technologists and engineers to exhibit their innate abilities and inherent talents and acts as a liaison between them and the delegates from reputed chemical industries. Popularly known as A. C. Tech. Alagappa College of Technology, one of the constituent campus of Anna University along with CEG, Chennai was established on 4 September 1978, as a centre for technological excellence, it is located alongside Indian Institute of Technology Madras. It offers nine UG, PG, Ph. D. courses on Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals, Industrial Biotechnology, Ceramic Technology, Textile Technology, Apparel Technology, Food Technology, Pharmaceutical technology and Leather Technology.

Petrovision was started in the year 2010 as a one-day seminar throwing light upon the recent trends in hydrocarbon processing. In the year 2011, Petrovision was aggrandized into a two-day technical seminar inclusive of exciting events to encourage the student community; the event was inaugurated by Mr. Venkataramana, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited followed by his lecture on "Changing Energy Sources"; the important aspect of the event was that it had blended management with technology. Lectures by Lt. Col. Jitendira Prasad, General Manager and Natural Gas Corporation and Chairman for the Chennai Section of Society of Petroleum Engineers. D. Yadhav, Vice Chancellor, Institute of Chemical Technology and Mr. M. Shiva Kumar,Director/ Chief Regional Coordinator, Petroleum Conservation Research Association added color to the event. Petrovision'11 covered a wide range of current and emerging issues that are prevalent in the minds of Petroleum Engineers and researchers in our country, it provided a platform for students and technocrats to discuss and discover problems and opportunities in production and utilization of Energy.

This year Petrovision is off with a bang,bigger and mightier. Petrovision'12 was scheduled to be held 19–20 January 2012, it is proposed to have events such as Technical Seminars, Paper Presentation, Heat Exchanger Design, Industry Defined Problems, etc. The seminars will be covered by experts from reputed chemical industries; as the branch of Petroleum Refining and Petro Chemicals has been discontinued from the year 2012, Petrovision 2013 has been cancelled. Petrovision 2014 for the academic year 2013-2014 is planned to be conducted on February 5, 6, 2014. Following events are proposed by the student chapter and the necessary steps are taken by Ms. Brindha Lakshmi, Overall In charge of Symposiums, Alagappa College of Technology Technical Quiz Paper Presentation Poster Presentation Working Model Workshop Beat the clock My Industry Coal Gasification Technology. Refinery & Petrochemical Plant Integration. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics. Polymer Recycling. Understanding Thermal cracking & Hydrocracking Differences.

Advanced process its Application in Industries. Low-carbon economy. Bottom of the Barrel Processing

2016 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces and chemical residues; because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2016. Yunnanoascus haikouensis thought to be a member of Ctenophora, is reinterpreted as a crown-group medusozoan by Han et al.. A study on the fossil corals from the Late Triassic outcrops in Antalya Province, indicating that the corals lived in symbiosis with photosynthesizing dinoflagellate algae, is published by Frankowiak et al.. A study on the histology and growth histories of the humeri of the specimens of Acanthostega recovered from the mass-death deposit of Stensiö Bjerg is published by Sanchez et al. who argue that the largest individuals from this deposit are juveniles.

Fossils of a tetrapod resembling Ichthyostega and a probable whatcheeriid-grade tetrapod are described from two Devonian localities from Belgium by Olive et al.. A study on the functional significance of the interpterygoid vacuities in temnospondyls is published by Lautenschlager, Witzmann & Werneburg. A study on the stress distribution in the skulls of Edingerella madagascariensis and Stanocephalosaurus birdi during the bite, with implications for establishing the ecological niches occupied by these temnospondyls, is published by Fortuny et al.. A study on the anatomy, ecological niche and life history of members the population of Eocyclotosaurus appetolatus known from the Tecolotito bonebed is published by Rinehart & Lucas. A study on the morphology of the skull and braincase of Brachydectes newberryi is published by Pardo & Anderson. A study on the locomotor capabilities of Triadobatrachus massinoti is published by Lires, Soto & Gómez. A revised description of the holotype of Triadobatrachus massinoti based on X-ray micro-tomography data is published by Ascarrunz et al..

The first unambiguous frog fossil from the Jurassic of Asia is described from the Middle Jurassic Itat Formation by Skutschas, Martin & Krasnolutskii. Twelve specimens of lizards are described from the Cretaceous amber from Myanmar by Daza et al.. A study of 30 specimens of Polyglyphanodon sternbergi, including complete skeletons, is published by Simões et al. who report the discovery of unrecognized ontogenetic series, sexual dimorphism and a complete lower temporal bar in the skull of members of this species. New anatomical data on the Late Cretaceous lizard Slavoia darevskii is published by Tałanda, who interprets it as a stem-amphisbaenian. A study on the skull anatomy of the Eocene amphisbaenian Spathorhynchus fossorium is published by Müller, Hipsley & Maisano. A study on mosasaur tooth implantation and its phylogenetic implications is published by Liu et al.. A redescription of the mosasaur Hainosaurus bernardi Dollo is published by Jimenez-Huidobro & Caldwell, who transfer this species to the genus Tylosaurus and synonymize genera Tylosaurus and Hainosaurus.

A revision of the species assigned to the mosasaur genus Tylosaurus is published by Jiménez-Huidobro, Simões & Caldwell. Early Miocene chamaeleonid fossils, including a specimen tentatively attributed to the species Chamaeleo cf. andrusovi Čerňanský known only from the early Miocene of the Czech Republic, are described from the Aliveri locality by Georgalis, Villa & Delfino. Lizard fossils which might be the oldest known chameleon fossils from India are described from the Miocene Nagri Formation by Sankhyan & Čerňanský. Lee et al. examine the limb anatomy of Tetrapodophis amplectus, which according to the authors is suggestive of aquatic habits. A redescription of the Cenomanian snake Simoliophis rochebrunei on the basis of new fossil material from France is published by Rage, Vullo & Néraudeau. Smith & Scanferla describe a juvenile specimen of Palaeopython fischeri from the Eocene Messel pit with preserved stomach contents, including a specimen of the stem-basilisk species Geiseltaliellus maarius, which in turn preserves an unidentified insect in its stomach.

McNamara et al. describe pigment cells responsible for coloration and patterning preserved in a fossil skin of a colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte. New fossil material of the viperid Laophis crotaloides is described from Greece by Georgalis et al.. A study of taxonomic richness and evolutionary rates of ichthyosaurs throughout the Cretaceous period is published by Fischer et al.. A restudy of "Platypterygius" campylodon is published by Fischer, who transfers this species to the genus Pervushovisaurus. A revision of the ichthyosaur material of the British Middle and Late Jurassic referable to Ophthalmosaurus icenicus is publishe

Moomin World

Moomin World is a theme park based on the Moomin books by Tove Jansson. It was designed by Dennis Livson, located on the island of Kailo next to the old town of Naantali, in Southwest Finland; the blueberry-coloured Moomin House is the main attraction of the park, where guests are allowed to go to all five storeys. Hemulen's house is located next to the Moomin House, it is possible to go to, for example, Moominmamma's kitchen, the fire station, Snufkin's camp, Moominpappa's boat. Visitors can meet Moomin characters around the park or the Witch in her cottage. Moomin World is not a traditional amusement park. There are many activities and fantastical paths including Toffle's Path with the Witch's Labyrinth, The Hattifatteners' Cave and The Groke's House. There are performances in the covered outdoor Moomin theatre Emma. Moomin World is open daily from mid-June to mid-August; the nearby Väski Adventure Island is a place to visit with attractions and activities for primary school children and adults as well.

Metsä in Japan is a Moomin theme park outside Finland. Metsä, was planned to start operation in 2015 for the 100th birth year of Tove Jansson, on June 30, 2015, it is announced to open as early as 2017. Situated in Hanno city, northwest of Tokyo, the site will include a Moomin zone for attractions, a free public zone or a park area. Construction site is purchased on hills along the Miyazawa reservoir. Moomin World is the world's fourth best theme park for children according to The Independent on Sunday. Moomin World was elected as the domestic travel destination of 2005. Moomin World got the Golden Pony Award 2007 by The Parks Industry magazine; the jury said: "Moomin World is welcoming, well themed and full of educational content." Moomin World Moomin Theme Park Facto Edizioni The Games & Parks Industry magazine Emma Theatre Program at Emma Theatre My side of Naantali VIsitors' guide to Naantali

Starch mogul

A starch mogul is a machine that makes shaped candies or candy centers from syrups or gels, such as gummi candy. These softer candies and centers are made by filling a tray with cornstarch, stamping the desired shape into the starch, pouring the filling or gel into the holes made by the stamp; when the candies have set, they are removed from the trays and the starch is recycled. Starch moguls were in common use within a decade or two. Early ones were built from wood, but ones were made of steel. Starch moguls reduced the number of jobs in candy factories and thereby lowered production costs for candies. All of the steps were performed by hand. Starch moguls improved worker safety. Starch rooms tended to have dangerously high levels of starch in the air. Workers would develop respiratory illnesses. By reducing the amount of combustible starch in the air, the machines significantly reduced the risk of dust explosions and fire; the starch mogul system is a method of molding candy that allows runnier materials to be used than normal processes.

It is used in the manufacture of jelly beans and gummy bears, was used in the manufacture of marshmallows before the advent of the extrusion process. The starch mogul system uses a machine with trays of starch; each tray has a mold pushed down in it to create cavities in the starch. The cavities are filled with the candy material, allowed to cool or harden as necessary. During this time, the starch helps absorb excess water; the trays are dumped and the candy is separated from the starch, reused by the machine. Hans Arthur Faerber, founder of NID Pty Ltd, created the current form of the starch mogul system in 1952. YouTube video showing the operation of a starch mogul

Pellegrino Artusi

Pellegrino Artusi was an Italian businessman and writer, best known as the author of the cookbook La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiar bene. The son of the wealthy merchant Agostino and Teresa Giunchi, Pellegrino Marcello Artusi came from a large family: he had 12 siblings, he was named Pellegrino in honor of Saint Pellegrino Laziosi of Forlì. Like many wealthy children, he attended a seminary school in the nearby town of Bertinoro. Between the years 1835 and 1850, Artusi spent a great deal of time in student circles in Bologna. In the bar Tre Re he met the patriot Felice Orsini, from Meldola another town near Forlì; when he returned to his hometown, he took over his father's business, making quite a bit of money, but the lives of the Artusi family were permanently disrupted by the arrival in Forlimpopoli on January 25, 1851, of the outlaw Stefano Pelloni, nicknamed il Passatore, "the Ferryman". He took all of the upper-class families hostage, one by one, held them captive in the city theater, including Pellegrino Artusi's family.

After stealing as much as possible, the bandits raped several women, one of whom was Gertrude, Artusi's sister, who went crazy from the shock and had to be put in an asylum in Pesaro. The following year, the family moved to Florence. Here, Pellegrino began working in finances, he dedicated his time to two of his favorite hobbies: literature and the art of cooking, his sisters got married and his parents died and so he was able to live off his inheritance thanks to the land the family had in Romagna. He bought a house in D'Azeglio Square in Florence, where he lived out his life until 1911 when he died at age 90. Single, he lived with just a butler from a Tuscan cook, he was buried in part of the basilica of San Miniato al Monte. His most famous work is La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene; the title is of a positivist bent. He was an admirer of the physiologist Paolo Mantegazza, his book, in fact, can be considered a "scientifically tested" manual: every recipe was the result of trials and experiments.

Writing only two decades after the unification of Italy, Artusi was the first to include recipes from all the different regions of Italy in a single cookbook. He is credited with establishing a national Italian cuisine for the first time, the French cook Auguste Escoffier took inspiration from him. Of particular interest is the story told by Artusi himself regarding a bad experience which occurred during the summer in Livorno in 1855, when Artusi came in contact with cholera, the infective disease that in that era took many lives in Italy. Once in Livorno, Artusi went to a restaurant to have dinner. After eating minestrone, he decided to rent a room in the building belonging to a man called Domenici; as Artusi would recount, he spent the whole night suffering from horrible stomach pains, which he blamed on the minestrone he had eaten. The next day, returning to Florence, he got the news that Livorno had been hit by cholera and that Domenici had been a victim, it was only that he realized what had happened: it had not been the minestrone that made him ill, but the early symptoms of the disease.

The event inspired Artusi to write an excellent recipe for minestrone. There are three works by Artusi: a cooking manual; the non-fiction works, a biography of Ugo Foscolo and a critique of Giuseppe Giusti, went unnoticed and went out of print. His manual, entitled La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiar bene, was much more successful. In 1891, at age 71, he could not find a publisher. So he used his own money to self-publish, selling a thousand copies of the first edition in four years. Soon, the cookbook caught on, before Artusi died, more than 200,000 copies had been sold. Filled with amusing anecdotes as well as recipes, the book is a perennial best seller in Italy, has been translated into Spanish, Dutch, English and, most Portuguese and Polish. In 1904, Artusi published a practical manual for the kitchen, with over 3,000 recipes and 150 tables entitled Ecco il tuo libro di cucina with the anonymous participation and influence of the baroness Giulia Turco. Festa artusiana – Artusi FestivalSince 1997, the municipality of Forlimpopoli, Artusi's hometown, has celebrated Artusi with the "Festa Artusiana", an event dedicated to food in all of its forms: gastronomy and entertainment.

Each year during this festival the "Pellegrino Artusi Prize" is awarded to the person who gives the'most original contribution to the relationship between man and food', the "Marietta Prize", named after Pellegrino Artusi's collaborator, is given to a housewife or househusband'who are – in the spirit of Pellegrino and Marietta – able homemakers.' La Scienza in Cucina E L'arte Di Mangiar Bene, Grandi Tascabili Economici 1975, ISBN 88-7983-555-6 La Scienza in Cucina E L'arte Di Mangiar Bene. Torino: Einaudi, 2001. ISBN 8806158856. Science in the Kitchen and the Art of Eating Well, University of Toronto Press 2003, ISBN 0-8020-8657-8 Exciting Food for Southern Types. London: Penguin, 2011. ISBN 9780241951101. Excerpts